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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


(f) : [anthropology] female; a determinant in a kinship dimension.  Cf. (e), kin type, (y).  Opp. (m).

(F) : [IGI] female.

f- : [anthropology] a prefix that denotes a female speaker of a kinship term.  For example, fMoBr meaning the kinship term a female uses to name her mother’s brother.  Opp. m-.

F : [anthropology] Fa; father.  Cf. kin types.

F : V : [Ogham Q-Celtic] forann.[1]

F# : [IGI] film number, often subdivided by a page number (P#).  Cf. Ba, batch number.

f. : F. : filius : son.

f. : father; folio; feast; feet; feminine.

f. : filia : daughter.

F.A.S.G. : Fellow, American Society of Genealogists.

f.e. : for example.  Cf. e.g.

F.F.V. : First Families of Virginia.

f.i. : for instance.  Cf. e.g.

F.I.A.G. : Fellow, Institute of American Genealogy.  This organization was formed by Virkus, who produced some extremely detailed genealogical compendia around 1900, but is now defunct.

F.R.S.A. : Fellow, Royal Society of Arts.

F.S.A. : Fellow, Society of Antiquaries.

F.S.G. : Fellow, Society of Genealogists.  These postnominal initials refer to a British organization.

Fa : [anthropology] father.

fawkener : [1537/9/3] falconer.

fa- : fat- : to speak.

faber : artisan, workman; smith, carpenter.

fabricator : artificer, contriver; farmer.

fac- : fic- : fact- : fect- : to do, make.

face-to-face : tête-à-tête, both parties present; nakedly, without intermediaries.

facio : to do it.

facsimile : an exact copy of something; a photoduplicate of a book.

fact : [1539] something done; something that has actual existence; an actual event or occurrence.

fact- : fac- : fic- : fect- : to do, make.

fact : factum : something done, an effect produced; reality, action, deed; not supposition.

fact certain : res certus : an irrefutable fact; a fact that cannot be rebutted or disproved.  In historiography and genealogy, a fact certain cannot always be equated with absolute truth.  When an investigation reaches into remote ancestry, remote antiquity, legend, mythology, or theology, a writer naturally looses his foundation upon objective evidence, and needs to depend entirely upon facts received, rather than facts proved.  A writer must often accept facts as certainties, in order to draft his narrative.  For example, a non-fiction writer must accept as fact certain the doctrine that Juppiter was the genitor of Minerva, and that the Virgin Mary was the genitrix of Jesus the Christ, regardless of absolute truth, and regardless of any contradictory evidence that might exist.  A fact certain serves the purpose of a premise, theorem, or point of departure.  A writer must depend upon the fact certain to gain an initial foothold for his narrative.  In the first draft of any piece of non-fiction, practically every statement will express a fact certain.  The writer’s job is to continually question and test the veracity of his data.  As his revisions and recensions continue, he weighs each fact certain against alternative facts, and then determines which facts should be elevated in importance, and which facts should be demoted to some lower degree of certainty.  Cf. four degrees of certitude.

fact uncertain : res incertus : a fact received or reported, but somehow refuted or refutable, by contradictions emergent or emerging, or by interpretations and conclusions based upon related data.  If a genealogist collects five or six different dates for the same event, he should feel obliged to report each date, and cite each source.  By judging the reliability of each source, he will progress toward making his determination as to which dates remain facts uncertain, and which specific date he will accept as a fact certain.  Cf. four degrees of certitude.  Opp. fact certain.

factor : an agent for another, one who transacts business for another.

factotum : fac totum : a servant employed in all sorts of businesses.

factum : intercourse.

factus : he was made.

factus episcopus : he was made bishop.

factus est : he was made, he became.

faddere : [Dn] witnesses.

fader : [Dn, Sw] Fa; father.

fag : a short form of faggot.  Cf. faggot.

fag : a slang term for cigarette, suggesting the firestick fagus.

fag : a slave, someone who works hard.

fag hag : a heterosexual woman who enjoys the company of gay men.

fagging : the hazing, punishment, and sexual abuse of junior schoolboys, typically by the use of the ferule.  The tradition is said to have been imported to England by the Romans.

faggot : a slang expression for a gay man.  The name is believed to have derived from the fagus or beech tree, a branch of which pagan wizards used for a ceremonial or sacred firestick.  The name has also been associated with the divining rod, and the fasces.  Opp. dyke, fasces.

faggot : firestick; the beech-wood firestick; a diminutive of fagus ‘beech tree.’  The faggot was the sacred male firestick with sexual powers, which shamans used to make fire by friction, and to perform divination by rods.[2]  Cf. divination by rods, fagus, need-fyr.

fagot : fagod : [We] a bundle of sticks bound together for a fire; a soldier listed on a muster roll but not actually existing.

fagotts : fagots, valued at 3s 6d in 1519.[3]

fagus : beech tree, a wood sacred to male shamans, sorcerers, wizards, and magical kings.  Fagus was the tree associated with Joan of Arc.  Cf. faggot, thyrsus.

fairies : the brownies, or the dark-skinned, indigenous people of the British Isles, who lived there prior to the immigration of Celts.[4]  Their primary color was green, but they were weavers, and made colorful cloth of all colors, including yellow, blue, black, and red.[5]  Cf. rainbow.

fairy : faerie : [Fr] elf, fay, enchantress; a brown-skinned native of the British Isles or western Europe, inclined to animism and naturalism.  The name fairy came to denote a fabulous, tiny person, who lives in another dimension, and occasionally visits our earthly plane to work magic.  A fairy is supposed to be a fabulous being that appears in meadows, and a spirit that rewards good housekeeping.  Today, the name is often used as pejorative slang for an effeminate homosexual.  Cf. fairy circle.

fairy arts : weaving, basketry, herbology, and magic.[6]

fairy circle : a circular depression in a field or forest glade, where fairies are presumed to have performed a dance.  Cf. fairy.

fairy dance : the round dance.  Opp. line dance.

fait accompli : a fact or deed accomplished, pre­sumably irre­versibly.

falcon : faulcon : [Fr] a hawk trained for sport.

falconer : fawkener : [1537/9/3]  one who abducts hawks for the purpose of taming and training them to act as agents for hunting.  Sir Thomas le Strange rewarded the king’s falconer 3s 4d on 1537/9/3.  Cf. cormorant fishing.

falconry : the captivity, taming, and training of hawks for use in hawking.  Cf. hawks.

fall- : fals- : to deceive.

fall equinox : autumnal equinox.  Cf. equinox.

fall in love : Cf. herasthesan.

fallacia : deceit, trick, fraud, a ground for divorce.

falleció : [Sp] died.

fals- : fall- : to deceive.

false : falsus : not physically true, unreal; morally untrue; expressing something contrary to thought; conceiving something that does not exist; supposititious, succedaneous; dishonest, unjust; treacherous, traitorous, perfidious; counterfeit, hypocritical.

false measles : rose rash.

false orlop : [1600 En] the fourth and lowest, partial deck of a large ship.  Cf. deck, orlop.

falsus : false, wrong, a record showing a date or place somehow inconsistent with the event.  A false date might signify the confusion of a birthdate for a christening, or a corruption of any sort or magnitude.  Cf. perversus.

fam. : family, families.

fam. de n. belge : famille de nom belge : [Fr] family with a Belgian surname.[7]

fam. n. : nom de famille : [Fr] surname.[8]

fam. non n. : [Fr] an abbreviation, meaning unknown.[9]  Cf. nomen nescio ‘family not known.’

familia : slaves of a household; [OE law] body of house­hold servants; household.

familia defuncta : extinct or bankrupt household.

familiar : familiaris : domestic, relating to a family.

familiaritas : familiarity, intimacy, confidential friendship, friendly relations.

families : natal family, family of orientation, familiy of procreation.

