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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


X chromosome : [1914] one of two sex chromosomes.  Two X chromosomes appear in each female cell, but only one X chromosome and one Y chromosome appear in each male cell.  Opp. Y chromosome.

xanth- : [Gk] yellow.

xdad : es verdad : [Sp abbreviation] it is true.

xen- : [Gk] stranger, foreigner.

xenodochy : hospitality, the reception of strangers.

xenography : a description of aliens and foreigners.  Cf. genography.

xenotransplantation : [1995] the transplantation of animal organs and cells into human beings.  The brain cells of pigs have been implanted in human brains as a therapy for Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease.

xerophagy : dry food, subsistence on dry victuals.

xiàogōng : hsiao kung : [Ch] six-month mourning for uncles and aunts.

xiăogōng [Ch] : six-month mourning.

xiàshuāi : hsia shai : [Ch] descending decrease.

xiōng : [Ch] Br(e); elder brother.

xiōng : hsiung : [Ch] Br(e); older brother, older man of ego’s generation; elder brother; a courtesy title for another man.  Cf. kei, kyō [Sp]; ani, niisan [Jp].

X-linked : the status of a gene or trait known to be carried in the X chromosome.

X-linked disorder : one of some 250 genetic disorders known to be transmitted by the genes of the X chromosome, including color blindness, hemophilia, agamaglobulinemia, some forms of muscular dystrophy, some forms of spinal ataxia

X-linked inheritance : the transmission of a faulty gene by the X chromosome of an unaffected mother.  A daughter stands a 1-in-2 chance of becoming a carrier, whereas a son stands a 1-in-2 chance of inheriting the disorder.  Cf. genetic inheritance.

Xn. : Christian.

Xnty : Christianity.

Xo : Cristo : [Sp] Christ.

Xp : Χριστος : [Gk] Christ.  The contracted form of the Greek name of Christ is often used to ab­breviate names such as Christopher.

Xped : christened.

Xper : Xr : Christopher.

Xr : Xper : Christopher.

Xt : Christ.

Xtian : Christian.

Xty : Christianity.

: hsü : [Ch] DaHu; daughter’s husband, son-in-law; husband.  Cf. sei [SJ]; muko ‘son-in-law’ [Jp].

xx : score, as in xjxx for six score (120).

xyl- : [Gk] wood.

xylography : the art of engraving on wood.

- Y -

(y) : [anthropology] younger, with respect to the ego; a kin type determinant used to modify a kinship dimension.  Opp. (e).

Y : [Ogham Q-Celtic] idra.[1]

-y : -ia : [Gk] quality of.

-y : -ia : quality, state, condition.

-y : -ium : action, the result of action.

Y chromosome : [1923] a sex chromosome unique to male cells.  The male will typically have a pair of two dissimilar sex chromosomes, namely X and Y, in each of its cells.  Physically, a Y chromosome seems to be half the size of other chromosomes, and seems to have its centromere biased toward one end, so it gives the appearance of the letter Y during mitosis, whereas all the other chromosomes exhibit X shapes.  Sex chromosomes can transmit physical and behavioral genes, but the transmission of traits belongs almost exclusively to the domain of the X chromosome, which is common to both sexes.  The main duty of the Y chromosome is the endowment of male sexuality or maleness.  One gene that promotes hair growth in the ear canal happens to be carried by the Y chromosome, but very few other specific traits have been traced to the Y chromosome.  Opp. X chromosome.

Y the letter : Ny, Gn, Ng.

y. : year, years.

yacht : a small ship for conveying passengers.

yakudoshi : [Jp] an unlucky year.  Buddhist numerology holds that certain ages are unlucky, namely 25, 42, and 60 years of age for a man, and 19 and 33 years of age for a woman.  The ages of 42 years in men and 33 years in women are especially perilous.  Traditional Japanese reckoning counts the year of birth as the first year of age, and then advances one’s age every New Year, so the yakudoshi ages should presumably correspond to slightly younger ages in Western reckoning, perhaps 18 and 32 years for a woman, instead of 19 and 33 years.

Yanomani : [1990] an indigenous tribe that lived near the Xingu River, Brazil.  The tribe has become famous as a subject for anthropological study.  Cf. Arara.

