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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


S : [anthropology] So; son.  Cf. kin types.

S : [LDS] floruit : Misc : Miscellaneous Event, an LDS Event subject to the Ordinances.

S : [NA] survivor, a male claimant authenticated as a veteran of the War of the American Revolution.

S : [Ogham Q-Celtic] salia.[1]

S&M : Cf. flagellomania.

s. & coh. : son and coheir.

s. & h. : son and heir.

-s. : -sc. : shire : scira : county.  The final -s and the archaic -sc. in county abbreviations in England both represent shire.

S. : senatus.

S. : Señor : [Sp] Sir, Mister.

s. : sepultus : buried.

s. : shilling.

s. : sine : without.

s. : succeeded; son.

s. : sur : [Sp] south.

S. Dak. : SD : South Dakota.

s.a. : secundum artem.

s.a. : sine anno : without the year.

S.A.R. : SAR : Sons of the American Revolution, headquartered in Washington, DC.

S.C. : SC : South Carolina.

S.C. : senatus consutum.

S.C.V. : Sons of Confederate Veterans.

S.D.P. : salutem dicit plurimam.

s.l. : sine loco : without the place.

s.l.a.n. : sine loco, anno, vel nomine : without place, year, or name.

s.l.p. : sine legitima prole : without legitimate issue.  The more customary order is s.p.l., sine prole legitima.

S.M. : Sanctae Memoriae : of sacred memory.

s.p. : sine prole : without issue.

s.p.m. : sine prole mascula : without male issue.

S.P.Q.R. : senatus populusque Romanus : the Roman senate and people.

s.p.s. : sine prole superstite : without surviving issue.

S.S. : supra scriptum : suprascript, a small letter inscribed directly above another to make an abbreviation.  Cf. superscript.

S.S.L. : Sacræ Scripturæ Licentiatus, Licentiate of Sacred Scripture.[2]

S.T.D. : Sacræ Theologiæ Doctor, Doctor of Sacred Theology.[3]

S.U.V. : Sons of Union Veterans.

s.v. : sub verbo : under the word.

s.v. : sub voce : under the voice.

sa. : sable, black.

Sa’di : [Persian] the moralist who wrote fables.  When Francis Gladwin translated the work into English, he changed to pronouns to make homosexual stories into heterosexual stories.[4]

Sabado : [Sp] Saturday.

Sabbat : wild rout.[5]

Sabbat leader : [central Gm] a goddess named Holt, Holle, Hulda, Faste, Selga, Selda, or Venus.

Sabbat leader : [Fr] Abundia, Satia.

Sabbat leader : [It] a goddess named Befania, Epiphania, or Bezezia.

Sabbat leader : [Teutonic] a woman named Berhta or Perchta, Herla, or Herechin, among the Teutons.[6]

sailing ship : a large sea-going vessel equipped with a bowsprit and three masts.  Vessels with one or two masts are more often called differently, with such words as boats, fishing boats, yawls, yachts, and the like.  Cf. boat, ketch, mast, ship, yawl.

Sabbath : [Hb] the seventh day, a day of rest from labor; an intermission of pain or sorrow.  The Sabbath falls on Saturday, and the Roman Missal preserved this timing; but some Christian sects appropriated the word to denote the Christian holy day of Sunday instead of Saturday.

Sabbath-day’s journey : the distance an ancient Hebrew had to travel every Saturday to visit the tabernacle of Moses.  It has been estimated that encampments in the wilderness cannot have been more than a mile from the tabernacle, so the Mosaic community must have been perhaps six miles in circumference.[7]

Sabbatical Year : [400 bc-ad 70; Hb] the seventh year; a whole year of rest, when the Jews allowed agricultural fields to lie fallow, creditors remitted all debts, and governments suspended taxation.  Wherever fruits grew, the poor were allowed to collect them, so the Sabbatical Year was intended to be a time of equalization and redistribution of wealth.  The Sabbatical Year was prescribed in Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, and elsewhere in the Bible, and it was also a practice in Babylon.  The Jews strictly observed the Sabbatical Year during the era of the Second Temple, about 400 bc to ad 70, and even Julius Caesar respected the custom by suspending taxation.  The seventh year was widely observed throughout Christian Europe and America, and the custom called for all indentured servants to be released from service.

sable : black.

sabuah parui : [Sumatran] of one belly.  Cf. samandai, uterine.

sackbut : [1592] a musical instrument, valued at 40s around 1592.[8]

sacr- : secr- : sacred.

sack : sacke, a sweet wine often served after dinner.  Sack was imported to England from the Canaries.  Sir Nicholas I bought 3 pints of sack for 6d in the week of 1547/3/26.[9]

sacrament : sacramentum : oath, a ceremony producing some obligation; an outward and visible sign of one’s inward and spiritual grace; eucharist, the holy communion.

sacramento de penitencia : [Sp] sacrament of penitences.

sacramentum commune : communal oath

Sacred Band of Thebes : [378 bc] the army consisting of 150 pairs of male lovers, a unit of 300 men, organized by Gorgidas as the the main defense force for Thebes.[10]  The men represented 150 pairs of male lovers, and Plutarch extolled them as a brilliant military force.  The unit was sometimes divided into two companies, headed by the Thebans Gorgidas and Pelopidas.  The Sacred Band’s first victory was over Sparta, at the Battle of Tegyra.  Pelopidas often used the Sacred Band as an elite force, and often fought in their ranks.  The Sacred Band remained undefeated for more than 40 years.  When the Greek coalition met the army of Philip II of Macedonia and his son Alexander, the Sacred Band suffered a terrible defeat at the Battle of Chaeronea, northwest of Athens, in September 338 bc.  Philip II praised the lovers for their valor, and Alexander the Great is believed to have erected their memorial, the Lion of Chaeronea.  Archeaologists have discovered 264 individual graves near the Lion of Chaeronea, and the remains are believed to be those of the Sacred Band.[11]  Cf. Lion of Chaeronea.

sacrifice : Cf. Pentitentes, Penthesilea and Hyacinthus, William II Rufus and Tyrrel.

sacrifice : princess sacrifice; the religious sacrifice of a princess, such as Iphigeneia, or Jephthah’s daughter.  The mythical stories that embrace this theme often depict Bel, Marduk, Perseus, or Hercules chaining a naked princess to a sea cliff as a sacrificial victim for a serpent or beast that rises out of the sea.  However, the princess is usually revealed to be the mystical source that is emanating the vision of the monster.[12]  Cf. Andromeda, Hesionë.

sacrifices of sons : Cf. Actaeon, Diana the Huntress, Maenads.

sacrificial killing : Cf. Pentitentes.

sacristy : sacristie : [Fr] an apartment where the consecrated vessels or movables of a church are stored.

saddle : sadyll : [Sx] a seat attached to the back of a horse for the convenience of a rider.  The family le Strange paid 10s for a buff saddle in 1520.[13]

sadism : the capacity to derive sexual pleasure through inflicting pain on another; the infliction of pain in others, without any sexual arousal.  The term derived from the name of le Comte de Sade, otherwise known as the Marquis de Sade.[14]

sadomasochism : the coëxistence of sadism and masochism in the same individual;[15] the sexual practice wherein arousal is obtained through cruelty or sadism to the partner, or through submission to painful inflictions or masochism.

sadomasochist : Nero.

sadyll : saddle.

Saecular Games : the Roman games held during the intercalation of extra days at the end of every 110-year cycle.  Cf. 110 years.

sæculum : a) generation, age, lifetime; b) century, one hundred years, theoreti­cally the longest life span possible.

saeculum : one century, or one cyclical period of 110 years (22 x 5 years).[16]  This period ideally marked the death of the Carmenta priestess, when the calendar was adjusted with intercalary days, and the Saecular Games were held.

saffron : saphar : [1519/10/16-22 Ar] a plant colored yellow, valued as a spice and for its utility as a dye.  We have recorded an example of a quantity of saffron valued at 2d in 1519.[17]

sagittam barbatam rent : rent payment of an arrowhead.[18]

sagittarii : the archers and lanceati of the infantry.

Sagittarius : f : the Archer, sagittary; a sign of the zodiac.

Sagittarius the Archer : 23 November to 22 December.

Sahacat : [1492] a sorceress or wisewoman adulated by north African lesbians in the fifteenth century.  The name might be related to Hecate.[19]  Leo Africanus reported in 1492 that the Sahacat women were fricatrices who lured and seduced young women to leave their husbands, to engage in the venerie of lesbian sorcery.  Cf. Hecate.

Saikaku : Ihara Saikaku.

saint : sanctus : a person eminent for piety and virtue.

Saint Anthony’s fire : erysipelas, an infectious disease that causes fever and inflammation of the skin.

Saint Barbara : [interfectus circa ad 200] the patron saint of artillerymen; one of the 14 Holy Helpers.  Barbara is said to have killed her own pagan father for having converted to Christianity.  The Roman church designated her a virgin martyr, but she is commonly believed to have been a lesbian warrior.

Saint Cosmus : Cf. dildo.

Saint John : Cf. Brotherhood of John.