family : [1947 AmEn, new meaning] Pa & Ch; domus, nuclear family, elementary family; conjugal family.  Cf. family-at-large, nuclear family, stem family.

family : [OE law] body of house­hold servants; household.

family : [taxonomy] a fifth class of living beings, among at least seven orders of classification; a class more specific than order, but less specific than genus.  If the taxonomy requires additional subclasses between order and family, such might be called superfamily, or stirps.  Cf. classification, taxonomy.

family : deulu [We].

family size : Cf. household size.

family : familia : [ad 300, original meaning] family-at-large; a collection of persons inhabiting the same domicile or neighborhood who are closely connected through communal living, or affined and blood relationships.  A family comprises all the slaves, wives, and lineal descendants of a domestic household headed by one master, or all members of a household dependent on its head the pater familias, who exercises exclusive and supreme, paternal power, or patria potestas, over his dependents.  All persons in a family subject to the control of one man, whether they are rela­tions, freedmen, or slaves, happen to constitute a family.  Cf. compound family, domus, elementary family, extended family, family of orientation, family of procreation, fraternal joint family, household, nuclear family.  Opp. nation-state, society.

family association : [Ch] Tsu Tang, literally Hall of Forefathers, or Hall of Ancestor Veneration.  Chinese clans tend to be quite large, and each family association will normally maintain an independent hall that it uses to conduct family business, and to host large events.  In Chinatown, San Francisco, most of the family associations have established their Tsu Tang on the upper floors of commercial buildings.  At the center of a family association is its nominal head, who must be a member of the oldest generation, and who serves for life.  The secondary head is usually the oldest son of the senior lineage.  The Tsu Tang holds an event called the ‘Lodge of Sorrow’ three times each year, when the family association performs rituals of ancestor veneration.  Additionally, the family association holds judicial courts to settle disputes between its members, and also acts as a benevolent association for its members.  An association is also likely to act as a real-estate coöperative for owning properties and charging rents.  Cf. Chia Pu.

family bed : [1996] a communal bed shared by a couple and their youngest children.  From ancient times, it was always customary for a wedded couple to sleep with their young in the same bed, and this practice continues among the Chinese, Koreans, Japanese, Eskimos, and other ethnic groups.  A young child would customarily bed with its parents for a long period of perhaps 8 to 10 years, but Anglo-Americans seem to have abandoned the practice during the rise of Protestantism and Puritanism.  The concept has only recently been reïntroduced in America as a remedy for infantile discontent, nightmares, and other problems associated with making children sleep alone.  Cf. bundling, crib, trundling.

family estates : hereditates vestri generis,[10] vested hereditaments kept in the family.

family group : a redundant expression for the family-at-large, or familia; a modern and conventional expression signifying the nuclear family or domus, augmented by additional groups of persons either unrelated, or of the half blood.  This nomenclature was apparently devised by someone who presumed incorrectly that families proper must restrict themselves to kinship and affinity.  The saying implies that an affined couple and their offspring constitute a family, whereas persons unrelated by blood, such as adoptive children or stepchildren, constitute a larger or ancillary group outside the family proper.  In reality, the opposite holds true:  the family is properly the larger entity, and the groups are smaller collections within the family, such as sibships, stepchildren, adoptees, foster children, servants, and slaves.

family group sheet : a descending pedigree showing only two generations; a document showing the dependents of one married couple, and especially purporting to show the natal offspring of the couple.  Printed forms describe only one nuclear family or domus, so they often require amendment to show stepchildren, fosterchildren, and others.  The forms normally have a space for noting the names of other spouses, so that the genealogist may provide a cross reference to another sheet that continues describing the family-at-large.

family history : an ascensus of ancestors; a study of direct ancestral lines that commences with a single proband, and proceeds to describe retrogressively all of the lineal antecedents of that proband, continually branching along both paternal and maternal lines of ascent.  The large fan-chart typically used for tracing family history is called a genealogical table, or Ahnentafel [Gm].  This ascending exercise is contradistinctive to genealogy, wherein the researcher traces descending lines of males.  Although they involve contrastive descending and ascending studies, genealogy and family history are intimately intertwined and interconnected, so the two practices are sometimes mixed together, and two terms are commonly regarded as synonymous.  Women are especially attracted to family history, and often produce composite genealogies entailing long lists of surnames representing all of their branching lines of ascent.  Men tend to prefer a restrictive and progressive view of history, and therefore incline toward genealogy rather than family history.  Cf. Ahnentafel, genealogy, pedigree.

family of orientation : the family into which the ego or proband is born, consisting of his natal parents and siblings (Fa, Mo, Sb, Ego).[11]  Opp. family of procreation.

family of procreation : the family one creates through marriage; the family newly formed by the ego or proband, including his spouse or spouses and children (Ego, Sp, Ch).[12]  Opp. family of orientation.

Family Table Book : Chia Pu [Ch]; the name registry of a Chinese family.[13]  Cf. Chia Pu.

family values : [1980] a popular, political oxymoron frequently and ostensibly used in derogatory slogans devised by fundamentalist rhetoricians, to suggest and insinuate that non-Christian mores are worthless.  The expression was devised to extol the virtues of religious life within a tightly controlled nuclear family.  As a synonym for moral rectitude, values may well be a recent idiom, but in the context of family history, the word has no etymology whatsoever, and elicits comparison to business or merchandizing, rather than familial sentiments.  This juxtaposition of words happens to be contradictory, ironic, and nonsensical, because the word values imples price, whereas a family built upon love is truly priceless.  One may place a value or price only upon a famulating member of one’s household, namely one’s servant or slave.  Thus, the phrase family values serves as a rubric or code that denotes patriar­chal, Anglo-Saxon, and Protestant govern­ance, or patrism.  The use of this expression by politicians and fundamentalist Christians is largely insidi­ous, being in essence a xenophobic, gynecophobic, and ho­mophobic expression of cultural and religious propa­ganda.

family-name poem : [Ch] a formulaic Chinese poem used by a family to establish the order of its generation names, or pai-ming.  Chinese poems are often written in lines of five characters each, and the last character in each decade of characters usually rhymes, so a family-name poem will ordinarily exhibit rhymes in its tenth, twentieth, and thirtieth characters.  Each successive generation uniformly adopts one of the poem characters as a common middle name, or pai-ming, and therefore all the persons sharing the same surname and the same pai-ming will stand in the same generation.  Thus, a Chinese person able to recite his family-name poem will usually be able to discern to which generation a remote relative happens to belong.  English-speaking Chinese people will often categorize relatives as being ‘cousins’ or ‘uncles’ strictly on the basis of generation names, without ever knowing their specific, connecting lineages.  Family-name poems tend to be simple, and easy to recite and remember, and they are usually limited to twenty or thirty characters, representing twenty or thirty generations.[14]  Cf. pai-ming.

famula : female slave, maid servant.

famulate : to serve.

famulus : household slave; attendant, domestic servant; a slave who cannot free himself.  Cf. servus.

fanciullo : [It] Ch; child.

far : [Nw] Fa; father.

far : fader : [Dn] Fa; father.