Yansa : [Brazil] Oya.

yard : [Ba] 3 feet.

yard : [Sx] an enclosed ground surrounding a house.

yardland : virgata : a quantity of lawns comprising an area of some uncertain measure.  The yardland at Wimbleton, Surrey, was fifteen acres, but other such places were larger, up to twenty, twenty-four, thirty, and forty acres.

yawl : a fore-and-aft rigged sailing vessel; Norfolk yawl.  Yawls vary greatly in size, for they can be as small as a dinghy, and can sometimes be full-size ships, measuring 70 feet or more in length.  The yawl resembles a ketch, but its rigging is different.  The mainsail is positioned farther forward than what is typical of a sloop.  The small mizzenmast of the yawl rises from abaft or astern the rudder post, whereas the mizzenmast of a ketch stands forward of the rudder post, and is larger than the yawl’s.

yawl : dinghy; a small boat with oars carried as a utility boat, atop a larger sailing ship.

ye : the nominative plural form of thou.

Ye : ye : þe : the : [post 1600] the common English definite article the.  This peculiar orthography owes its origin the introduction of moveable typefaces from the continent.  The Saxon language had so many instances of the th sound, that it was customary to write it with one letter, namely the thorn (þ).  Scribes and printers were reluctant to drop the convention of using one letter instead of two, so many determined to retain the thorn, by substituting the letter y for þ.  Thus, the English language acquired the convention of expressing the in its very familiar Renaissance form ye or yeYe should and ought to be pronounced as the ordinary definite article the.

year : [1150-1338 En] a year of the Era of Incarnation.  Cf. Era of Incarnation, Venerable Bede.

year, tropical : [150 bc] solar year; tropical year, now valued at 365.242199 days.  Hipparchus of Rhodes (floruit 150 bc) quadrupled the Callippic Cycle, and thereby managed to calculate the length of the tropical year at 365.242 days, nearly matching our present value.  Cf. calendar year, lunation, Callippic Cycle, Golden Number, Metonic Cycle.

year : [1994] anomalistic year, the longest of three solar year-date reckonings; 365.2596425 mean solar days, or 365 days, 6 hours, 13 minutes, 53.1 seconds.

year : [1994] astronomical year, the shortest of three solar year-date reckonings; 365.2422454 mean solar days, or 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 45.5 seconds.

year : [1994] sidereal year, the middle sized of three solar year-date reckonings; 365.2563612 mean solar days, or 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes, 9.54 seconds.

year 1 ad : 3761 Jewish Mundane Era; 3760 bc + ad 1.

year 1 Anno Domini (ad 1) : 1872 mt; 1871 bc +ad 1.

year 1 Anno Domini : 4714 Julian Year; 4713 bc plus one (1) year.

year 1 auc : bc 754; 753 bc + 1 year.

year 1 Julian Period : 4713 bc.

year 1 Mag Tured : 1 mt : 1871 bc.

year 1 Menes : circa 3100 bc : the first regnal year of Menes, 1st King of the 1st Dynasty in Egypt.

year 1.5 million bc : Old Stone Age; Early hominoid, Homo erectus.

year 1.8 million bc : Pleistocene epoch, in the Quaternary period of the Cenozoic era, when the Ice Age occurred, and mastodons became extinct.  Modern human beings (homo sapiens sapiens) first appeared at this time.

year 10,000 bc : Holocene epoch, in the Quaternary period of the Cenozoic era, when towns and cities were first built.  Holocene times occasioned the melting of glaciers, and the rising of waters.

year 100,000 bc : Middle Neanderthal Man, Homo sapiens.  This was near the end of the Pleistocene epoch, Quarternary period, Cenozoic era.

year 11,000 bc : Middle Stone Age, from 11,000 bc to 8,000 bc, when there appeared in the world pre-agricultural, modern man, or Homo sapiens sapiens.  In geological time, this time matches the Holocene epoch, 10,000 bc, in the Quarternary period, Cenozoic era.

year 11,000 bc : Pre-Agriculture Modern Man, Homo sapiens sapiens.

year 143 million bc : Cretaceous period, ending the Mesozoic era, when flowering plants emerged, and dinosaurs became extinct.

year 1582 jc/gc : Dominical Letters A & G (not a leap year) : 01SuAA gc > 06FrCC gc : The Romans applied the same Dominical Letter A to Sunday 1 January 1581 and Sunday 1 January 1582.  According to Julian reckoning, the year 1582 was labeled with Dominical Letter G, and Monday 1 January 1582 jc was the New Year.  However, the new Gregorian Calendar required the Romans to move their reckoning forward by 11 days in 1582.  By taking New Year to be Sunday 1 January 1582 gc, the Romans effectively dropped 6 days of the week, Monday through Saturday, and moved their reckoning ahead to the following Sunday, Dominical Letter A.