Saint Peter Damian : the author of the long treatise entitled, Liber Gomorrhianus (1051), or The Book of Gomorrah.[20]  He especially criticized the practice of clerical marriage between partners of the same sex.

Saint Vitus’ dance : chorea, a nervous disorder which causes involuntary muscular contractions.

Saint William of Norwich : [1173] a Christian child supposed to have been ritually murdered by Jews.  The story was authored by Thomas of Monmouth, and gained wide circulation in England and France.  It seems to have commenced the long traditon of anti-semitism that prevailed in Europe from 1173 to 1945.  Cf. anti-semitism.

saintess : a female saint.

saints : [ante 1558] holy intermediaries implored to intercede in one’s redemption.  It was customary for the writer of a Will to entrust his soul to ‘the Blessed Lady Mary and all the holy company of saints in heaven,’ until 1558, when Mary I died.  Thereafter, the Protestants expunged saints from the formula.

Saints Perpetua and Felicitas : [interfecti ad 203] two women who comforted one another in jail, and then went together to martyrdom.  Perpetua and Felicitas kissed one another as they died.  They were two of five Christians killed by animals and the sword at Carthage on 7 March 203.[21]

sal- : sil- : salt- : sult- : to leap.

salary : salarium : salt, an essential part of the pay of a Roman soldier; annual or periodic payment; stated rate of hire.  Salt was used to dehydrate and preserve meat.

saliant : [Fr] a lion depicted in a leaping posture, with his right foot in the dexter and his hinder left foot in the sisiter.  Opp. rampant.

salio : to mount a female animal; to be mounted.

salmanazar : a large wine bottle twelve times (12x) the normal size.  Cf. bottle sizes.

salmon trout : samontroute : valued at 10d in 1519.[22]

saloon deck : [1877] the upper deck of an ocean-going vessel, reserved for first, second, and third class passengers who paid for their transit in cash.  Opp. steerage deck.

Salop : Salopia : [contraction] Shropshire.

Salopescira : Shropshire.

salt : sal : a water-soluble mineral that preserves bodies from corruption and endows bodies with consistence.

salt- : sal- : sil- : sult- : to leap.

salt elis : a quantity of salt the family le Strange purchased for 4d in 1519.[23]

saltatorium : deer-leap.[24]

saltfish : 17s for ½ quarter of saltfish. A haulffe a quarter of saltfyshe was bought for 17s at Hunstanton on 1548/5/6.[25]

salutation : salutatio : greeting, the act or style of saluting another person; the form of address wherein the writer calls the recipient ‘Dear’ so-and-so, attaching whatever courtesy titles and noble or religioius titles which may be appropriate.

salvo jure : saving one’s rights, without violating the rights.

salvo jure nostræ veteris amicitiæ : saving the rights of our old friends.

salvo jure suo acquisito : saving the rights he acquired.

samandai : [Sumatran] having one mother.

same sex : [anthropology] ss.  Opp. os.

same-sex : ss.  Opp. opposite-sex (os).

same-sex children : FaSo, MoDa; sons of fathers, daughters of mothers; children of the same sex as one parent.  Opp. opposite-sex children.

same-sex couples : spouses of the same sex joined in mateship, concubinage, contubernage, or marriage, such as Achilles and Patroclus (e), Apollo and Hyacinth (y), Castor and Pollux (Gemini), Domitian and Earinus (y), Damon and Pythias, David and Jonathan, Epaminondes and Pelopidas, Hadrian and Antinoüs, Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Hercules and Hylas, Hercules and Iölaus (y), Karpos and Calamus (e), Minos and Ganymede, Nisus and Euryalus, Orestes and Pylades, Richard I Lionheart and Blondel the Troubadour, Ruth and Naomi (e), Yoshimitsu and Zeami (y), Zeus and Ganymede.  These pairs are mainly listed by convention, and there is no fixed order for the naming of same-sex partners.  However, as a general rule, the names of noteworthy emperors, shoguns, strongmen, and gods are listed first, followed by the younger lover.  If the couple is obscure and ignonymous, then the name of the younger lover often appears first, for the beautiful and legendary beloved is likely to be known better than his erastes, or philetor.

same-sex couples androphilic : Alexander the Great and Boagoas, Achilles and Patroclus Alexis and Corydon, Christopher Isherwood and Donald Bachardy; Elagabalus and Zoticus, Euripides and Agathon, Gilgamesh and Enkidu, Giton and Encolpius, Han Ai Ti and Dong Xian, Jesus the Christ and his Beloved Disciple John; Julius Caesar and Nicomedes, King of Bithynia; Nero and Sporus; Parmenides and Zenon; Richard I Lionheart and Philip of France; Oscar Wilde and Alfred, Lord Douglas; Siegfried and Roy; Sulla and Metrobios; Silvanus and Cyparissus; Socrates and Alcibiades; William II Rufus and Tyrrel; John Addington Symonds, and his lover and manservant Angelo Fusato.

same-sex couples gynecophilic : Anne of England and Sarah Jennings, Scáthach the Shadowy One and Buannan the Lasting One; Artemis and Daphne, Christina of Sweden and her lady-in-waiting the countess, Dike and Aletheia, Furr and Skeene, Pantariste and Thraso, Saints Perpetua and Felicity, Patience and Sarah.  The butches and femmes listed by Judy Grahn included Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas, Bryher and H.D., Vita Sackville-West and Virginia Woolf, Rosa Bonheur, Radclyffe Hall alias John Hall and Una Lady Troubridge.  In the relationship of Amy Lowell and Ada Russell alias Peter Russell, Lowell was the butch and Russell was the femme, and yet Lowell called Russell ‘Peter.’[26]

same-sex couples gynecophilic : women and their same-sex partners.  In patriarchal societies, women organize themselves by joining and creating natal groups of males, and therefore usually derive their identities directly from the natural instincts and operations of motherhood, within a patrist context.  Consequently, it is quite rare to know the specific names of lesbian mates.  Examples include Patience and Sarah, Ruth and Naomi, Saints Perpetua and Felicity, Stein and Toklas.  Patriarchal histories have generally ignored women, and have especially excluded from any records the names of lesbian mates, so it is difficult and often impossible to discover the vicissitudes and fates of particular couples.  Cf. couple, heterosexual couples, lesbian marriages shamanic, same-sex couples androphilic.

same-sex marriage : [800-1700] erogamy; same-sex union, homosexual union; a long-term relationship between spouses of the same sex.  Christian marriage ceremonies explicitly written for same-sex couples happen to survive in manuscripts dating from the eighth century through the seventeenth century, at libraries in the Vatican, St. Petersburg, Paris, the Sinai, and many other locations.[27]  Saints Serge and Bacchus were the patron saints of gay spouses, whereas Saints Perpetua and Felicity were the patron saints of lesbian couples, but the cults of these saints were purged by Christians in the thirteenth century.  Christian homophobia on a grand and formal scale officially dates from the Third Lateran Council (1179).[28]  Jesus the Christ personally adulated and extolled the heavenly merits of homosexual eunuchs in Matthew.  The Greek New Testament explicitly identified Saint John the Apostle as the younger male lover (kleinos) of Jesus the Christ no fewer than six times.  Cf. Arapahoe, eíspnelas & aïtas [Doric], Enheduanna and Inanna, hwame [Mojave], erogamy, First Lateran Council, Kutenai shaman, lesbian marriages shamanic, marriage, mismating, philetor & eromenos [Gk]; sawa linaa [Klamath], lesbians residing together.

same-sex marriages : [ad 342] Romans outlawed homosexual marriages in ad 342, but the law was largely ignored and forgotten, until it was revived by Christians in the twelfth century.[29]

same-sex union : same-sex marriage.

same-sex unions : Poseidon and his cupbearer Pelops, analogous to Zeus and Ganymede.[30]

Samhain : [Celtic] Summerset, Celtic Halloween; the god of Halloween, adulated by fairy people.[31]

Samos, Lesbos, Pathmos, and Samothrace : the Greek islands once occupied by the Myrine amazons.

Samothrace : Cf. Myrine amazons.

sanct- : holy.

sanctuary : sanctuarium : holy place, holy ground; asylum, a place of protection.  The word properly refers to the sanctum sanctorum ‘holy of holies’ or the penetralia, the innermost room of a temple, but generally refers to the entire temple grounds.

sang-froid : [Fr] cool blood; coolness, lack of agitation.

sanguin- : blood.

sanguinary: sanguinarius : cruel, bloody, murderous.

sanguinis flusor : flow of blood.

sanguis : blood.

Sanhedrim : [Hb] the chief council of the Jews, a body of seventy elders under a presiding high priest; the indiginous authority that condemned Jesus the Christ.

sans : [Fr] without.

săo : sao : [Ch] Br(e)Wi; older brother’s wife, elder brother’s wife; elder fraternal sister-in-law; female relatives comparable with older brother’s wife.  Cf. [SJ]; aniyome [Jp].

Sapphic : relating to Sappho.

sapphire : 45th year of marriage; symbol of the forty-fifth wedding anniversary.