Fardell : burthen, burden.[15]

far out : [Ir] distant, remote; an Irish colloquialism used to characterize a distant branch.  When the Irish wish to distinguish one lineal branch from another sharing the same surname or patronym, they speak of the remote branch as being “too far out” to be considered friends or exogamous kindred.[16]  Cf. friends, people.

farbroder : [Dn] FaBr; paternal uncle, father’s brother.

farbror : [Sw] FaBr; paternal uncle, father’s brother.

farfar : [Dn, Nw, Sw] FaFa; paternal grandfather, father’s father.

farfars far : [Sw] FaFaFa; paternal great-grandfather, father’s grandfather.

farfars mor : [Sw] FaPaMo; paternal great-grandmother, father’s grandmother.

farm animals : domestic animals raised by husbandmen, mainly the four categories of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, quæ vide.

farmor : [Dn, Nw, Sw] FaMo; paternal grandmother, father’s mother.

farmors far : [Sw] FaFaFa, paternal great-grandfather

farmors far : [Sw] FaMoFaFa; father’s maternal grandfather.

farmors mor : [Sw] FaMoMo; paternal great-grandmother, father’s maternal grandmother.

fars farbror : [Sw] FaFaBr; paternal granduncle, father’s paternal uncle.

fars faster : [Sw] FaFaSi; paternal grandaunt, father’s paternal aunt.

fars morbror : [Sw] BaMoBr; paternal granduncle, father’s maternal uncle.

fars moster : [Sw] FaMoSi; paternal grandaunt, father’s maternal aunt.

farsøster : [Dn] FaSi; paternal aunt, father’s sister.

fas incognitum : fate unknown.

fasces : a bundle of rods carried before the Roman consuls as a mark of their authority; a bundle of sticks representing collective male power.  Cf. divination by rods, faggot, fesse.

fascinum : a phallus-shaped amulet worn around one’s neck to ward off the evil eye; dildo.

fascism : a form of twentieth-century dictatorship based upon rabid racism and military brutality.

FaSiDa marriage : father’s sister’s daughter marriage.

FaSiSo marriage : paternal cross-cousin marriage.[17]  Cf. cóngfă.

Faste : Holle.

faster : [Dn, Sw] FaSi; paternal aunt, father’s sister.

fat- : fa- : to speak.

Fate : a prophetess. Cf. sibyl, Sybil, Themis.

fate : destination, destiny.  Cf. destination, predestination.

Fates : Parcae [Lt] : Moerae [Gk] : spinners of the thread of life.  The Fates purportedly invented the first seven letters, namely A.B.H.I.O.T.V.

Fates : the goddesses who invented the seven letters Alpha, Omicron, Upsilon, Eta, Iota, Beta, and Tau (Α.Ο.Υ.Η.Ι.Β.Τ. : A.B.H.I.O.T.V.).  Some sources report only six letters, by omitting Omicron.  Hyginus transmitted this tale to us, but he also said that Mercury apperceived these letters by watching flights of cranes as they formed the letters in they sky.[18]

father : pater [Lt] : [Sx] Fa; genitor, he who has begotten a son or daughter; one’s nearest male ancestor; any male ancestor; the first ancestor; an appellation for an old man; a term of endearment for an older male friend; the title of a popish confessor.

father’s brother : [Ir] uncle; a descriptive kin term, which the Irish prefer to use, instead of the classificatory terms of English, such as uncle.

father’s sister’s daughter marriage : FZD marriage, FaSiDa marriage; FaSiDa=Wi; patrilateral cross-cousin marriage.[19]  Cf. MBD marriage, matrilateral cross-cousin marriage.

fatherhood : the character or authority of a father.  According to Margaret Meade and many anthropologists, fatherhood is a learned behavior, and results from childhood rearing based upon largely invented gender rôles.  We know that fatherhood cannot be an instinct or genetic proclivity, because different societies of primates have radically different notions of fatherhood, and variable standards for gender behavior.  Immigrants and natives alike have demonstrated the ability to adopt or change gender behaviors.  Sometimes a society will collectively change its gender doctrines within the span of a single generation.  For example, Americans expected fathers to act as sole providers, and to display stoic, unperturbed demeanors, in the 1950s, but this gender difference gradually evaporated.  By the 1990s, it was commonplace for both sexes to seek employment, and Americans began to accept male expressions of emotion and sentiment as laudable and exemplary acts, rather than shameful acts.  Political and religious incitements can also change the rôle of a father:  a peaceable husbandman can transform himself into a murderous warrior on very short notice.

father-i-l : father-in-law.

father-in-law : father-i-l : SpFa, HuFa, WiFa; socer, the father of one’s husband or wife.

father-in-law and guardian : [1698] MoHu(2); stepfather.  John Thedam was termed father-in-law and guardian of Phyllis Chandler, and was the second husband of Phyllis’ mother the widow Ann Chandler née ——.[20]

fatherless : wanting a father; destitute of a father.

fatherless son of a virgin : a son of unknown paternity; a son miraculously born of the uterus.  Stories of chaste birth and undefiled origination may be characterized as either spiritogenesis, or parthenogenesis, or even simple adoption.  This distinction of virgin birth has often been held to be a mark of divinity, and it has two archetypal varieties, namely (1) immaculate conception, and (2) parthenogenesis.  Immaculate conception connotes some divine seeding of the mother, as through the agency of the Holy Ghost, or spiritogenesis, and bears similarity to our modern notions of remote paternity, or artificial insemination.  Parthenogenesis implies a spontaneous and truly fatherless incarnation of a divine mother.  The name Moses has been interpreted as an Egyptian word meaning ‘unfathered son of a princess,’ and this surely would have been the public perception of Moses in Egypt, given the story of his adoption.[21]  Virginal births have likewise been assigned to Taliesin, Merlin, Llew Llaw, and Eleusis.  Cf. parthenogenesis, spiritogenesis.

fatherliness : paternal kindness; the tenderness of a father.

father-outlaw : the father of one’s same-sex lover.  Cf. inlaw, outlaw.  Opp. father-in-law.

fathers : different fathers.  Cf. fraternal twin daughters by different fathers.

father-son incest : Fa=Ph & So=Er.  Cf. incest.

fätter : [Dn] male cousin.

faunet : a childish or adolescent boy who manifests an innate sexual attractiveness; the male correlative of nymphet.  Cf. nymphet.

fathom : fadam : [1519/11/20-26] a measure of 6 feet in length, used especially for sounding the depth of water; the span created when a man extends both of this arms.

fadam : fathom.

favorite : Cc, Er; minon, a young protégé or boyfriend closely attached to a nobleman or king.  Edward II was famous for surrounding himself with favorites.

FBD marriage : FaBrDa marriage; patrilateral parallel cousin marriage.  Cf. FZD marriage, patrilateral cross-cousin marriage.

feal and leal : faithful and loyal.

fealty : fidelity; allegiance to the feudal lord of the manor.

fealty : personal fidelity, which might acknowledged by an individual, but which needs no formalization as a publicly sworn vow.  The private duties and obligations of fealty can be just as compelling as those incurred through publicly swearing public allegiance.  Patriotism is a type of fealty, for it is one’s personal or spontaneous expression of fidelity, and requires no oath or affirmation.  Cf. allegiance, fidelity, loyalty, devotion, piety.

feast : festum : an anniversary day of rejoicing; an entertainment of the table.

feast day : a holy day reserved for some solemn commemoration of a saint, or some particular historical or mythological event.  Christians developed a series of immovable feasts, such as Christmas, that generally correspond to specific calendar dates.  Additionally, Christians invented a series of moveable feasts based on lunations, that commence with Easter and mostly occur on Sundays.  Ash Wednesday, Maundy Thursday, and Good Friday are examples of moveable feasts that fall on other days of the week.  Certain immovable feasts have been reassigned, so they now fall on calendar dates that are different from their dates of celebration in the past.  A small number of immovable feasts are observed on alternative days in leap years.

feast days : sabbats, the quarterly sacred days celebrated by pagans.  Cf. Candlemas Day, 2 February; Eve of May, 30 April; Lammas, 1 August; Even of November, All Hallow E’en, 31 October.

feasts of the dead : Parentalia, 13-21 February; Lemuria, on 9, 11, and 13 May; Rosalia, May-June.

feathers : [1592] A plume of feathers was purchased for 10s around 1592.[22]

Feb. : Febrero : [Sp suspension] February.

febris : fever.

febris nervosa : strong fever, febrile seizures.

Febro: Febrero : [Sp contraction] February.