year 1582/10/5 jc –1700/2/28 jc : the Julian Calendar dates during which there was a 10-day difference between Julian and Gregorian reckoning.  Cf. Gregorian reckoning, Julian reckoning.

year 1700/3/1 jc –1800/2/28 jc : the Julian Calendar dates during which there was an 11-day difference between Julian and Gregorian reckoning.  Cf. Gregorian reckoning, Julian reckoning.

year 1800/3/1 jc –1900/2/28 jc : the Julian Calendar dates during which there was a 12-day difference between Julian and Gregorian reckoning.  Cf. Gregorian reckoning, Julian reckoning.

year 1900/3/1 jc –2100/2/28 jc : the Julian Calendar dates during which there was, and shall be, a 13-day difference between Julian and Gregorian reckoning.  Cf. Gregorian reckoning, Julian reckoning.

year 1582/10/4 jc-01SuAA > 1582/10/15 gc-06FrCC (=1582/10/5 jc) : Dominical Letters A & G (not a leap year) : 01SuAA gc > 06FrCC gc : The Romans moved their reckoning ahead by another 5 days of the week, and 10 calendar dates.  When the Romans advanced their dates, they dropped 10 days, 1582/10/5-14 jc, such that the Julian Calendar ended on 1582/10/4, and was followed immediately by the date 1582/10/15.  It was extraordinary for the Romans to change from Perpetual Calendar 1 (A) to Perpetual Calendar 6 (C), and it was especially odd to made such a change in the middle of October.  However, this change was the only logical way to advance the calendar by 10 days without affecting Julian days and dates in the past.

year 1600/1/1 ns Julian Calendar : Scottish New Year.  The Scots adopted 1 January as their New Year on 1 January 1600, whereas the English retained their New Year on 25 March, as well as the Julian Calendar.

year 1602’03/3/24 os/ns Julian Calendar : When James VI of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth I as James I of England on 24 March 1603, his accession date was merely one day shy of the English New Year 25 March, Lady Day.  It was still customary for the English and Scots to date documents by regnal year-dates, but when they wrote an ad date, they would usually write a double year-date to express both the English Old Style and the Scottish New Style, between the dates 1 January and 24 March each year, e.g. 1602’03 os/ns.  It is important to note that the os/ns disparity pertained only to the year-date, because England and Scotland continued to use the Julian Calendar until 1753.

year 1603/4/1 Tuesday : [1997] The Microsoft Outlook calendar began on 1603/4/1 and ended on 4500/8/29 Sunday.

year 1607/1/1 Monday : the date Microsoft Outlook displays as 2007/1/1 Monday.

year 1608/1/1 Tuesday : the date Microsoft Outlook displays as 2008/1/1 Tuesday.

year 1752/1/1 jc : the Julian New Year Day commonly accepted by both England and Scotland.  This was the first step in converting the Anglo-Scottish calendars to the Gregorian Calendar.  The date adjustments were not complete until 14 September 1752 gc.

year 1752 jc/gc : the year the English and Scots adopted the Gregorian Calendar, and ceased using the Julian Calendar.

year 1753 gc : the first full year of Anglo-Scottish reckoning by the Gregorian Calendar.

year 1800/2/28 > 3/1 gc, common : common year; a Gregorian common year; a centesimal year evenly divisible by the jc factor 4, but not divisible by the gc factor 400.

year 1800/2/29 > 3/1 jc, leap : leap year; a Julian leap year; a centesimal year divisible by jc factor 4.  The Julian addition of 1 leap day in 1800 caused the difference to increase between the Gregorian and Julian Calendars.

year 1900 gc, common : a Gregorian common year; a centesimal year evenly divisible by jc factor 4, but evenly indivisible by gc factor 400.

year 1900 jc, leap : a Julian leap year; a centesimal year evenly divisible by jc factor 4.

year 1918/1/1 jc = 1918/1/14 gc : The U.S.S.R. adopted the Gregorian Calendar on 1918/1/14 gc.

year 1997 ad : 3868 mt; 3868 Mag Tured; the year of the Druidic Age of Iron and Silver.  Cf. Mag Tured.

year 1999/11/23-12/21 : the period prognosticated by Nostradamus as the ‘War of Wars’ that will commence a millenium of peace.

year 2000 Anno Domini : 6713 Julian Year.

year 2000 gc, leap : a jc/gc leap year; a centesimal year evenly divisible by both the jc factor 4, and the gc factor 400.

year 2000 jc, leap : a jc/gc leap year; a centesimal year evenly divisible by the jc factor 4.