Sapphistry : lesbianism, the tradition of Sappho.

Sappho of Lesbos : [floruit 600 bc] the leader of the Æolian school of lyric poetry; Sappho the Black Swan, for she was physically described as ‘little and dark.’[32]  Sappho the Violet-haired.[33]  Plato called her the ninth muse, and she was ranked as a poet in the same rank as Homer and Archilochus.  She was the daughter of Scamandronymus and Cleis, the sister of the cupbearer Larichus, and the sister of the merchant Charaxus.  She married Cercolas, or Cercylas, of Andros, and had a daughter named Cleis.  Cf. Alcaeus.

Sappho’s lovers : the twelve women Anactoria, Andromeda, Atthis, Damophyla, Erinna, Gyrinno, Gongyla, Gorgo, Hero, Mnasidika, Pleistodika, and Timas of Anatolia.  Timas died young.[34]  Cf. coven number of thirteen, Pentathesilea.

sappur : lapis lazuli.[35]  Cf. new Decalogue.

Sarah : Cf. Jewish names Israel and Sarah.

sarcophagus : [Gk-Lt] literally flesh-eater; a stone coffin or grave wherein the ancients placed any corpse they determined not to burn.  Opp. cremation.

Sardanapalus: King of Assyria, held to have been more corrupt than any woman.[36]

Sargon I : [2335-2279 bc] the Mesopotamian king who ruled from about 2335 to 2279 bc.  Cf. Ur Dynasty, year 2335 bc.

sarkos eteras : [Gk] strange flesh; the expression used to denote carnal relations with the angels in the story of Lot.  This was probably a Greek invention, because the story is not supported by Josephus, nor by the Qur’ân.  Cf. mixis athesmos.

Sarmatians : the Sauromatians who lived on the far side of the River Don.  This was a heterosexual culture of Scythians that preserved various elements of amazon culture.  Custom required a woman to kill three male enemies before marriage.  Cf. Sigyns.

Saros Cycle : [Caldean] 223 lunations; 18+ years; a cycle discovered by Chaldean astronomers, which is still useful for calculating eclipses.  Cf. Metonic Cycle (19 years, 235 lunations).

Sask. : Saskatchewan, Canada.

Satan : [Hb] the devil.

satanism : a diabolical disposition.

sati- : satis- : enough.

Satia : the Sabbat leader.

satin : [1592] Satin was valued at 12s per yard around 1592.[37]

satis- : sati- : enough.

satisfied : fieri feci, I have caused to be made; I have done it.  The English word a sheriff writes upon a fieri facias, or Writ of Execution, so as to indorse it, showing the sender that he had fully collected the judgement amount.  The indorsed fieri facias constitutes the sheriff’s return.  Cf. fieri facias, fieri feci, first words of documents.

Saturday : dies Saturni : the last day of the seven-day week, named after Saturn.  Cf. Sabado [Sp].

Saturn : Saturnus : the seventh of seven planets, which returns to its original position every 30 years; a planet of our solar system which astrologers claim as the cause of melancholy, dullness, or severe temper.

Saul and David : Ph & Er; the two biblical characters presumed to have had a sexual relationship, due to scriptural evidence.  David later testified to a profound love for Saul’s son Jonathan.[38]

saura : lizard; penis.  Cf. sira.

Sauromatians : Sarmatians.

sawa linaa : [Klamath] lesbians residing together.

sawyer : [1400] one who saws.  Cf. wages for sawyer.

Saxe. : [Gm] Sachsen; Saxe; Saxon.

Saxon : Sx : Saxo : a member of the people who lived anciently in northern Germany and removed to Britain around ad 440.

Sb : [anthropology] Br, Si; sibling.

Sc : Scotch, Scots.

-sc. : -s. : scira : shire : county.

sc. : sct. : scilicet : understand; supply.

scabbard of velvet : scabard of velvett : a velvetine sword sheath, purchased by the family le Strange for 2s in 1520.[39]

scalpo : to chisel, sculpt; to scratch the culus in pedicatio.

Scand. : Scandinavia.

scandalum magnatum : great scandal; false or scandalous reports that slander or defame any important personage, such as a peer, prelate, judge, or other great officer of the land.

scat : Cf. coprophilia.

Scáthach the Shadowy One : [Ir] Shadow, the Celtic amazon, whose name associates her with goddesses of the underworld, such as Hecate and the Valkyries.  Scáthach became renowned as the greatest warrior of her day, and her contemporaries were Aife and Medb, with whom she forms a trinity of amazons.  Her daughter Uathach guarded the gatehouse of her military academy at Dunscaith Castle, Ireland.  She is highly esteemed as a sage, prophet, and poet, and some surviving works have been attributed to her.  Scáthach the Shadowy One, a martial artist paired with the Buannan the Lasting One.  Cf. Buannan, Hecate, Valkyries.

scavage : shewing or showing; a duty imposed on goods imported to a city by someone other than a freeman of that city.  An outside merchant intending to sell his goods within a city or corporate town was required to show all of his merchandise to the sheriffs prior to sale, so that the custom could be properly calculated and collected.[40]

sceleratus : criminal.

scepter : sceptrum [Lt] : sceptre [Fr] : an ensign of royalty carried in the hand.

sceptrum : penis.

ScGael : Scottish Gaelic.

schedule : a supplement to the regular U.S. censuses; one of the U.S. mortality schedules between 1850 and 1885; one of the interdecennial censuses authorized by the Act of 3 March 1879.

schedule : schedula : a small scroll, a limited inventory; an additional writing; appendix, attachment.

schemata : sexual acts.

schis- : schiz- : [Gk] to split.

schiz- : schis- : [Gk] to split.

scholar : scholaris : disciple, one who learns under a master; a man of letters.

school : [En] public school; privately endowed school in England, upon which model the Groton School, in Groton, MA, was founded (1884).  Groton School was originally an Episcopalian school for white boys only, grades 8-12, half of which later entered Harvard, Yale, or Princeton.

school : schola : university, a place for literary education; a house reserved for discipline and instruction; a system of doctrines imparted by particular teachers.

school vouchers : an unconstitutional method of misappropriating federal funds to the parochial and private school systems, in violation of Amendment I.  Cf. rhetoric.

Schwarzw. : [Gm] Scharzwald, the Black Forest, Germany.

Schwester : [Gm] Si; sister. Cf. warme Schwester.

schwul : [Gm] faggy, homosexual.

sci- : to know.

sciatica : a painful condition in the hip or thigh.

science : scientia : knowledge; one of the seven liberal arts, namely grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmatic, music, geometry, or astronomy.

science and ethnology : Natur- und Völkerkunde [Gm].

scion: [1400 En] shoot, slip, graft; that made manifest; that kithened or made known; one acknowledged as kith.  The word derived from sioun [ME] and ultimately came from ciun, cion, sion, chion [OF].  Cf. kithon ‘shoot.’

scion: [1900 En] heir, descendant.  Scions of the radix and stems of a lineage might be more literally described as ‘buds’ on the ‘root and branches’ of a ‘patrilineage.’  A scion is the smallest bud that has been kithened or made manifest on a tree.  Cf. kinsfolk, kinsmen, kithon ‘shoot.’

scion : [Fr] cion, a sprout, a shoot engrafted on a stock.

scire facias : a judicial writ used to summon a person to court who might show cause for judicial mercy.

scler- : [Gk] hard.

-scope : [Gk] instrument for viewing.

-scope : [Gk] observation, animadersio, notatio.

Scorpio : e : the Scorpion.

Scorpio the Scorpion : 24 October to 22 November.

scortari : to whore, consort frequently harlots.

scortator : whoremonger.[41]

scortum : a prostitute of either gender.

Scot: Scotus : a native of the upper regions of Great Britain called Scotland.

Scot. : Scottish.

Scotch-Irish : Scots-Irish : [Am] a large class of Americans descended from immigrants of Scottish origin who settled first in northern Ireland during the Plantation, and then relocated to America.[42]

Scottish emigration : [1620s] Nova Scotian settlement was promoted by James I and Charles I through the establishment of Baronetcies of Nova Scotia.  The major destination was Port Royal.

Scottish emigration : [1650s]  Scots moved into New England and the Chesapeake Bay.

Scottish emigration : [1680s]  Scots began to populate South Carolina.  One popular destination was Stuartstown.

Scottish emigration : [1680s]  Scots settled in East New Jersey.

Scottish emigration : [1707]  Scottish migration to America was encouraged by passage of the Act of Union (1707), which removed many trade restrictions.

Scottish supporters : [1592] The Lord Lyon King of Arms grants to chiefs of clans and ancient families, as well as to feudal barons older than 1592 in precedence, a pair of supporters, and a cap of dignity.

Scottish titles : [1672]  The Statute of 1672, cap. 47, recognized several special titles used by Scottish lords.  Scottish law records the chiefly titles, or territorial designations, of chieftains, or branch chiefs, and lairds, by regarding the place name as a proper part of the surname.  Therefore, such names as Strange of Balcaskie and Drummond of Megginch stand as full, inseparable names.