February : /2/ : [ad 8] a month of 28 days in common years, but 29 days in leap years; the second month of the Gregorian Calendar, the second month of the Scottish NS Julian Calendar, but the twelfth month of the English OS Julian Calendar; Febrero [Sp].  Cf. January, March.

February : 23 February, sexto-kalendæ, the day after which the Romans inserted an extra leap day or bissexto-kalendæ every leap year.  Cf. bissexto-kalendæ, sexto-kalendæ.

fec. : fecit, he made.

fecerunt : ff. : they did it.

feces : fæces : excrement.  Cf. coprophilia.

fect- : fac- : fic- : fact- : to do, make.

fecunda : pregnant.

Federal Food Assistance Programs : a variety of U.S. government programs designed to provide food to the poor.  These programs supply applicants with food stamps for the purchase of food, free or subsidized breakfasts and lunches at public schools, and other benefits.  The composite cost of these programs was $33 billion in 1994, about the same amount spent on the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

fee : [1066] gersuma, a fee granted for life tenure only; the same as a feu­dal benefice on the Continent.  Lords refused to regrant such a fee on any terms to a de­ceased tenant’s heir.

fee : [1100] a term that connotes inheritability, i.e. the maximum legal ownership a person could en­joy.[23]  In the Charter of Henry I, a fee was defined as heritable tenancy on parcel of real estate; an estate in land that descends to the holder’s heir; a conditional possession or occupation of land, not ownership; all the lands and tenements one holds by acknowledging the superiority of a higher lord.  It was customary for sovereigns and lords to grant fees to individuals and their heirs in return for specified services.  The two basic categories of a fee were the fee simple and fee tail, which defined different rules for inheritance.  Cf. fee simple, fee tail, knight’s fee.

fee : [1700] reward, gratification, recompense; a reward paid to a physician or lawyer.

fee in tail : taille.

fee simple : a fee without restrictions; a fee that may descend, and sometimes ascend, to an heir of any class, such as an heir male or heir general; a fee with no limitations on alienation.  Such a fee might pass to the grantee’s heirs of the body, or might revert in an ascending fashion to the grantee’s surviving father or uncle, or might pass to a cousin.

fee tail : a fee with restrictions; an estate of fee or estate of inheritance limited to the grantee’s lineal descendants, called heirs of the body.  If no such heirs exist, the fee normally esceats to the crown.

fee-farm : tenure by which one holds lands from a superior lord.

feet of fines : the plural form for foot of the fine; Feet of Fines, a collection of final concords in the royal archives.

feign : feigner : [Fr] to invent, make show of; to do something under false pretences.

fellare : [metaphor] to eat the genitalia.  Cf. cunnum lingere.

fellation : fellatio : thēlázein [Gk], sucking of the penis; the practice of stimulating the partner’s phallus with one’s lips and tongue.

fellator : irrumatus.

felling winnows : fellinge of whiñes; cutting reeds and stalks to make winnows for separating chaff from grain, in the making of ale.  Cf. winnow.

fello : to engage in fellatio.  The verb disappeared from Romance languages.  Cf. sugere.

fellow : [Sx] companion, associate, one with whom one consorts; equal, peer.

fellowship : companionship, consort, society; association, confederacy; equality, partnership, joint interest; company, frequency of intercourse.

felon : one who has committed a capital offense.

felony : felonie : [Fr] an enormous crime, a capital offense.

fem. : feminea : female.

female : feminea [Lt] : femelle [Fr] : one of the sex that produces young; not male, not masculine.

female American citizen : [1921] a woman newly made a full citizen by the passage of Universal Suffrage in 1920, who realized her power in the year 1921.  It was from 1921 that immigrating women were commonly permitted to file Declarations of Intent and Naturalization Applications.  Prior to female suffrage, immigrating women could not apply for naturalization unless they happened to own land in their own right.[24]

female chiefs : There were female chiefs in the tribes Creek, Narraganset, Potawatami, and Winnebago.

female circumcision : Cf. circumcision.

female-bonded society :  a society in which the females bond more closely than the males.  Cf. bonobo.

femina : female, woman.

feminoid : an effeminate male.

femme : [Fr] wife, woman.

femme : [Fr] woman; one who suckles, one who gives suck.[25]  The word is used to characterize a person having notably feminine features and mannerisms.  It is typically used as a contrastive term for a polarized pair of lesbians, called the butch and femme, and is likewise applied sometimes to a pair of male lovers.  Cf. butch.

femme : the female counterpart in a same-sex relationship; the passive partner in a gay relationship who assumes the feminine rôle and prefers to be buggered.  Cf. veuve.  Opp. butch.

femmina : [It] woman.

fence : to fight an opponent with a rapier; to defend oneself according to the rules of fencing.

fencing : the art of fencing.

fencing match : the engagement of two opponents in a contest of rapier skills.  The superior opponent is called the lieutenant, and to equalize the fight, he will normally grant a handicap to his inferior, the provost.  When Laertes fights Hamlet, he grants him a handicap of plus three in twelve hits, wagering that he will hit Hamlet twelve times in exchange for nine hits to be scored by Hamlet.[26]

fencingmaster : one who teaches the art of defense; an instructor in the use of weapons.

feod : [Sx] feud.

feod : feodum : [Lt] fee, tenure.

feoda militum : knights’ fees.

feodal : belonging to a feod or tenure, held of another.

feodary : an officer who assists an escheator.

Feodary of 1316 : a compilation of escheat records made in 1316.[27]

feoff : feoffer : [Fr] to put in possession, invest with right.

feoff : fief.

feoffment : the act of granting possession.[28] Cf. re-enfeoffment.[29]

fer- : to bear, carry.

ferch : verch : [We] the female patronymic prefix corresponding to the male prefix ap, and surely derived from merch ‘girl.’  Cf. girl, daughter, mab, merch, nic.

fere : nearly, almost, about; in general.

ferm : farm, a tract of land leased for cultivation.

Fermanh. : County Fermanagh, Ireland.

fermor : farmer.[30]

Feronia : the great nature goddess, who presided over the manumission of slaves.

ferrarius : ironmonger.

ferret : [1400 bc] a domesticated animal since its introduction in Egypt about 1400 bc.

ferri- : iron.

ferro- : iron.

fertile : fertilis : fruitful, abundant.

fertilization : [1787] impregnation, insemination, pollination, fecundation; the union of two germ cells which commences with the restoration of the somatic chromosome number and the inception of a new individual; the masculine aspect in the second period of prenatal change.  Cf. individuation.  Opp. ovulation.

Ferula : the homosexual god of the fire-stick.  The Ferula was the male fire-stick with which Prometheus carried fire from the sun, with the help of Athena.[31]  The Ferula plant is called the fennel plant or finnochio [It], and it is used in Italy as pejorative slang for a faggot, or effeminate homosexual man.  Cf. finocchio.  Opp. Arani.

ferule : rod for punishment.  Cf. fagging, faggot.

Ferulega : Hereford.

ferv- : to boil, bubble.