Year 2000 Problem : Cf. Anno Iuliano.

year 2003/1/1 Wednesday : The year Microsoft Outlook used to display the calendar for 1603/1/1 Wednesday.  Outlook rejects searches for any date prior to 1603/4/1 Tuesday.  Cf. year 1607, year 1608.

year 2012 ad : the Mayan end of time.  The Mayan natives figure that the world will end on 21 December 2012, when the present Mayan cycle of 5,000 years comes to an end.

year 2017 ad : mt 3888, the year the Druidic Age will end.[2]

year 212 million bc : Jurassic period, the middle division of the Mesozoic era, when birds appeared, and when conifers, cycads, and dinosaurs flourished.

year 2335 bc : 1 Sargon I; an approximation of the year-date 1 Sargon I, first year in the reign of Sargon I (regnavit 2335-2279 bc).  The regnal year marks the beginning of a continuous chronology for Mesopotamia, the region containing Sumer, Assyria, and Babylon.  Cf. Ur Dynasty.

year 246 million bc : Triassic period, commencing the Mesozoic era, when mammals first appeared, and reptiles flourished.

year 26 million bc : Miocene epoch, in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era.  The Rocky Mountains rose higher in this time, when apish humanoids first started to appear on the earth.

year 2670 bc : 1 Ur Dynasty; an approximation of the year-date 1 Ur Dynasty.

year 289 million bc : Permian period, concluding the Upper Paleozoic era, when the Trilobites met with extinction, but insects and amphibians appeared and flourished.  The Permian Basin is a large region of southwestern United States, famous for its rich deposits of hydrocarbons, which represent the remains of prehistoric sea life.

year 3100 bc : 1 Menes : the approximate date of the first regnal year of Menes, 1st King of the 1st Dynasty in Egypt.

year 322 bc : the year Demostheses died.  The number 322 is held to be a sacred number by the Skull and Bones society at Yale University.

year 367 million bc : Carboniferous period, the middle segment of the Upper Paleozoic period, when reptiles first appeared.  The growth of forests began the process of coal formation, and the Appalachian mountains began to rise.

year 37 million bc : Oligocene epoch, in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era.  During this time, apes and mastodons first debuted in the world, and there occurred significant mountain building in the Himalaya mountains and the Alps.

year 3760 bc : year 1 of the Jewish Mundane Era.

year 3888 mt : ad 2017, the year the Druidic Age will end.[3]

year 4 billion bc : the epoch that marks the end of creation; the time when earthly formation came to an end, and life first appeared.  The crust of the earth formed at this time, and primitive plants and animals first appeared.

year 4 million bc : Pre-Stone Age; Primordial humanoid, Australopithecus.  This age corresponds to the Pliocene epoch, year 5 milliion bc, the final epoch of the Tertiary period, Cenozoic era.

year 40,000 bc : Late Cro-Magnon Man, Homo sapiens sapiens.  This was near the end of the Pleistocene epoch, Quarternary period, Cenozoic era.

year 4004 bc : [1700] the Christian year of creation, as fixed by Archbishop James Ussher in Ireland in the seventeenth century.

year 4095 : Brøderbund Family Tree Maker calendar ended on 4095/12/31, having commenced on ad 100/1/1.

year 416 million bc : Devonian period, initiating the Upper Paleozoic era, when vegetation greatly increased, and when sharks and fishes began to thrive.

year 446 million bc : Silurian period, concluding the Lower Paleozoic era, when cephalopods with shells were abundant, and plants began to spread across dry land.

year 4500/8/29 Sunday : the last searchable day available to a user of Microsoft Outlook.

year 5 million bc : Pliocene epoch, in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era.

year 5 million bc : Pliocene epoch, in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era.  This was a time when large, carnivorous animals roamed the earth, when modern humans had not yet emerged in the world.

year 508 million bc : Ordovician period, when invertebrates of the sea started to diversity, and primitive corals and fishes emerged.

year 53 million bc : Eocene epoch, in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era.  Horses first appeared in the world at this time, and the savanna grasses provided them food.

year 575 million bc : Cambrian period, when trilobites flourished, and seawater blanketed North America.

year 6 billion bc : Precambrian period; a theoretical epoch marking the beginning of creation.  The formation of our world from gases and elements commenced sometime between 6 billion and 4 billion years age.  The Precambrian period is sometimes subdivided into the Archeozoic and Proterozoic eras.

year 65 million bc : Paleocene epoch, in the Tertiary period of the Cenozoic era.  Mammals began to diversify after this time, and mountain building started along the Rocky Mountain range.