Scotus : Scot.

scout : escout : [Fr] one dispatched secretly or privately to detect and observe the movements of an enemy.

scraper : a blade of ivory or wood used to cleanse the body of mud and filth.  Such was customarily used at Roman baths.

scrautum : a leather quiver.

scrib- : script- : to write.

scriba ad portam : scribe at the door.

scriba ad teloneum : recorder of tolls.

scriba architectoniæ : architectural draftsman.

scriba cathedralis : cathedral scribe.

scriba civitatis : city scribe, city clerk.

scriba communitatis et civitatis : community and city scribe.

scriba culinæ : kitchen scribe.

scriba forestarius : scribe of the forest.

scriba frumentarius : corn scribe, grain scribe.

scriba frumenti : scribe of gains.

scriba in porta : scribe at the gate

scriba judicii : judicial scribe.

scriba militaris : military scribe, war correspondent.

scriba quæstoris : interrogation recorder.

scriba rei culinariæ : scribe of culinary things.

scriba rei salinariæ : salt scribe.

scriba senatus : senatorial scribe.

scribe : scriba : writer, public notary.

scrimer : escrimeur : [Fr] gladiator, a fencing master.

script- : scrib- : to write.

script : scriptum [Lt] : escript [Fr] a small writing.

scriptorium : chancery.

scriptum : document.

scrivener: escrivain [Fr] : scrivano [It] : one who makes contracts, someone who lends money at interest.

scriveners : originally scribes, who drafted for the public the commoner sorts of deeds, espe­cially bonds.  As interme­diaries between bor­rowers and lenders, they earned a reputation as usurers.

scrofula : king’s evil.

scroll : escrouet : [Fr] a piece of writing rolled and wrapped.

scrota : plural of scrotum.

scrotal rubbing : a male-to-male sexual act among the bonobos which males perform to reconcile with one another after disputes between themselves, or before group activities, especially eating.  It is believed to have a pacifying function used to ally bitterness, reduce competition, and avoid aggression and warfare.  Cf. genito-genital rubbing.

scrotum : testicle sack, the external pouch on a male mammal that usually contains the male testes.  The flesh that constitutes the scrotum on a male happens to develop into the labia majora of a woman.  Cf. bursa, fiscus, labia majora.

scrutoire : a case of drawers used for writing.

sculpture : sculptura : the art of carving wood or hewing stone to create images.

scutage : scutagium : escuage, service of the shield; an assessment for purposes of warfare; the military service a tenant owes his lord.  When a tenant paid scutage in petit sergeantry, his payment excused him from personal military service.  Due to the lack of hard currency, the tenant’s payment of scutage often consisted of armorial moveables surrendered to royal use, such as swords, daggers, bows, knives, spears, pairs of mail gloves, and pairs of spurs.  This assessment of military weaponry was often combined with a list of able-bodied men to make a descriptive muster roll for the sovereign.  Cf. escuage.

scutarius : shield-maker; shield bearer, esquire.

scutatus : armed with a shield.

scutcheon : scutum : escutcheon, the shield in a heraldic achievement; the ensigns armorial of a family.

scutiferi regis : king-of-arms.

scutigerulus : shield bearer

scyphi : tankards

scythe : sithe : syett : [Sx] an instrument for mowing; a crescent-shaped blade mounted at a right angle to a long pole.

se- : apart, aside, without.

-se : -sia : -sis : -sy : [Gk] act of.

sea dotterel : seae doterell, a bird that mimics gestures.  Cf. sparrows and sea dotterel.

sea lawers : [1523-1554] stakes and pokenets used to catch plaice and sole at low tide; the stakes used to demarcate and net certain freehold parcels of shallow sea, near the shore.  The sea lawers at Hunstanton commenced north of the cliffs, and continued to Holme-next-the-Sea, defining about 30 lots.  Each line of sea lawers supported vertical pokenets, and the space between each pair of lawers was called a birth (berth).  The shortest such boundary comprised 26 births of pokenets, and the longest had 180 births.[43]  The Hunstanton lawers were first mentioned in the Will of Nicholas Banyard in 1523.[44]  Cf. drag, in-shore fishing, lawers.

seafood queen : a male homosexual especially attracted to sailors; Hart Crane type.[45]

seal : [Ch] a personal seal showing the holder’s name in some distinctive seal script, such as Yuan ya.  Seals gradually disappeared from common use in China, but are still used in Japan.

seal : sigillum : a stamp engraved with some personal design and used to seal letters with wax, or to denote one’s testimony or subscription to some writing; the wax impression of a seal.  When attached to a parchment in testimony, the wax impression was usually embellished by adding a pendant red ribbon.  Complex charters having many wax seals and the multiplicity of ribbons gave rise to our modern expression ‘red tape.’

sealed : signatus : [LDS] assigned.  When the Mormons connect a sealing child (slgc.) to a sealing parent (slgp.), or sealing spouses, and formalize the relationship with an endowment and blessing, the joined individuals are said to be sealed.

sealed instrument : a paper or parchment with writing to which a person has affixed his seal.  Cf. deed, lease, mortgage, last will and testament.

sealing : [LDS] the formal blessing of the Church of the Latter Day Saints of a baptismal relationship between a sealing parent (slgp.) and sealing child (slgc.), or between spouses, and conferred through a succession of Ordinances called the Baptism LDS (bapl.), Endowment LDS (endl.), and Blessing LDS (blsl.).

sealingwax : the hard wax used to seal letters.

seamaid : mermaid, water-nymph.

seaman : [Sx] mariner, sailor, navigator; merman.  Cf. wages.

seanathair : athair criona : [Ir] PaFa; parent’s father; grandfather.

seanmáthair : máthair criona : [Ir] PaFa; parent’s mother; grandmother.

seat : sedes : chair of state, throne, post of authority; mansion, residence, abode, dwelling.

sec- : seg- : sect- : to cut.

sec. : section; secretary; second; security.

seceder : separatist; dissenter, nonconformist.

second : [Ba] one-sixtieth of a minute.

Second Battle of Mag Tuireadh : [1871 bc : mt 1] the date of the legendary battle that became the year-date 1 mt of the Druidic Age of Iron and Silver, which will last until 3888 mt (ad 2017).  The hero Tuatha de Danann vanquished the Fomorians in 1871 bc.  Cf. Mag Tured.

second cousins : a trí a’s a trí ngaol [Ir].

second grandsonship : ar a dá ó [Ir].  Cf. grandsonship.

second husband : as her second husband, quasi maritus secundus ejus.[46]

second marriage : Cf. remarriage.

second son : Cf. differences.

secondary : deputy, delegate.

secondary affines : spouses of one’s cognates.

secondary kin types : nephew (Ne) and niece (Ni); kin types that are elementary to a kinship system, but which may be broken down through analysis into primary kin types, such as brother’s son (Ne=BrSo) or brother’s daughter (Ni=BrDa).  Cf. complex relationship, elementary kinship terms, kin types, nuclear terms, point, primary kin types, tie.

seconder : one who supports or seconds a proposition made by another.

secr- : sacr- : sacred.

secretary : secretarius : [1300] confidant, amanuensis; one who writes for another, one entrusted with the management of a business.

secretum : hidden, secret, retirement, solitude, mys­tery.[47]

-sect : [Gk] cutting.

sect- : sec- : seg- : to cut.

sectarian : a member so devoted to his own religious sect as to show bigotry and intolerance to outsiders.  Cf. bigotry, rhetoric.

sections and subsections : a four-way linkage that establishes most of the status relationships among many Australian tribes.  The primary groupings are called sections or classes, and these are four in number, for a husband and wife will belong to two groups (W and X groups), whereas their son will belong to a third (Y group), and marry a bride belonging to a fourth (Z group).  In an example based on Australian terminology, the husband belongs to the Banaka section, his wife belongs to the Burung section, and their children belong to the Palyeri section, but will marry spouses belonging to the Karimera section.  Section membership is distinct from kinship, but the four sections effectively create closely linked bilinear kin groups.  All of the parallel cousins are classed with the ego, but cross cousins are classed in the marriageable section.  Some Australian tribes create subsections, and thereby divide the system into eight sections altogether.  Cf. bilinear kin groups.

secular humanism : [1988] a rhetorical code word for democracy or egalitarianism.  Fundamentalist preachers devised the term secular humanism to characterize as antithetical to theocracy any social institution based upon reason rather than faith.  Humanism was originally a Christian movement, but modern rhetoricians have perverted the meaning to signify instead any institution perceived to be anti-Christian.  Cf. bigotry, paranoia, rhetoric.

secundine : the membrane that encloses an embryo; the afterbirth.

secundum folium 9 horum Actorum : following folio 9 of this work.  Cf. folium.

security : securitas : defense, protection; insurance, assurance of anything; safety, certainty.

secut- : sequ- : to follow.

sed- : sid- : sess- : to sit, settle.

sed eo moriente sine liberis : but he died without issue.  Cf. sine liberis.

sedit annis 34 : he sat [in that office] for thirty-four years.[48]

sedit anno 8 : settled in the eighth year.

seduce a boy : epaidophthoresen.

seduction : a pejorative term for sexual enticement.[49]

seed : seed [Dn] : saed [Du] : the organic particle of a plant or animal which generates new plants and animals; race, generation, birth; descendants, offspring, progeny.

seeder : one who sows seeds in a cultivated field.

seedsman : sower, one who scatters seed; one who sells seeds.