Fesaunt Cocke : [1519/10/18] pheasant cock.

fesse : fascia : band, girdle; the middle third of an escutcheon.

festival : festivus : a joyous occasion for feasting, a civil or religious anniversary day.

fetal development : Cf. individuation.

fetichistical orientation : the fixation upon some fetish or some particular sexual act.  Many psychologists have theorized that initial sexual experiences may quickly lead to fixation upon certain physical types of partners, and upon certain fetishes.  This theory holds that an adolescent tends to acquire such a strong attachment to his sexual gratifications that he becomes disinclined to seek alternative experiences that might be divergent or different from his past experiences.

fetish : fetich : fétiche : [Fr] an object or body part necessary for sexual gratification; an object of fixation that may interfere with a person’s complete sexual expression; an object believed to have magical power.

fetter : [Nw] male cousin.

fetus : [1400] an unborn or unhatched vertebrate; the phase fetal development that follows embryonic development, and which usually occurs at three months after conception to birth; the inceptive period from birth minus 7/12 years, to birth minus 1/12 years.

fetus : fœtus : any animal in embryo; anything still living in the womb.

feuar : [Sc] lease holder.

feud : [Sx] quarrel, war, opposition, contention; a violent dispute between two families.  After the death of Ralph Neville, 1st Earl of Westmorland, in 1425, the progeny of his first wife Margaret Stafford had to defend their birthright against the competing claims of his second wife Joan Ferrers née Joan de Beaufort, and her fourteen children by Ralph.  Joan was initially the bastard daughter of John of Gaunt, but she and her siblings were legitimized by parliament, and she led a fierce campaign against her Neville stepchildren.  Her brother Henry VI summoned various parties who had engaged one another “by manere of were and insurreccon,” and he ordered the two half-blood sibships to stop the great routs and field campaigns, and “other grete and horrible offenses aswele in slaught and distruccon of oure peuple.”[32]

feud : feude : [Fr] a conditional allotment of land; a parcel of land held in fee; a barony or knight’s fee for which certain services were due from feoffee to feoffor.  Cf. feod.

feudal : feudalis : pertaining to the fees, feus, or tenures by which lands are held of a superior lord.

feudal lordship : [1300] a base lordship of ancient origin, regarded as lower in status than a parliamentary lordship; a baronage in England that might have been created by Letters Patent, but existed prior to the creation of parliamentary lordships.

feudal seignory : having rights over laymen, a position com­parable to an advowson.  Cf. protectors.

feudalism : the feudal system; a political system of military alliances in medieval Europe, based mainly upon the relationship between between a lord and his vassal.  Vassals did not own their land, and could only enjoy conditional possession.  A vassel held his land of a lord, in feud, fief, or fee.  Cf. baron, fee.

feudality : feodality, the state of a chief lord.

feudary : holding tenure under a superior lord.

feudatary : one who holds land by some conditional tenure from a superior lord; one who holds land but not in chief.

ff : the double F, an orthographic variation equivalent to a capital F.  This peculiar shape first appeared in Old English texts, but its use long endured, such that it may sometimes be seen in colonial records.

ff. : fecerunt; following.

ff. : folios; the following items.  Cf. AA., cc., pp.

FF. : fratres : Br; brothers.

Fi : Finnish.

fiancée : [Fr] engaged, espoused, betrothed.

fibula : brooch.

fic- : fac- : fact- : fect- : to do, make.

-fic : making.

fica : fig.

fictitious : fictitius : counterfeit, false, not genuine; feigned, imaginary; not true, not real; allegorical.

fictitious name : alias; a counterfeit, pretended, or feigned name adopted by a person.  This expression can imply that the alternative name has been used to mislead or deceive others.  The phrase can also denote a completely legal and registered fictitious business name.  Cf. d.b.a.

fictive : imaginary, feigned.

fictive : pertaining to someone invented or imagined.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

fictive family : adoptive or ritual kinship; a supposititious family correlative to affinity and filiation.  Cf. kindred family, kinship.

fictive kin : pseudo-kin.

fictive kinship : adoption, fostering.  Cf. pseudo-kinship.

fictus : apparent.  The term fictus may also denote something fictive, or presumptive.  Cf. falsus, perversus.

fid- : faith.

-fid : split.

fid. : fiduciary.

fidel- : faithful.

fidelity : allegiance, fealty, loyalty, devotion, piety; faithfulness to something to which one has bound himself by duty or pledge.  Cf. pietal.

fidelity : continual and strict faithfulness to a trust, duty, or obligation.

fidiculae : the rack cords used on the equuleus to dislocate the joints of a victim.  Cf. equuleus, rack.

fiduciary : fid. : a person appointed to administer some business or property for another.

fief : [Fr] fee, feud, a feudal estate; manor, a possession held of a superior by some tenure.

fieri feci : I have caused to be made; I have done it.  This is the Latin equivalent of ‘satisfied’ which a sheriff writes upon a fieri facias, or Writ of Execution, to indorse it.

fieri facias : [Lt] you cause it to be done.  This is a Writ of Execution, ordering a sheriff to levy or collect the amount of a judgement from the chattels and personal property of the judgement debtor.

fifth son : Cf. differences.

figlia : [It] Da; daughter.

figlio : [It] So; son.

f-i-l : SpFa; father-in-law.

file as: : [MS] alias; the Microsoft tag for an alias, some simple name and sometimes inverted name, used for filing.

filia : Da; daughter.

filia et semiheres Domini Johannis Tregor : daughter and coheir of Lord John Tregor.[33]

filia familias : Da; minor daughter.

filia fratris : BrDa; fraternal niece, brother’s daughter.

filia hospitalis : Da; guest daughter, adoptive daugh­ter.

filia naturalis : Da; natural, illegitimate daughter.

filia novercæ : MoDa; stepsister on the mother’s side.

filia privigna : WiDa; stepdaughter; literally, a transplanted seedling.

filia relicta : posthumous daughter.

filia sororis : SoDa; sororal niece, sister’s daughter.

filia subditiva : supposed daughter.

filia vitrici : stepsister on the father’s side.

filiæ et heredes Roberti : daughters and heirs of Robert.  E.g. Elisabeth ac Annora filiæ et here­des Roberti.

filial : [proposed] Da; descending from one’s daughter.  Cf. kin types.  Opp. petaloid, pietal.

filial : [traditional] befitting a son or daughter; having or assuming the relation of an obedient child or offspring.  Cf. filius, pietal, piety.

filial : filius : bearing the character or relation of a son; pertaining to a son; befitting a son.  Cf. pietal.

filial widow inheritance : the norm that permits a surviving son to inherit his father’s widows, except his own mother, and to take them as his own wives.  This practice is extremely rare, even in the polygynous tribes that allow it.

filiam in matrimonium conlocare : to give one’s daughter in marriage.

filiam in matrimonium dare : to give one’s daughter in matrimony.

filiam nuptum dare : to give one’s daughter nuptials.

filiation : [En] Fa >So; the ascending correlative to paternity, the relation of a son to his father.

filiation : [En] Pa >Ch; the biological relationship between a parent and child which leads to the child’s membership in either his father’s family or his mother’s, and sometimes both.  Kinship ties of filiation may be weakened or severed by the death of a parent, abduction, abandonment, exile, foster­age, or oblation, and sometime by the free will of the child.[34]  Cf. affiliation, patrifiliation, matrifiliation.

filiation: [En] the English term that is often restricted in meaning to signify a single step in a line of descent, or two-generation link between child and parent, son and father, or daughter and mother.  A series of filiations, either ascending filiations going backwards, or descending filiations going forwards, are called descent.  Cf. complementary filiation, descent, filiation [Fr], lineally stressed filiation.

filiation : [Fr] the French term that denotes both filiation and descent.  Cf. descent, filiation [En].

filiations : differences, cadencies.  Cf. differences.

filii : free or slave children.[35]

filii ergo Ruben primogeniti Israhel Enoch et Phallu Esrom et Charmi : The sons, I say, of Reuben the firstborn of Israel were, Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi.[36]

filii et filiæ de diversis parentibus : stepchildren.

filii famuli : slaves.

filii ingenui : freeborn sons.

filiola : little daughter; the diminutive of filia.

filiolus : little son; the diminutive of filius.