year 7 bc : the date 27 August 7 bc was astrologically auspicious, in that it marked a special convergence of planets in which each planet returned to its native station.  The alignment of large planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn is supposed to have created a composite bright star that signified warrior (Mars), kingship (Jupiter), and Judea (Saturn), or the coming Messiah.  Astronomers and historians tend to associate the planetary map of this date (27 August 7 bc) with the star spotted by the Magi, and that the Christ was born the following December 7 bc, making next New Year fall in 6 bc.  For a long time, the English observed the New Year as 25 March.  We may safely surmise that the Christian era actually began in March 6 bc, rather than our historical 1 ad, and that traditional Christian reckoning carries with it a difference of 6 years (6 bc through 1 bc), between the real chronology and our historical, received chronology.

year 753 bc : auc 1, the year ab urbe condita ‘from the founding of the city’ of Rome.

year ad 100/1/1 : Cf. Brøderbund.

year ad 3600 : a jc leap year, but perhaps a gc common year.  The year 3600 gc is a centesimal year evenly divisible by 400 and therefore qualifies as to be gc leap year, but might instead be a common year under some special gc rule.  Such a rule would be outside the scope of the ordinary rules (the jc rules for years divisible by 4, and centesimal years, as well as the gc rule for centesimal years divisible by 400).  A proposal has been made to make another adjustment to the Epact number every 4,000 years, and therefore the year 3600 might represent a centesimal year in limbo.  To the editor’s knowledge, Gregorian calendar makers have not yet formalized any rule to govern another Epact adjustment at 4,000 years.  The year 3600 shall fall slightly more than 4,000 years after the creation of the Gregorian Calendar in 1582, and therefore poses an obstacle for programmers wishing to extend their Julian Days beyond that year.  Cf. centesimal year, Epact, Gregorian Calendar, Julian Calendar.

year ad 622 : year 1 of the Muslim Era, which commenced on the Hegira, 16 July ad 622.  The Muslim calendar was lunar, and was based on different principles, so conversions to and from Muslim dating are complex and cumbersome.

year-date : a single year expressed in Arabic numerals as 1066, 1588, 1660, et cetera, exclusive of any notation of month and day.  In historical narratives, a year-date normally signifies one January-to-December year in Common Era (c.e.) reckoning, expressed only in the Gregorian style, or New Style, and utterly ignoring and discarding the Julian style, or Old Style.  Whenever the historian has the means to do so, he should uniformly convert all calendar dates into uniform and international year-dates so that any historian in the world can understand the expression without the assistance of any special, calendrical knowledge.  For example, regnal years, indictions, epacts, olympiads, and Old Style dates should all be converted into standard year-dates in the New Style.  If one regnal year happens to overlap two standard year-dates, then he may express the regnal years with double year-dates, as 1526’7, et cetera.  The popular practice incorrectly styled “double-dates” should be regarded by the genealogist as a cardinal sin, for it is permissible to quote or reïterate authentic O.S./N.S. notations, but it is highly misleading and deceitful to freshly imitate that practice in new historical narratives and genealogical pedigrees.  Cf. double-dates, double year-dates.

yearling : a being one year old.

yellow jack : yellow fever : bronze John : an infectious tropical disease transmitted by a yellow-fever mosquito.

Yemanja : [Macumba] the Great Sea Mother, often deceptively called Mary to avoid Christian persecution.[4]

yeo. : yeoman.

Yeogerieceastrie : Worcester.

yeoman : [1431] a person belonging to the lowest of the landowning classes, which were subdivided into knights, esquires, gentlemen, or yeomen.[5]  Cf. esquire, gentleman, knight, landowner.

yeoman : yeo. : [Sx] farmer, a man having some small estate in land; a title of respect given to soldiers; a gentleman servant; the station of a freeholder who has not yet risen to the rank of gentleman.

yeomanry : the collective body of yeomen; landed proprietors of the middle class.

Yequa : [PR] Oya.

yerno : [Sp] son-in-law.

yester- : hesternus : a time before the present.

yesterday : the day last past; the day before today.

yesternight : the night before this night.

: i : [Ch] MoSi, WiSi; mother’s sister, maternal aunt; a female relative comparable with mother’s sister; wife’s sister; a female relative comparable with wife’s sister; uxoral sister-in-law.

yīn : [Ch] donee affines who receive wives from another clan.  Cf. hūnyīn.