Seekers of the Inner Light : [1652] Society of Friends; Friends, Quakers.  Cf. Quaker Act.

seel : to blind a hawk by means of a thread.  When a falconer begins taming and training a captive hawk, he passes a needle and thread through the lower eyelids of the hawk, and ties the threads over its head, so he can have a fixed method for closing the hawk’s eyes.  A blinded hawk gives no resistance to handling.

seer : [Sx] prophet, one who foresees future events.

seg : [Hb] treasury.  Cf. ben, ob, mah.

seg- : sec- : sect- : to cut.

segment : a subdivision of a minimal lineage.  The minor segment defines a primary link between a man and his children, or a woman and her children.  The major segment is a larger group of kindred that typically assembles on important ritual occasions.  Cf. lineages and segments.

segment : an lower-order grouping of either a clan or lineage.

segment : local descent group, a residental unit or localized unit of a clan or lineage that lives in a single community.

segmentary : characteristic of a descent group consisting of several coördinate branches that all stand as collateral lines to one another.[50]

según de ritual romano : [Sp] according to the Roman ritual.

seigneur : seignior.

seignior : senior [Lt] : seigneur [Fr] : lord, a title of honor.[51]

seigniorage : seigneuriage : authority, acknowledgement of power.

seigniory : seigneurie : [Fr] lordship, a territory.

seisen : seizen : possession of land or chattels.

seisin in fact : the taking of physical possession of a property.

seisin in law : documentary enrollment of one’s possession of a property, regardless of any competing claims or impediments to possession.

seisina facit stipitem : ‘heir must be the heir of the last seised’; a rule abolished by the Inheritance Act (1833), which law made the last purchaser the root of descent, and that permitted ascendants and half-blood relations to inherit property.[52]

seized of : to have legal possession of.

seizin : saisine : [Fr] seisin, the act of taking possession, the things possessed.

sejant : sitting, the position of a beast in heraldry.

Selda : Holle.

selective reduction : a euphemism for induced abortion, used in the context of eliminating fetuses from the womb of a woman anticipating a multiple birth.

Selene : Cf. Helena-Selene.

-self : [Sx] particular; one’s own; this above others.  This pronoun usually appears as a suffix to another pronoun, as in myself, herself, themselves, et cetera, and is often used as a reflexive.

self pollution : masturbation, a religious euphemism for onanism or self gratification.

selfishness : the attribute one accuses another of displaying when the other fails to perform the way one wishes.

Selga : Holle.

Selk. : Selkirk, Scotland.

seller : vender, a person who sells.

semasiography : [1877] semantic writing, designed to symbolize concepts rather than sounds.  Opp. logography, phonography.

semblatives : variants.

Semele : mother of Dionysus.

semi- : half, partly.

semiheres : coheir.[53]

sen- : old.

Sen. : Senator.

sen. : Sr. : senior.

senator : a public counsellor.

Senators of the College of Justice in Scotland : Cf. Lords of Session in Scotland.

senatorship : the office or dignity of a senator.

senatus : council of elders, senate.  Cf. patricius, patres.

Seneca : the most influential of the Stoic philosophers.  He was homosexual, and is supposed to have initiated his pupil Nero in androphilic love.[54]

senecta : old age.

senectus, senex : ætas senectus, old age, maturity, 49 to 76 years (over 45 years); opposite of iu­nior.

senescallus : seneschal, agent or steward in charge of a lord’s estate in feudal times

seneschal : senescallus : dapifer : an agent or steward in charge of a lord’s estate in feudal times;[55] the officer of a great household placed in charge of feasts and domestic ceremonies.  The title of seneschal gradually acquired political duties.

senex : senectus, aged, old person; old man; old woman.

Sengill Bere : Sengill barley.

senilis : senile.

senility: seniliter : old age.

senior : Sr. : sen. : old man, old woman, one over forty-five years old; someone older than another; a person who enjoys superiority due to his longer life or greater experience.  Opp. iunior.

senior generations : ascendants.  Cf. generational level.

seniores : elders, over 46 years old.  Cf. iuniores.

senior-most female : doyenne.

senior-most male : doyen.

seniory: Cf. agism.

senium : old age.

sennachie : [Sc] a genealogist of Scottish clans.

señorita : [Sp] maiden, young lady.

sens- : sent- : to feel, think.

sent- : sens- : to feel, think.

sentence : sententia : a civil or criminal decision issued by a judge; doom; condemnation of a criminal as publicly pronounced by a judge; a writing shorter than a paragraph; a moral maxim or axiom.

sentinel : sentio [Lt] : sentinelle [Fr] : watch, guard, one who keeps watch to prevent surprise or ambush.

sentry : sentinel, one who watches or guards the perimeters of a garrison or army to warn of the stealthy movements of the enemy.

senza marito : smaritato : [It] unmarried.

sep. : sepultus : sepulta : buried.

sepal : sepalum : [1821 Gk-Lt] one of the modified leaves that comprise a calyx of sepals.  Literally the Greek base word meant ‘head coverning.’  Cf. calyx, flower.

separ. : separatum : separated.

separatio : disiunctio, separation, separate maintenance, parting, parting of ways, division, limited divorce, segregation, disconnection, split up; Trennung, Verteilung.

separatio a mensa et thoro : separation of a mar­ried woman from the bed and board of her hus­band.

separatio a vinculo matrimonii : complete divorce, separation from the bonds of matrimony.

separation: disjunction; the act of separating; the state of living separately; disunion, divorce, disjunction from a married state.

separatist : one who has left the church to join another.  Cf. dissenter, nonconformist, seceder.

Sepbre : Septe : Septiembre : [Sp] September.

seppolto : [It] buried, sepultus.

sept : [rare] unilineal descent group.

sept : [usual] cognatic descent group.  This usage is not outmoded, and redundant.[56]

sept- : septem- : seven.

sept : septum : [Ir] clan, race, family, generation; branch of a clan; a commonality of persons who use the same surname and live in the same locality.  The word sept survives among the Gaelic peoples of Ireland and Scotland, and is often used to style a subdivision of a clan, or some particular, local branch (ramus) of a family.  A writer should consider using the word sept ethnographically and sparingly, and restricting its use to clan associations, because it is fairly typical or characteristic of Scots-Irish genealogy.  In Ireland it became customary for servile dependents to utilize or adopt their lord’s clan name or surname, and thus the Irish sept tended to become a name common to many people living in a certain neighborhood, irrespective of their blood relationships.  Large clan identities continued to thrive in Scotland, but gradually lost their significance in Ireland, where the local and parochial sept gained general preëminence.  Cf. clan.

Septe : Sepbre : Septiembre : [Sp] September.

septem- : sept- : seven.

September : 7ber : /9/ : [ad 8] a month of 30 days; literally seventh month; the ninth month of the Gregorian Calendar, the ninth month of the Scottish NS Julian Calendar, but the seventh month of the English OS Julian Calendar commencing in March.  Cf. August, October.

septentrional : northern, a word familiar to readers of Latin maps of North America.

septuagenarian : one 70 years of age and older.

septuagenary : 70 years.

Septuagint : 70 : LXX : septuaginta [Lt] : [Gk] the original Greek translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic sources, as edited by a committee of seventy scholars.  Some say the true number was seventy-two scholars.[57]

septuplet : [1985] one of seven children produced at one birth.  The first birth of septuplets occurred in the U.S. in 1985, but only 3 children survived.  The McCaughey septuplets were born in Carlisle, IA, on 19 November 1997, and were the second set of septuplets born in the U.S.  The mother was 29 years of age, and had taken fertility drugs.  Cf. multiple births, multiparous, -uplet.

sepulchre : sepulchrum [Lt] : sepulcre [Fr] : grave, tomb.  Cf. Easter sepulchre.

sepulta : she was buried.

sepulta est : she was buried.

sepultado : [Sp] buried.

sepultorum catalogus : burial register.  Cf. catalogus.

sepulture: sepultura : burial, interment.

sepultus : sep. : s. : he was buried.

sepultus erat : he was buried.[58]

sepultus est apud Belviderum juxta patrem suum : he was buried at Belvedere next to his father.[59]

sepultus est in australi parte supremi altaris cum Margareta domina de Boterax ejus consorte : he was buried in the eastern part of the high altar with his consort Margaret, Lady de Botreaux.[60]

sepultus est pompa maxima in Herifordensi ecclesia : he was buried with great ceremony in the church at Hereford.[61]

sepultus fuit : he was buried.

sepultus in coemiterio : he was buried with someone.

seqq. : sequentia.

sequ- : secut- : to follow.

sequela : issue.[62]

sequela sua, sum tota : and their issue.[63]

Seraphim : the highest choir of angels, among nine choirs.

serene : serenus [Lt] : serein [Fr] : placid, quiet, pacific, calm; unruffled, undisturbed; showing a peacefulness and calmness of mind.  The word serene sometimes appears in a title of respect, as in His Most Serene Highness Prince Leopold, Archduke of Austria,[64] or Her Serene Highness Princess Grace of Monoco.

serf : a lesser vassal attached to a parcel of land.

serfdom : Cf. servitude, slavery.