Filipino kinship terms : terms that comprise an odd admixture of elements that reflect the Spanish, American, and Japanese occupations, and Chinese immigration.  The organization has matristic features, and uses prefixed terms of respect for older males (kuya) and older females (ate).  The Filipinos collateralize younger generations, but class the older generations together, without noting any degrees of ascent.  Thus, the Filipinos have closer limits of kinship, and generally do not use the prefixes great- or grand- in terms, such as lelo for abuelo [Sp], or lela for abuela.  Cf. American kinship terms, lela (abuela), lelo (abuelo), ate, kuya.

filius : son, son of.  Cf. genus, liber.

filius adoptivus : adopted child.[37]

filius emancipatus : freed son.

filius expositus : findling, foundling.  Cf. filius inventus.

filius familias : filius familiæ, minor son not yet fully an adult, ætas nondum adulta; a son subject to pa­tria potestas and therefore unable to either own property or draft a will.

filius fortunæ : child of fortune.

filius fratris : BrSo; fraternal nephew, brother’s son.

filius ingenuus : So; freeborn son, ingenuous, not of servile extraction.

filius inventus : findling.  Cf. filius expositus.

filius naturalis : a son out of wedlock.

filius novercæ : MoSo≠Br; stepbrother on the mother’s side.

filius nullius : son of nobody, illegitimate son.

filius populi : son of the people, illegitimate son, bastard, a base son.[38]

filius privignus : stepson; literally, a transplanted seedling.

filius sororis : SiSo; sororal nephew, sister’s son.

filius subditivus : supposed son.

filius subditivus : supposed son.

filius terræ : bastard, son of the earth; a nobody, a man about whom nothing is known, illegitimate son.  Cf. terræ-filius.

filius vel filia proavunculis aut materteræ : MoPaSbCh; first cousin-german once removed, the son or daugh­ter of one’s maternal granduncle or grandaunt.

filius vel filia propatruis aut proamitæ : FaPaSbCh; first cousin once removed, the son or daughter of one’s paternal granduncle or grandaunt.

filius vitrici : FaSo; stepbrother on the father’s side.

fille : [Fr] Da; daughter, girl.

fils : [Fr] So; son.

fimus : ox or cow dung or manure; a polite equivalent to merda.  Cf. stercus.

fin- : end, limit.

fine : finis : foot of the fine, quod vide.

fingering : siphniázein.

finis duplex : double fine, entry fine.  It was customary at Hunstanton for a copyholder to pay an entry fine, which could be two or three times the annual rent, but which was commonly twice the rent, and therefore called finis duplex.[39]  Cf. copyhold.

Finnish : Fi : the language of Finland.  Finnish is an isolated tongue, incongruous with the languages of Finland’s neighbors.  Linguistic studies have demonstrated that it probably represents some prehistoric protolanguage that spread across Asia and Europe independently of Indo-European.  Its core vocabulary items and grammatical structures show us that Finnish has a surprising and extraordinary relationship to extremely remote languages, such as Turkish, Korean, and Japanese, so it probably represents some diffusive migration that preceded the imposition of the Indo-European protolanguage.  This explains why the Finnish kinship terms presented in this glossary happen to be so remarkably divergent from Swedish, Norwegian, and other languages.  Basque in northern Spain and Magyar in Hungary are unrelated to Finnish and unrelated to one another, but they are nonetheless examples of similarly isolated languages.  Genetic studies of the Basque people have been shown them to belong to a radically different stock than other residents of Europe, and such is probably the case with the Finnish.

finnochio : [It] fennel plant; a slang term for an effeminate male crossdresser.  When Prometheus stole fire from the sun, to give it as a gift to mankind, he used the roots of a fennel plant as coals to transport the flames.  The sun was originally identified as a woman, and therefore, the finnochio represented the spiritual transmission of female traits to a male willing to dress and perform as a female impersonator.[40]  Cf. faggot, fairy, Frig.

fino : [It] until.

Finocchio type : an ambisexual type; a male homosexual who inclines almost entirely to feminine rôles; a term derived from the name Finocchio, a club that featured female impersonators in San Francisco from the 1950s to the 1990s.[41]  Cf. Caesar type, Don Juan type, Dorian type, types.

fire : △ the ascending triangle : ♣ the suit called Clubs : + the sign for addition : l the symbol of decrease or immolation : é the Hebrew letter.

fire : the third of four elements, corresponding to bile, choleric humor.  Cf. faggot, need-fyr.

firearm : Cf. gun.

firestick : faggot.  Cf. divination by rods.

fire-stick god and goddess : Ferula [Lt], Arani [Sk].

firewood : wood to burn in a fireplace; fuel, fewel.[42]

firm- : firm, strong.

firma burgi : fee-farm of a borough

firma feodi : farm fee; the lease (farm) of a fee.

firmae feodales : beneficial grants of land on lease.

firmity : firmitas : strength, firmness.

firmo : [Sp] I sign.

first communion : [Ir] an important rite of passage for an Irish Catholic youth, when close kindred give the youth gifts.  Cf. confirmation.

first cousin : PaPaChCh; cousin-german.  First cousins-german are the children on only one side of the family, either the paternal or maternal side.  They are 5th degree collateral relations to the children on the other side.  Opp. cross cousin.

first cousin once removed, junior : [decensus] PaPaChChCh; child of one’s first cousin.

first cousin once removed, senior : [ascensus] PaPaPaChCh; first cousin of one’s parent.

first cousin twice removed, junior : [descensus] PaSbChCh; grandchild of one’s first cousin.

first cousin twice removed, senior : [ascensus] PaPaPaBrChCh; first cousin of one’s grandparent.

first week : the first Sunday-to-Saturday week of a calendar that starts on 1 January or 25 March.  Cf. inclusive reckoning.

first week : [1600 GC] the first week of a January year commences on the Sunday preceding 1 January, and therefore always starts in December, except in years of Dominical Letter A or AG, wherein 1 January is Sunday and commences the first week.

first week : [1600 JC] the first week of an Annunciation year commences on the Sunday directly prior to Lady Day, 25 March.

first weekday of Brøderbund Calendar : ad 100/1/1/Fri.  Cf. Brøderbund Calendar, Calendar Extranean.

first cousins : tá siad i n-ó amháin [Ir]; tríumhadh glúin [Ir].

first mother : Gæa, Mother Earth.  Cf. genetic Eve.

first son : Cf. differences.

first words of documents : the initial words or phrases that traditionally commence special documents.  Cf. fieri facias, fieri feci, habeas corpus, ignoramus, imprimatur, inspeximus, last words, mandamus, quare, satisfied, scilicet, siqui, siquis, volumus.

first words of line items : itm dđ, item datus, item given; item datus erat, item that was given.  The barred dee (đ) suggests the passive voice, and the date that usually follows it suggests the perfect tense, and thus we have the Latin item datus ‘item given’ and not the English ‘item dated.’  The words can stand in front of indirect objects, with no reference to any date, and therefore do not always denote items ‘dated.’  Cf. itm dđ, item datus.

first words of hymns : te deum.

first-begot : first-begotten : the eldest of children.

first-born : eldest, the first by order of nativity.  In feudal times, the term firstborn especially referred to the eldest son.  Today, the term may refer to both male and female firstborns.

firstling : that which is first brought forth or produced, the first offspring.

fiscal year : vide accounting period.

fiscus : money bag, scrotum.

fishing : in-shore fishing and deep-sea fishing.  Cf. sea lawers.

fissi- : split.

fission : ramage; the division or splitting of a lineage, which may occur through ramage.  The splintering or branching of a lineage may easily occur due to several reasons, including migration and excessive generation.  Ramage or fission tends to occur when a unilineage organized around common descent from a selected ancestor or ancestress happens to forget or loose its memory of an older common ancestor that once linked the lineage to others.  Cf. inflorescence, ramage.  Opp. exogamy, fusion.