Yi-qing : I-ch’ing : [Ch] Book of Changes; a Taoist scripture used for Chinese divination by yarrow rods.  Cf. divination by rods.

yogh : З : [1100 antea] g : gh : \y, kh\ : the yogh; the Saxon letter g.  This archaic symbol was used side-by-side with uses of the continental letter g, until about ad 1100, when the continental g replaced it, in most cases.

yogh : З : [1600 antea] gh : \kh\ : the Saxon letter g, which stands for the ch in loch.  The letter in its Saxon form was retained to selectively represent some occurrences of gh, as in the word niЗt for night, and then was abandoned entirely about 1600, when such words came to be written in their present fashion.

yoke : jock : [Du] a collar placed on the neck of a draught oxen; slavery, a mark of servitude; two, pair, a couple.

yoke : zeugos.

yokemate : mate, fellow, a companion in labor; a partner in marriage.

yonder : [Sx] being at a distance but within view.

yore : [Sx] long, long ago, of olden time.

York : Eboracum : Eburacum : Everwyk : Isuria : Isurovicum : Urovicum.  Cf. Legio XX Victrix.

York Herald : one of six secondary heralds.

Yorks. : Yorkshire.

Yorkshire : Yorks. : Ebor’scira.

Yoruba : Cf. Macumba.

Yoshimitsu and Zeami : Ph & Er; Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358-1408) and Zeami Motokiyo (1363-1443).  Yoshimitsu met Zeami in 1374, when Yoshimitsu was 16 years of age, and Zeami was 11 years, and the pair remained lovers for years thereafter.  Yoshimitsu became the Shōgun of Japan, and Zeami became the most celebrated playwright in Japanese history.

young : [Sx] not old, being in the first part of life; the offspring of animals.

younger : natu minimus.  Cf. maior natu, older, youngest.

younger son by the principal wife : yu-tsu.  Cf. po-tsu.  Opp. mung-tsu, shu-tau.

younger son by the secondary wife, or any wife other than the principal wife : shu-tau.  Cf. mung-tsu.  Opp. po-tsu, yu-tsu.

younger sons : the junior or cadet male siblings of a family, who were excluded from hereditary succession by the rule of primogeniture.  If a male heir happened to die without children, then a younger son might qualify to succeed his elder brother.  In most cases, the younger sons had to seek their own employment outside the family.  Sons without a future in their own lineage would typically focus upon university studies, military careers, or the priesthood, and would sometimes join the great household of some noble to act as a tudor, secretary, or gentleman servingman.

youngest : the youngest of all children; ex his omnibus natu minimus, the youngest of all in age.

youngling : a creature in the first part of life.

youngster : youth, a young person.

youth : [Sx] young man; tender age; the time from 14 to 28 years; the part of life succeeding childhood; one who is past childhood.[6]

yr. : year, younger, your.

yr : there.

yt : that.

ye : the.

yrs. : years, yours.

yuăn : hsüan : [Ch] distant; great-great-grand-, 4th degree of descent.

Yuan ya : [Ch] a Yuan sign; a personal signature, written in some distinctive, archaic style.  Cf. seal, signature.

yuănsūn : [Ch] SoSoSoSo; great-great-grandson.

yuănsūnnŭ : [Ch] SoSoSoDa; great-great-granddaughter.

yuè : yo : [Ch] WiPa; wife’s parents; a relative comparable with wife’s parents.[7]  Cf. gaku [SJ]; gakufu ‘father-in-law’ [Jp].

yule : jule : [Dn] a word signifying the times of Lammas and Christmas, or 1 August and 25 December.

Yuma : [AZ, CO, UT] sons of the river; a trial name of the southwest, around the Yuma Desert.

Yuma shaman : elxa, kwe rhame.

Yurok shaman : wergern.

yu-tsu : [Ch] younger son by the principal wife.  Cf. po-tsu.  Opp. mung-tsu, shu-tau.

yux : [Sx] hiccough. 

- Z -

Z : [anthropology] Si; sister.  Cf. kin types.

Z the letter : SS.