Serg. : Sergeant.

sergeant : [1596] an English military rank paid 1s or 12d per day in France.

sergeant : sergent [Fr] : sergente [It] : petty officer, an officer charged with executing the commands of a magistrate; a lawyer of the highest rank, next in precedence to the judge; a title designating some chief position among the servants of the king.

sergeant chirugeon : sergeant surgeon : a physician or surgeon in service to the king.

sergeant-at-law : [1310] servientes regis, King’s sergeant; the serviens of someone, who con­ducted oral argumentation before the bench prior to a written pleading to be drafted later by attorneys, the proceedings of which were practi­cal, without oratory, pedantry, nor clev­erness.[65]

sergeant-at-law : [1500] a term which possibly became coterminous with, and there­fore replaced, nar­ratores.[66]

sergeant-counter : [1275] a sergeant in charge of enumerating prisoners.

sergeantry : grand sergeantry, wherein the sergeant himself personally performed the military service he owed his lord, and acted as the ensign carrying a banner or spear representing the king.  Cf. knight’s fee.

sergeants : [1400] a close guild in complete con­trol of the legal profession.  The fraternity of sergeants included the bench and leaders of the bar, who grew into a class of knights sup­ported by elaborate and costly ceremonial.  When they eventually became few in numbers, their or­der was dissolved, and the Sergeants’ Inn was sold.

sergeanty : petit sergeantry, wherein a man held lands of the king through the payment of some annual scutage or shield money to provide the king with military capabililties.  Cf. scutage.

serial killings : successive murders, usually perpetrated by an individual or group, and often connected by some consistent modus operandi, such as rape or necrophilia.  Serial killings are typically committed by a methodical and sinister contriver, often capable of keeping his killing secret for prolonged periods.  White males commonly fit the profile of a serial killer, whereas women and black males do not.  The majority of serial killers in the United States have been white males.  Women and black males almost never engage in serial killing, and therefore are seldom suspected of such crimes.  Cf. spree killing.

serial monogamy : the custom of marrying two or more spouses in succession, but remaining monogamous and faithful to each.  This is by far the most prevalent marital form among heterosexuals in twentieth-century America.  Opp. polyandry, polygyny.

serjant : common soldier

serkku : [Fi] PaSbCh; cousin.

serotonin : the neurotransmitter that controls the frequency of a person’s sexual urges.  Cf. dopamine, sexual frequency.

serpent: Cf. uraeus.

serv- : to serve, save.

serv. : servt. : servant.

serva : female slave, maid servant.  Cf. ancilla.

servant : contract laborer.  A servant differs from a slave in that he normally works for wages, or for the reduction of his debt, and may anticipate the day he will be released from his obligation to serve.  Cf. debt-bonded servant, indentured servant, deceived servant, kidnapped servant, coërced laborer, sham-adoptive child.

served and retoured heir-in-general : acknowledged as heir-in-general.[67]

service : servitium : employment, business; military duty; a menial office, some demeaning business performed at the beckon and call of some master; anything done to discharge one’s duty to a superior.

serviens : servant.

servientes : servants,[68] footsol­diers.

servientes, xij : twelve servants.[69]

servile classes : slave, servant, serf.[70]

servilis indoles : condition of slavery.

servility: subjection, involuntary servitude or obedience; slavery, the condition of a slave.

serving : servinge, personal attendance upon a superior person.  Cf. wages for service.

servio : to serve the homosexual patentia.

servitialis fratres vel sorores : servants of one’s brother or sister.[71]

servitium : a body of slaves.

servitor : serviteur : [Fr] servant, attendant, follower, one who professes duty and obeidience.  Oxford freshmen were called servitors, whereas Cambridge freshmen were styled sizers.[72]

servitude : servitus : slavery, the state of a slave; dependence; a collective term for all the servants of a household.

servula : servant girl.

servulus : servant boy.

servus : servant, a man in perpetual involuntary servitude; serf, male slave, bondman, called lit­tle one (pais) or boy (puer).[73]  The proper names of slaves were traditionally different from those of free men, appearing to be Greek in ori­gin, in­stead of Latin.  Cf. famulus, addictus.

sess- : sed- : sid- : to sit, settle.

setä : [Fi] PaBr; uncle.

seurakunta : [Fi] parish.

seven- : the combining form of seven.  Cf. hepta-.

sevennight : se’nnight : week; the time from one day of the week to the next day of the same name, either before or after the present week.  Something that occurred on Monday sevennight referred to something that happened on the Monday before last.  Something one forecasted to happen on the Monday after next was also called Monday sevennight.

seventh year : Cf. Sabbatical Year.

Seventh-day Adventists : [1874] Adventism.

seven-year statute of limitation : the Judeo-Christian custom of providing the complete remission of debts, and full pardon from punishment, every seventh year.  The custom survives in modern American legal statutes, but society at large has generally forgotten and ignored the biblical seven-year rules.  Cf. Sabbatical Year.

sewery : a storeroom for linen, table furnishings, and other domestic provisions.

sex : Cf. oral-anal sex, oral-penile sex, oral-vaginal sex.

sex : sexus : the property by which any animal is male or female.[74]  Normally the chromosomes of a fetus will determine its sex, and produce the appropriate genitalia.  Rarely, genetic or developmental problems will cause the fetus to grow genitals inappropriate to its chromosomal sex, or to exhibit hermaphrodital features.  In previous times, a child with some confused sexual identity might have been raised in an imposed gender rôle, but physicians today sometimes assign the child’s birth sex, by surgically modifying the genitals.  Opp. gender.

sex appeal : Opp. dysosmia.

sex assignment : the surgical assignment of sex to an intersexual infant.  Cf. ambiguous genitalia, gender assignment, hermaphrodite, intersexual.

sex chromosome : one of the two chromosomes that determine sex.  Human females have two X chromosomes in each cell, whereas males have one X chromosome paired to a Y chromosome.  Opp. autosome.

sex crimes : rape, serial killings.

sex fascist : patrist, an intolerant and oppressive individual who controls every sexual action.[75]

sexagenarius : sexagenary : 60 years of age and older; sexagenarian, one 60 years of age and older.

sexagenary : 60 years.

sexagenary : sexagenarius : threescore years, sixty years of age.

Sexagesima : the second Sunday before Lent.

sexenniel : lasting six years, happening every six years.

sexism : the patristic determinant of kinship that ranks people, mainly heirs and successors, by sex.  This determinant is combined with agism to form the foundation for the reckoning of ancestral lineage, so it involves people both living and dead.  Thus, sexism is acutely different from female pro-sexualism, which concerns itself with only living people.  Patristic sexism finds endorsement in the matristic, pro-sexual instinct to promote exogamy.  Male sexism is fundamentally different from female pro-sexualism, because it represents patristim and patriarchism, or the institutions that collateralize society into lineages.  Importantly, sexism is based upon both living kindred, as well as dead ancestors, because knowledge of one’s descent is the art or science of that empowers men to claim the unilineal prerogatives of patriliny.  Cf. agism.  Opp. pro-sexualism.

sexist behavior : the male invention and employment of sexism as a kinship determinant.  Opp. pro-sexual instinct.

sexocracy : rule by sex rôle. Cf. kinship and order, sexism.  Opp. gerontocracy.

sexography : the regular notation of sex as a distinguishing feature, by the use of special vocabulary and sexist suffices.

sext : noon, the fourth of seven canonical hours; the fourth of seven daily services of Christian prayer.  Cf. canonical hours.

sext- : sixth, six.

sextant : a sixth part of a circle; an astronomical instrument shaped as a sixth part of a circle.

sexto-kalendæ : the 6th day before the Kalends of March, i.e. 23 February.  The Romans doubled this date to create a leap day called bissexto-kalendæ, which was inserted between 23 and 24 February, every leap year.  Cf. bissexto-kalendæ.

sexton : sacristan : a low-ranking officer of the church expressly charged with digging graves.  A auxiliary layman or officer appointed to a frontier chapel or church to support the ministry of a circuit preacher with acts of maintenance and administration.

sextonship : the office of a sexton.

sextuplet : one of six children produced at one birth.  Cf. multiple births, multiparous, -uplet.

sexual : distinguishing the sex, belonging to the sex.  Cf. pro-sexual.

sexual component : one of two components of an individuals sexuality, namely heterosexuality and homosexuality.  Cf. Kinsey.

sexual difference : the distinctions of male, female, and hermaphrodite.  Cf. transgender, transexual.

sexual frequency : libido, the state of being sexually aroused.  The frequency of sexual interest is determined by the neurotransmitter serotonin.

sexual intercourse : coitus; heterosexual intercourse marked by the penetration of the male penis into the female vagina, or any genital contact between individuals.