fission-fusion society : a society of apes such as chimpanzees or bonobos wherein only maternal bonds remain impartible; a society wherein the migrating sex leaves the natal sibship (fission) to mate with an alien sex and thereby create maternal bonds (fusion).  Personal relationships and associations are generally temporary and changing, but natal groups of siblings are held together by their mothers.  When two small parties of such apes mix together, it is fairly common for one ape to join the stranger party when the two parties separate again.  Quite often, the migratory sex is the female, who is naturally attracted to stranger love.  Chimpanzees are male-bonded and paternal in kinship, whereas bonobos are female-bonded and maternal in kinship.

fistulator : piper, the player of a reed pipe.

fit monachus in Forda, et postea abbas : he be­came a monk in Ford, and later abbot.[43]

fits : convulsions.  Cf. hysteria.

fitz : filius [Lt] : [Norman Fr] So; son, son of.  This is the Norman variant of filius, so it often follows an individual’s name and precedes his father’s name.  By Latin convention, the father’s name should be genitive when it appears with fitz, but the English often ignored this rule.  The word has often with merged with the father’s name as a prefix, so it fairly commonly appears today in surnames, such as Fitzroy or Fitzwalter.  Because such surname spellings became customary in later times, the genealogist should be careful to discern and distinguish the forms as they were originally written, such as fitz Roy or fitz Walter.  Cf. ap, mac, o’, filius.

five dragons of crime : murder, rape, theft, treason, and piracy.  Cf. crimes.

five races : the five original geographic races that categorize all people living today.  Cf. Australoids, Capoids, Caucasoids, Congoids, Mongoloids, races.

five Ws : who, what, when, where, why.  This order is suitable for epigrams and databases.  A narrative style will often say where, and then when.  Cf. summary lead.

fivesome : pentad; a five-fold figure; an assembly of five persons; a god or goddess having five distinctive aspects or manifestations.  Cf. pentagon, pentagram.

five-step : the galliard dance.

FKK : Frei-Körper-Kultur, the German nudist movement.[44]

fl. : floruit : he flourished.

Fla. : FL : Florida.

flag surnames : Chi Shing.  Cf. Chinese surnames.

flagellation : [1770] whipping.

flagellatus, postea jactu lapidum occisus : he was subjected to flagellation, and afterwards stoned to death.[45]

flagellomania : [1700] the British practice of using whippings as a stimulant during sex.[46]

flagon : a large wine bottle, triple (3x) the standard size of 0.7 liters, or one-fifth gallon.

flamen dialis : the Roman high priest who succeeded to office jure uxoris, as the husband of the flaminica, and who lost his office when his wife died.  Cf. flaminica.

flaminica : the fairly obscure Roman priestess elected from the ranks of the oldest Roman families, and charged with sacrificing a ram at every new moon, according to ancient Etruscan ritual.  Her election gave office to her husband, as the priest called flamen dialis.

flath : flathe : landlord.

flatulent colic : wind colic.

flax comb : weaver’s reed.

flect- : flex- : to bend.

Flem. : Flemish, the language of Flanders, now in Belgium.

flesh : [Sx] animal food as distinct from vegetable food; the body of a beast or bird used for food, as distinct from the body of a fish; the muscles as distinct from the skin, bones, and tendons.  Christian dogma holds that the fleshy body is distinct and separable from the soul.

flesh and blood : the bodily elements that primitives regarded as derivatives of matrikin.  Opp. bone.

fleshling : a mortal.

flex- : flect- : to bend.

flicka : [Sw] girl.

Flints. : Flintshire.

flock : a collection of sheep.  Cf. herd.

flogging : Cf. whipping.

flor : [Sp] flower; gay man.  Cf. margarita.

flor- : flower.

flores : [Sp] flowers; lesbians.

floruerunt : they flourished.

floruit : he flourished.

flourish : to prosper, to have vigor; to be in one’s prime.

flower: an ambisexual sporophyte in the higher orders of plants.  A flower usually has a shorter axis than other parts of the plant, and bears modified leaves.  A flower consists of the pedicel (stem), sepal, ovary, style (male), stigma (releases seeds), filament (female support of anther), anther (female receptor).  The female filament and its anther together constitute one stamen, and there are several stamens in each flower.   The ovary, style, and stigma compose together the masculine seed spreader, and are collectively called the pistil.  The sepal is a protuberance that joins the petals to the pedicel, and these surrounding, outwardly visible parts of the flower are called the perianth.

flower cluster : inflorescence.

flower, or fruit : 4th year of marriage; symbol of the fourth wedding anniversary.

flu- : flux- : to flow.

fluffer : an ancillary sex partner whose job it is to arouse an actor, directly prior to his performance in a sexual scene.  The term is a relatively new colloquialism that originated in the pornography industry.

flusor sanguinis : flow of blood, bled to death.

flux- : flu- : to flow.

fly : to fly off without returning to the lure.  The verb describes a hawk who escapes captivity during a round of falconry.  This was a fairly common experience, which accounts for the use of bells and jesses to find and tether a feeding hawk.  Cf. hawks.

fødd : [Dn, Nw] born.

född : [Sw] born.

foe : [Sx] an enemy in war, an opponent.

foetus : fetus : a perfectly formed child in the womb.  Prior to formation, the child is called an embryo.

fol. : following.

fol. 3 sqq. : folio 3 and following folios.

folio : a leaf of a manuscript or book numbered only on the front side.

folio verso : f.v. : on the reverse side of the sheets.

folium : f. : fol. : folio, an oversized book.  Cf. a folio, in folio, secundum folium.

folk model : [anthropology] a diagram designed to show some aspect of kinship peculiar to the indigenous society being studied.  Several folk models must be compared in order to develop a cross-cultural, analytical model.  Cf. model.

folkmote : Hundred Court, an assembly of the residents of a hundred.  Cf. burgmote, mote, motfee.

font : a character set displayed in some distinctive, calligraphic design, such as Compugraphic Times, Times New Roman, and Lucida Sans Unicode.  Fonts called ‘Times’ were based upon the character style, or font, used by the London Times, and remain the favored fonts for publishing, due to the distinctive sarefs

Fontéchevade man : the fossil remains of a European Homo sapiens, dated in the Middle Quaternary period.  Cf. Hominidae.

food and lodging : [1877] After exiting Castle Garden in New York, immigrants often found room and board at one of several boarding houses licensed by the Board of Commissioners of Emigration.  Immigrants paid about $1 or $1.50 per day for their food and lodging.[47]  Cf. bread and drink.

foolborn : foolish from birth.

foot : [Ba] 12 inches.

foot : to foot a bill, to pay a bill, to stand credit for something owed.

foot of the fine : [1195-1833] final concord; an old variety of a recorded deed of conveyance that offered particular safeguards against fraud and malfeasance, as well as some convenient and expedient remedies for errors.  In this context, the word foot means settlement or concord, and the word fine actually denotes ‘finish,’ having derived from the Latin finis.  A foot of fine is a tripartite indenture representing the end or conclusion of a fictitious suit.  The compromise or settlement of a fictitious suit customarily resulted in an extremely detailed and publicly recorded deed for the conveyance or transfer of land.  The purpose of this procedure was to securely document the transaction, while subjecting it to all judicial scrutiny that was normally available only through litigation.  The essential parts of a fine were (1) the original writ commencing the action, (2) the license to compromise, (3) the concord or memorandum of terms, and (4) the final document or tripartite indenture wherein the terms were solemnly presented.  The indenture was written three times on one parchment, and then divided into three parts.  The parties each held two parts, and the third part was deposited in the royal archives.[48]  As feet of fines evolved, they were increasingly used to convey reversions and remainders to heirs general.  The rights of a female heir general had to be authenticated and proved, because a female sometimes could not herself hold a fee, especially a military fee, in which case abeyance or dormancy might ensue.

footer : Cf. taglines.

foppish youths : Cf. William Atheling.

foraeldre : [Dn] parents.

forage : forragium : to wander in search of spoil; to ravage; to feed on spoil; to appropriate provisions from an occupied community.