Zagreus : Dionysos.

zàicóng : tsai-ts’ung : [Ch] to follow a second time; 3rd collateral line.

zàicóngbófù : [Ch] FaFaFaBrSoSo(e); elder paternal second cousin once removed, elder magnapatruel nepotin.

zàicóngdì : [Ch] FaFaBrSoSo(y); younger male second cousin, younger magnapatruelin.

zàicónggūmŭ : [Ch] FaFaFaBrSoSo(e)Wi, FaFaFaBrSoSo(y)Wi : wife of elder or younger paternal second cousin once removed, elder or younger magnapatruel nepotin’s wife.

zàicóngmèi : [Ch] FaFaBrSoDa(y); younger female second cousin, younger magnapatrueline.

zàicóngshūfù : [Ch] FaFaFaBrSoSo(y); younger paternal second cousin once removed, younger magnapatruel nepotin.

zàicóngxiōng : [Ch] FaFaBrSoSo(e); elder male second cousin, elder magnapatruelin.

zàicóngzhí : [Ch] FaFaBrSoSoSo : second cousin once removed, magnapatruel nepotin.

zàicóngzhínŭ : [Ch] FaFaBrSoSoDa : second cousin once removed, magnapatruel neptine.

zàicóngzĭ : [Ch] FaFaBrSoDa(e); elder female second cousin, elder magnapatrueline.

Zambia Stone : [1979] The Bantu witchdoctor Dr. Credo Muzamzulu Mutwa of Witwatersrand, South Africa, visited Zambia, and received as a gift a curious stone with undeciphered writing, which has come to be known as the Zambia Stone.  When Brenda Sullivan of the South African Epigraphic Society introduced the subject of this stone to Bruce MacDonald of the Epigraphic Society of America, it provoked much comment, because it seems to provide an African translation key for the Celtic Ogham alphabet of northern Europe.[8]  The Zambia Stone has been dates anywhere between 3000 bc and 1000 bc.  Cf. Rosetta Stone.

zany : buffoon, comedian; one employed to raise laughter.

Zarina of Scythia : the amazon warrior-queen of Scythia, sometime after the tales of the Termodontine amazons.  Zarina founded Roxanacé, and conquered Media.  Zarina killed her own husband to save the life of a Median prince.  She then spurned the prince, so the prince became distraught with her rejection, and committed suicide.  She was an ideal leader who was at once a warrior and a beauty, and her name gave form to the Russian titles czar and czarina.

zealot : zeloteur : [Fr] fanatic, someone passionately ardent about any cause.

zealotry : the behavior of a zealot.

Zeami Motokiyo : Cf. Yoshimitsu and Zeami.

zēng : tsêng : [Ch] PaPaPa; added, increased; great-grand-, an indicator of the 3rd degree of ascent or descent.

zēngbózŭfù : [Ch] FaFaFaBr(e); elder great-granduncle.

zēngshūzŭfù : [Ch] FaFaFaBr(y); younger great-granduncle.

zēngsūn : [Ch] SoSoSo; great-grandson.

zēngsūnnŭ : [Ch] SoSoDa; great-granddaughter.

zēngzhísūn : [Ch] BrSoSoSo; fraternal great-grandnephew.

zēngzhísūnnŭ : [Ch] BrSoSoDa; fraternal great-grandniece.

zēngzŭ : [Ch] FaFaFa; great-grandfather.

zēngzŭfù : [Ch] FaFaFa; great-grandfather.

zēngzŭgūfù : [Ch] FaFaFaSiHu; husband of paternal great-grandaunt.

zēngzŭgūmŭ : [Ch] FaFaFaSi; paternal great-grandaunt.

zēngzŭmŭ : [Ch] FaFaMo; great-grandmother.

Zeno : the founder of Stoicism, reputed to have been exclusively homosexual in his affections.  Philosophically, Zeno held that a person should not make distinctions of sex and sexual preference in matters of love, for the love object will always transcend such distinctions.[9]

Zephyritis : a surname for Aphrodite used among the Locrians.  Cf. Epizephyrion, Locrians.

Zephyrus the West Wind : the god who rules the domain of the spirit; the god who competed with Apollo for the affections of Hyacinthus.

zeugos : yoke.

Zeus [Gk] : Jupiter [Lt] : god of the sky; ruler, overlord.  Zeus is the supreme Greco-Roman god, equivalent to Amon-Re [Eg]; the trinity of An, Anu, and Marduk [Ba]; Jupiter [Lt]; the trinity of Indra, Vishnu, and Shiva [Sk]; Odin [Ns], Dagda [Ce], Hun-Ahpu [Ma], Tonacatecutli [Az].