sexual inversion : a prejudicial term for homosexuality.

sexual organs : genitalia.  Ovid used these words in Amores and Ars Amatoriainguinis (6 times), membra (13), corpora (28), neruos (35), pars pessima nostri (69), and hanc partem (73).[76]

sexual orientation : one’s sexual attraction to members of the opposite or same sex, or to members of both sexes; one’s sexual inclinations, characterized as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual.  Studies performed in the 1990s revealed that the X-chromosome sometimes carries a genetic maker at Xq28, the so-called gay gene, the presence of which seems to predispose a male to homosexuality.  Geneticists suspect that there might be other markers and cofactors, but no others had been discovered by 1996.  When Northwestern University studied the male issues of 82 biological fathers having gay or bisexual orientations, in 1995, researchers determined that 91% of the sons were heterosexual, whereas 9% were bisexual or gay, demonstrating that the sexual orientation of a father has no discernable effect on the orientation of a son.  When the National Cancer Institute made a similar study of lesbian and bisexual mothers, it discovered that one-third of the daughters were likewise bisexual or lesbian, showing a higher incidence of homosexuality than may be found among the daughters of heterosexual mothers.  When researchers studied the sons of lesbians, or the daughters of gay men, they could discover no connection whatsoever between a parent’s bisexuality or homosexuality and the orientation of a child of the opposite sex.  In a sample of 12 sons of bisexual or lesbian mothers, virtually none of the sons had any sexual interest in the same sex.  Collectively, these results suggest that a child’s bisexuality or homosexuality might result from a maternal genetic heritage.  The results tend to refute the notion that parental rôle-modeling somehow influences a child’s sexual orientation.[77]

sexual parts of both sexes: naturalia, pudenda.

sexual promiscuity : the proclivity of a person to take more than one sexual partner.  Monogamy and polygamy depend on the neurotransmitter dopamine.  Cf. promiscuity.

sexual reform movement : the German political organization that aimed to repeal antiquated sex laws, headed by Magnus Hirshfeld, Wilhelm Reich, and others.

sexual rôle : acting in a manner universally associated with one’s chromosomal sex.  Sociologists and anthropologists believe that there exists a small core of behaviors and traits that are genetic, and innate to each sex.  These specific demeanors and activities constitute inherited characteristics transmitted by the sex chromosomes, and remain constant and unchanging throughout all human cultures.  The sexual rôle is extremely narrow, for it is limited to certain basic behaviors, such as male aggressiveness and the maternal instinct.  Standing in contrast or opposition to the sexual rôle is the gender rôle, which constitutes an extremely broad range of behaviors and characteristics that happen to be transculturally different, and which may change abruptly.  Thus, sex has been deemed to be mostly a genetic or biological character, whereas gender has been styled a learned or behavioral disposition.  Cf. gender rôle.

sexually transmitted disease : STD : a disease transmitted through sexual contact, traditionally defined as one of five venereal diseases, namely gonorrhea, syphilis, chancroid, granuloma inguinale, and lymphogranuloma venereum.  The phrase has expanded in meaning to denote a wide range of disorders, including scabies, herpes gentitalis, anorectal herpes and warts, pediculosis, trichomoniasis, genital candidiasis, molluscum contagiosum, nonspecific urethritis, chlamydial infections, cytomegalovirus, and AIDS.  Colloquially, the phrase has also come to designate other conditions or infestations transmitted or propagated through sexual activity, including crabs, parasites, and hepititis.

sexus : sex.

SGML : Standard Generalized Markup Language, a document-processing language.  Cf. HTML.

sgr : seigneur : [Fr] lord, noble.

Sgt. : Sergeant.

Shadow : Scáthach.  Cf. Hecate, Valkyries.

Shak : Shakespeare.

shalt : the second person of shall, as in thou shalt.

sham : [Sk] friction work.

sham-adoptive child : a child, often a girl, adopted from a poor or native family.  Native South Americans were frequently sham-adopted by white immigrants.

shaman : an Asiatic word for a tribal sorcerer.

Shamash : [Assyrian] the male sun deity.

shame : [Sx] disgrace, ignominy, loss of reputation; reproach, the infliction of shame.

shami : [Sk] Arani wood.

shaming : the stocks and pillory; public humiliation.

shamrocks : [1929] the scroll-work motif of a Badge of Ulster, designating a Baronet of Ireland.  Cf. roses, thistles.

Shango : [Macumba] thundergod,[78] the male aspect of Oya.  Cf. Oya.

shàngshuāi : shang shai : [Ch] ascending decrease.

shaving : Cf. beards.

shaving : shavying : Sir Thomas le Strange paid 2d for shavying in 1520.[79]

shavyng : shaving.

Shazzam : an occult word for a sudden, fiery change.[80]

she : the oblique pronoun meaning her, the woman, the woman mentioned before; the female rather than the male.

separative : tending toward or causing a separation; expressing a separation.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

Sikhism : [1845] the religion of the Sikhs in northern India.

sheep : male sheep, called ram, buck, male-sheep.  Tragically, male sheep can also be called mutton.  A ram remains fertile for 7 years, and may first mate when well matured, at 12-14 months of age.  In pastures, a ram will usually mate with 35-40 ewes.  When the ram is handmated with ewes, he will mate with 50-75 ewes.  Cf. handmate, tragedy (the sacrifice of a goat).

sheep : female sheep, called a ewe or dam.  A ewe remains fertile for 6 years, and its average gestation period of 147-151 years, and a gestation range of 142-154 years.  A ewe can have her first mating when she reaches 90 pounds, or 1 year of age.

sheep : young sheep, called a lamb, lambin, shearing, yearling, cosset, or hog.

sheep : the animal that yields wool; devotees obedient to the leadership of a pastor.  Cf. lamb, hogg, ewe, crone, wether, rigsey, ram, pock lamb.[81]

sheep : collection of sheep, called a flock, drove, hirsel, trip, or pack.  The term shepherd suggests that the word herd was once used of sheep, and we may imagine that urbanites would sometimes use herd instead of the customary terms.

sheep shearer’s disease : anthrax.

sheep skins : shepe skynnys : The family le Strange paid 2d per piece for sheep skins in 1519.[82]  Cf. woolfel.

sheepfold : a place where sheep are enclosed for grazing.

shēng : shêng : [Ch] mSiSo, mDaHu; sister’s son, sororal nephew; a descendant from female collateral; daughter’s husband, son-in-law.  Anciently this term was uttered by male speakers, and seems to have reflected an exclusive system of bilateral cross cousin marriage.  Cf. sei, [SJ]; oi [Jp].  Opp. zhí [Ch].

Sheng Mu : Holy Mother, a Taoist goddess.  Cf. Kwan Yin of China.

shepherd : [Sx] one who tends sheep in a pasture; one who oversees a congregation of worshippers.

sheriff : shire reeve, an official of a shire or county charged with judicial duties; a county officer charged with the enforcement of law; a collector of fees and fines for the crown.

Sheriff’s Calendar : Sheriff’s List.

Sheriff’s List : a prisoner roll held by a sheriff to manage his charges.  The List was sometimes called the Sheriff’s Calendar, for it reflected the orders of the bench.  If a prisoner was to be hanged, the judge would write next his name the words “suspendatur per collum,” directly on the Sheriff’s List.[83]

sheriffdom : the territory overseen by a sheriff.

shield : [Sx] buckler, a large piece of defensive armor held in the left arm to deflect blows; defense, protection.  Cf. escutcheon, scutcheon.

shield-bearer : scutarius, esquire.

shih : [2852-221 bc, Ch] a hereditary title granted to a man by his lord, king, or emperor.  The term shih gradually merged in meaning with shing.[84]  Cf. Chinese surname classes, shing, ming.

shih : [Ch] sung; religious name; a surname adopted by a Buddhist monastic as his religious name.[85]

shih-ming : [Ch] given name; the personal name of a Chinese person.[86]

shilling : [1806] 12 pence, equal to 22.222 cents in 1806 dollars.  Cf. crown, pound.

shilling : s. : [1603] 12 pence; a silver coin worth 12 pennies; the equivalent of about $3 in 1967 currency.

shing : [2852-221 bc, Ch] a patrilineal surname acquired at birth by both men and women.[87]  Cf. Chinese surname classes, shih, ming.

shing : [Ch] surname, clan name.[88]

shing nan shih : [Ch] literally what title is her surname?; What’s-her-name; So-and-so; Madam.  The phrase shing nan shih ‘surname what title?’ is customarily used by the Chinese as an honorific title for a woman whose name is not known.  Cf. Chinese surname classes, shih, shing.

shingle : seindula [Lt] : schindel [Gm] : a thin wooden tile for roofing a house.

ship : [1200 Sx] a sea-going vessel, used for deep-sea fishing, burden, or warfare; a large vessel made to pass across the sea by wind power or some other form of propulsion; a hollow building designed to float atop the sea.  Cf. boat, galley, mast, sail.

ship Galie Subtile : [1544] a royal ship of 200 tons burden, capable of carrying up to 250 mariners, and equipped with 3 brass guns on its bow.  She was eventually outfitted with an additional 28 iron guns, but it regularly listed only 8 gunners.  Cf. row-barge.

ship of the line : [1706] a warship sizeable enough to be placed in the line of battle.

ship terms : length, beam, depth; waist.

ship Victory I : [1559-1560 En] a large ship between 800 and 1,000 tons that stood high on the water.  Its waist was 20 feet above the waterline.[89]  She had a high poop deck, an oversized beakhead, and probably an unreasonably high forecastle.  Clearly the design was for show, rather than stability.  In the middle of Elizabeth I’s reign, Sir John Hawkins became the chief naval administrator, and the ships were thereafter designed with lower waists, reduced superstructures, shorter beams, and longer lengths.[90]

ship proportions : Cf. beam, length, depth, galley, man-of-war, ship of the line, ship Victory I, Sir John Hawkins, tonnage.

ship proportions : [early Eliz I] The early Elizabethan men-of-war had wider beams and shorter lengths than those of the latter part of Elizabeth I’s reign.  Cf. Sir John Hawkins.[91]

ship proportions : [middle Eliz I] L=3*B, L=3.5*B]  The new Hawkins design of the Elizabethan man-of-war made the total length 3 or 3½ times the beam.  Cf. man-of-war, Sir John Hawkins, tonnage.

ship proportions : [Hen VIII] Cf. galley.

steamer : [1814] a ship propelled by steam.  Cf. ship proportions, steamship.

steamship : [1790] a ship propelled by steam, and later called a steamer (1814).  Cf. steamer.

steer : Northern steer [1540/6/23] : £12 3s 11d per 20 head.  Sir Thomas bought 20 Northern steers from Thomas Warner of Hoo, and grazed them at Godwick.

steer : smaller steer : [1540/6/23] £5 10s per 11 head.  Sir Thomas bought 11 steers smaller than Northern steers of Thomas Warner of Hoo, and placed them at Godwick.

steer : Northern steer : [1540/6/23] £10 per 20 head, 10s per head.  Sir Thomas bought 20 Northern steers at Saint Edmund’s Fair at Hoxon at 10s per head (£10).

ship proportions : [steamer] L=7*B, L=8*B, the length and beam proportions of a steamer, which roughly equated those of a Tudor galley or row-barge.  Cf. steamer.

shipload : [1706] as much burden and as many people, as may be carried by one ship.  Formulae for calculating the net weight of a ship are needed to prevent overburdening a ship, and long ago became the bases for taxation.  Cf. tonnage.

ship : an airship, airplane, or spacecraft.

-ship : [Sx] a suffix denoting some quality or office.  Cf. lordship, stewardship.

ship fever : typhus fever.

ships : Cf. vessels.

shire : scira : [Sx] a county in England.

shirttail : [1900] related distantly or indefinitely.  This adjective sometimes describes an unconnected fragment of genealogical data.

shìzú : [ad 300-600] clan descent; a traditional and social sib organization based upon unilineal descent, and lineal sibships.  This old system arose from the older sib system (cóngfă), and governed Chinese relationships prior to the invasions of people from the steppes.  Cf. cóngfă, ménfá.

shoah : [Hb] holocaust.

shoes : showes : [Sx] coverings that protect the feet of men and horses.  Dame Anne le Strange recorded that she spent 2s 2d per pair for white shoes and 9d per pair for black shoes for Sir Thomas, 8d for shoes for their son Nicholas, and 4d for shoes for Mrs. Beese, in 1520.[92]

shorthand : the practice of taking notes and drafting documents with abbreviations rather than fully formed words.  Many court documents and medieval papers survive only in shorthand form, and require diciphering.  Cf. stenography, Tironian shorthand.

shortwaisted : having a short torso or body.

shortwriting : Cf. brachygraphy, John Robert Gregg, stenography, tachygraphy, Timothy Bright, Tironian shorthand, Sir Issac Pitman.

showes : shoes.

shrievalty : sheriffalty.

shrieve : sheriff.

shrivalty : sheriffalty.

Shrops. : Shropshire.

Shropshire : Shrops. : Salopescira : Salopesbiria : now shortened to Salop.

shroud : shelter, cover; a linen wrapping for the dead.

shū : shu : [Ch] FaBr(y), HuBr(y); father’s younger brother, younger paternal uncle; husband’s younger brother, younger brother-in-law.

shuāi : [Ch] decrease, decline, waning.

shūfù : [Ch] FaBr(y); father’s younger brother, younger paternal uncle.

shūmŭ : [Ch] FaBr(y)Wi; father’s younger brother’s wife, younger paternal uncle’s wife, younger paternal aunt-in-law.

shu-tau : [Ch] younger son by the secondary wife, or any wife other than the principal wife.  Cf. mung-tsu.  Opp. po-tsu, yu-tsu.

shūzŭfù : [Ch] FaFaBr(y); younger granduncle.

shūzŭmŭ : [Ch] FaFaBr(y)Wi; younger granduncle’s wife.

[1] According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens.  Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  116-117.

[2] Marcian Strange, OSB, VALE 6:42457,2.

[3] Marcian Strange, OSB, VALE 6:42457,2.

[4] Boswell 1980:  18.

[5] Grahn 1990:  96.

[6] Grahn 1990:  96.

[7] Brewer 1894:  689.

[8] Henslowe.

[9] Gurney, 561.1.

[10] Plutarch.  Eglinton 1964:  248.

[11] Robert Udick, “Gay warriors in the ancient world,” San Francisco Chronicle, 1993/2/9.

[12] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  421.

[13] HHA 1520.

[14] Eglinton 1964:  488.

[15] Eglinton 1964:  488.

[16] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  421.

[17] HHA 1519.

[18] HL:  168.

[19] Grahn 1990:  323.

[20] Boswell 1980:  210.

[21] J.A. Robinson, The Passion of St. Perpetua, Cambridge, 1891.  Boswell 1980:  135.

[22] HHA 1519.

[23] HHA 1519.

[24] HL:  229.

[25] Gurney, 561.11.

[26] Grahn 1990:  145.

[27] Boswell 1994:  372-374.

[28] Boswell 1980:  277.

[29] Boswell 1980:  310.

[30] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  354.

[31] Grahn 1990:  87.

[32] Grahn 1990:  172-173.

[33] Alkaios.  Grahn 1990:  10.

[34] Grahn 1990:  173.

[35] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[36] Plutarch, Moralia.  Clement of Alexandria, Paedagogus.  Boswell 1980:  377.

[37] Henslowe.

[38] Boswell 1980:  105.

[39] HHA 1520.

[40] Riley, Liber Albus, 196-199.  Davis 1924:  619.

[41] Boswell 1980:  99.

[42] Charles A. Hanna, The Scotch-Irish:  The Scot in North Britain, North Ireland, and North America,, 1997/8/1.

[43] Oestmann 1994:  125.

[44] Records of the Norfolk Archdeaconry Court, Wills, 299, sub Gedney.  Oestmann 1994:  124.

[45] Eglinton 1964:  487.

[46] Confer LANC, sub John Beaufort, 1404-1444, Duke of Somerset, second husband of Margaret Beaufort née Beauchamp.

[47] HL:  369.

[48] Leland, 5.164.

[49] Eglinton 1964:  488.

[50] Parkin 1997:  18.

[51] HL:  326.

[52] Plucknett 1956:  720-721, 724.

[53] Leland, 1.237.

[54] Boswell 1980:  130.

[55] Douglas 1964:  145.

[56] Parkin 1997:  19.

[57] Burnet, cited by Johnson.

[58] Hey 1993:  179.

[59] Leland:  1.1.92.

[60] Leland, 5.123.

[61] Leland, 5.164.

[62] HL:  51.

[63] HL:  51.

[64] Johnson.

[65] Plucknett 1956 : 221-223.

[66] Plucknett 1956 : 221-223.

[67] Thomas Strang (natus circa 1602), BALC 21.#.

[68] HL:  295.

[69] Patent Rolls, 1216-1225:  240.  HL:  77.

[70] Boswell 1988:  227.n161.

[71] Boswell 1988:  297.n2.

[72] Swift, cited by Johnnson.

[73] Ariès & Duby:  1.61.

[74] Johnson.

[75] Eglinton 1964:  488.

[76] Adams 1982:  217.

[77] Simon LeVay, Ph.D., “Gay kids of gay parents:  Is it genetic?,” 1997.

[78] Grahn 1990:  121.

[79] HHA 1520.

[80] Grahn 1990:  242.

[81] K.J. Allison, “Flock management in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries,” The Economic History Review, second series, 1985:  11.101.6.  Oestmann 1994:  138.28.

[82] HHA 1519.

[83] Chronicles of Newgate, 68.

[84] Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu, “Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese Race,” 1915.

[85] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[86] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[87] Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu, “Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese Race,” 1915.

[88] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[89] Hakluyt.  Davis 1924:  275.

[90] Davis 1924:  275.

[91] Davis 1924:  275-276.

[92] HHA 1520.

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