Zeus and Ganymede : Cf. Ganymede.

zhănshuāi : chan shai : [Ch] one-year mourning for parents.

zhănshuāi [Ch] : mourning for parents.

zhào : chao : [Ch] bigger light; honor, belonging to the left side (zuŏzhào, tsochao).  Cf. .

zhàomù : chao mu : [Ch] illumination and sunset; the bigger light and smaller light.[10]

zhí : [Ch] BrSo : fraternal nephew.

zhí : chih : [Ch] fBrSo; brother’s son; a descendant from male collateral.  In recent times, this term has come to be spoken by females in reference to their fraternal nephew.  Anciently, the term seems to have had only one meaning ‘niece,’ and probably reflected the practice of polygyny, in the context of an exclusive system of bilateral cross cousin marriage.[11]  The Chinese character seems to be unique to Chinese; but a similar character with the woman radical, instead of the person radical, commonly appears in Japanese as the female correlative, tetsu [SJ] or mei [Jp] ‘niece.’  Opp. shēng.

zhínŭ : [Ch] BrDa; fraternal niece.

zhísūn : [Ch] BrSoSo; fraternal grandnephew.

zhísūnnŭ : [Ch] BrSoDa; fraternal grandniece.

: [Ch] Si(e); elder sister.

: [Ch] So; son.

: [Ch] So; son.

: tzü : [Ch] Si(e); older sister, older woman of ego’s generation (≠tzŭ =son); elder sister.  Cf. shi [SJ]; ane, nēsan [Jp].

: tzŭ : [Ch] So; son, man of the generation below ego’s.  Cf. shi [SJ], ko [Jp].

zia : [It] FaSi; aunt.

zĭfū : Si(e)Hu : [Ch] elder sister’s husband, elder sororal brother-in-law.

zio : [It] FaBr; uncle.

zittella : [It] girl.

Zivilstandsamt : [Sz] office for the registration of vital statistics.

zo- : [Gk] animal.

zodiac : zodiaque : [Fr] the course of the sun through the twelve signs in the heavens.

zone : zona : girdle, circuit, circumference.  The earth is divided into five zones:  one tropical zone, two temperate zones, and two frigid zones.  The tropical zone or torrid zone lies between the two tropics, on either side of the equator, whereas two temperate zones lie north and south of the tropics, and two frigid zones surround the North Pole and South Pole.  The northern temperate zone lies between the arctic circle and the Tropic of Cancer.  The southern temperate zone lies between the antarctic circle and the tropic of Capricorn.

zoo- : [Gk] living, vivus.

zoöerasty : beastiality.

zoögraphy: a description of the forms, natures, and properties of animals.

zoon : [Du] So; son.

zoophthopia : [Gk] beastiality.[12]

Zoticus : Cf. Elagabalus and Zoticus.

: tsu : [Ch] clan, tribe; 4th collateral line and beyond.

: tsu : [Ch] FaFa; father’s father, ascendant.  Cf. so [SJ], ōjisan [Jp].

zúdì : [Ch] FaFaFaBrSoSoSo(y); younger male third cousin, younger propatruelin.

zŭfù : [Ch] FaFa : grandfather.

zŭfù : [Ch] FaFa, grandfather.

zuigeling : [Du] infant.

zúmèi : [Ch] FaFaFaBrSoSoDa(y); younger female third cousin, younger propatrueline.

zŭmŭ : [Ch] FaMo : grandmother.

Zuni : [NM, AZ] the tribal and village name in the southwest used to name the Zuni Mountains and the River Zuni.

Zuni shamans : ko’thlama, koyemshi.

zuŏzhào yuòmù : tso chao yu mu : [Ch] left chao, right mu.

zuster : [Du] sister.

zúxiōng : [Ch] FaFaFaBrSoSoSo(e); elder male third cousin, elder propatruelin.

zúzĭ : [Ch] FaFaFaBrSoSoDa(e); elder female third cousin, elder propatrueline.

Zwischen-Urning : [Gm] a man mainly attracted to adolescent boys.[13]  Cf. ephebophile, Urning.

zygo : fertilized egg.  Cf. monozygous, dizygous, heterozygous, homozygous.

[1] According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens.  Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  116-117.

[2] Liz and Colin Murray, The Celtic Tree Oracle:  A System of Divination, New York:  St. Martin’s Press, 1988.

[3] Liz and Colin Murray, The Celtic Tree Oracle:  A System of Divination, New York:  St. Martin’s Press, 1988.

[4] Grahn 1990:  121.

[5] Feudal Aids, 1431.  Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[6] Webster 1806.

[7] Kroeber regarded this as a determinant.

[8] Ptak 1995, edition 1997:  115.

[9] Boswell 1980:  130.

[10] Lévi-Strauss, 339.

[11] Lévi-Strauss 1967:  318.

[12] Clement of Alexandria.  Boswell 1980:  347.

[13] Ulrichs.  Eglinton 1964:  489.




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