forefather : ancestor, one who precedes another in any degree of ascending genealogy.

foregoer : ancestor, progenitor.

foreign : forain : [Fr] alien, remote, extraneous; not allied; not domestic, not of one’s home country.

foreigner : stranger, not a native; someone who comes from another country.

foreigners : [ad 960-1279 Ch SóngKwan Hsi, western foreigners.[49]  Cf. Chinese surnames, Tai Pei.

foreigners : [ad 960-1279 Ch Sóng]  Tai Pei, northern foreigners.[50]  Cf. Chinese surnames, Kwan Hsi.

forename : prename.

foreplay: ludas.

forest : fera statio [Lt] : [Fr] an abode for wild animals, a wild and uncultivated tract of land consisting of woody areas and open pastures.  The game of a forest were harts, hinds, and hares.  In feudal times, a forest constituted a royal preserve wherein wild beasts and fowls were protected for the king’s pleasure, and persons caught hunting in a forest were subject to fine for poaching.  According to doctrines set forth in the Magna Charta, and its successor charters, a forest has eight principal features, namely soil, covert, laws, courts, judges, officers, game, and bounds.  The man-made features might sound extraordinary, but they were not, for there were only two justices for all the forests of England.  Cf. chase, game, Justice of the Forest, warren.

forest laws : laws that regulate the management and use of forest land.  Such laws were codified in the Magna Charta and many subsequent documents, and Edward I significantly liberalized the forest laws.[51]

forestage : forestagium : [OE law] duty or trib­ute payable to the king’s foresters.[52]

foreteller : predictor, foreshower.

foretelling : the declaration of something future.

forfader : [Dn] forefather, ancestor.

förfader : [Sw] ancestor.

forfeit : forfait : [Fr] something lost through the commission of a crime, a penal fine.

forfeiture : [Fr] alienation by a crime.

forfeiture : suspension of peerage by reason of treason or usurpation.

formal semantic analysis : Cf. kinship analysis.

forms of address : formal, polite, and informal methods of fully identifying another person by that person’s proper title, office, or name, or a combination of such terms.  Cf. terms of address, salutation, and reference.

forms of address, salutation, and reference : a set of customary words and phrases used to fully identify, salute, and denote another.  These complementary elements are usually fixed in their wording and placement, so they constitute sets of forms or formulae for both speech and writing.  The sets of formulae tend to differ for situations formal, polite, or informal, especially when addressing someone of high or exalted rank, such as a king or queen.  Cf. terms of address, salutation, and reference.

fornication : concubinage with an unmarried woman.

fornicator : one who consorts with an unmarried woman.

fornicatress : a woman who cohabits with a man without marrying him.

forsamling : [Sw] parish.

försfödd : [Sw] firstborn.

forsitan : perhaps, perchance.

førstefødt : [Dn] eldest, firstborn.

fort : [Fr] a fortified house, castle.

fort- : strong.

fortnight : Cf. quinze jours.

fortuna belli : fortunately.

fortune : fortuna : Fortune, the goddess supposed to distribute the lots of life according to her own caprice and humor; the good or bad fate that befalls someone; the portion of a woman; futurity, future events.

Forum Romanum : the Roman Forum.

fosse : fossa, fossus : [1500] ditch, moat.[53]

foster : [contraction] a forester.

foster : [Sx] to nurse, feed, support; to rear a child; to raise an animal.

fosterage : a temporary acceptance of child for physical nutriment or spiritual nurturing.  Fosterage does not affect the status of the foster child, whereas adoption permanently changes the adoptive child’s status.  Cf. adoption.

fosterbrother : conlacteus : a fictive brother bred at the same pap.

fosterchild : alumnus, a child nursed by a woman not the mother, or bred by a man not the father.[54]

fosterdam : nurse, one who performs the office of the mother.

fosterdaughter of Dryas : Chloë.

fosterer : nurse, one who gives food in place of a parent.

fosterfather : nutricius : one who gives food in place of a father.

fostering : fosterage; nourishment.

fosterling : fosterchild, nursechild.

fosterment : the act of fostering; food nourishment.

fostermother : nutrix : nurse.

fostership : the act of fostering or nursing, surrogate parentage; the office of a forester.

fostersister : conlactea.

fosterson : alumnus, a son raised by parents who are not his own natal or adoptive parents; a boy raised and educated by fosterparents with whom he might be unrelated by blood.  Cf. pater, mater.

fosterson of Lamon : Daphnis.

fostress : nurse.

found- : fund- : fus- : to pour, melt.

founder : builder, someone who raises an edifice, one who establishes a revenue for any purpose, one who provides the origin or beginning of anything.

founder : propositus.

foundling : a child exposed to chance, a child found without any parent or owner; a child deserted by its parents as a baby or infant.

foundress : a woman who founds, builds, or establishes anything; a woman who creates a charitable revenue.

four degrees of certitude : the four increments of surety that a historian or biographer may assign to his collection of objective conclusions.  In Latin, the four degrees may be named res certus, res incertus, res dubius, and res confusus.  Cf. fact certain, fact uncertain,  point of doubt, point of confusion.

four distinctions of cadency : descent, inheritance, succession, and residence.

four major patterns of residence : virilocal, uxorilocal, avunculocal, and neolocal residence.  Cf. residence.

four-class system : [obsolete] four-section system.

four-section alliance system : Kariera of Australia.

four-section system : Kariera system, a fourfold division of society for spouse exchanges.  Vertically the society is divided into two moieties, but it is also divided into horizontal moieties called generation moieties.  The two horizontal divisions are defined by alternating generations, such that levels +2, 0, and -2 comprise the ego’s division, and levels +1 and -1 comprise the other division.  The ego must marry outside his own vertical moiety, but inside his horizontal generation moiety.  Cf. eight-section system.

foursome : tetrad.

fourth col : [Ir] col ceathair.

fourth son : Cf. differences.

fox : a game of the chase.

Fr : French.

fr. : frater, brother; from.

Frà : [Fr] presumably frater : brother.

fra : frater : brother.

fract- : frang- : fring- : to break.

franchise : freedom, free license to do something.  A modern commercial franchise resembles a feudal fee, because it establishes a subordinative or tributive relationship between a vassal or franchisee and the franchiser or lord.  A businessman today agrees to pay the franchiser a constant fee in return for permission to utilize the franchiser’s trademarks and whatever the franchiser has the right to provide monopolistically to the franchisee for the operation, such as supplies, advertizing, and other elements of overhead expense.[55]

franchises of the City of London : the series of charters granting citizenship rights to the residents of London.  William I, Henry I, Stephen, Henry II, Richard I, John, Edward I, Edward III, Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and their successors granted and confirmed such charters.  These royal franchises permitted the citizens to elect their own mayor and sheriffs, to hold their own courts of law, to levy their own taxes, to impose their own tolls, and to enjoy the general freedom to act independently of royal officers within the confines of the city.[56]

Franciscus : Francis.

Francus : Frank.

frang- : fring- : fract- : to break.

Frank : Franc : free, not bound to service; a member of the people who invaded Gaul under Clovis I and established France.  In their ascendency, the Frankish people dominated large divisons of the three states we today call France, Germany, and Italy.  By extension, the ethnic word or prefix frank- was long used as a synonym for ‘free, freeman,’ suggesting that the Franks customarily ranked the highest amid the Celts, who had settled Gaul long before them, enjoying such privilages as frankpledge, frankmarriage, and franchisement.  Thus, the term Frank is correlative to Roman, in that it signifies a special class of full citizens, endowed with greater legitimacy and more prerogatives than aliens and commonry.

frankalmoigne : frankalms, a tenure by divine service.

frankchase : the liberty of free chase.  Cf. chase.

franking privilege : the benefit of having some license, particularly the liberty of using without charge the postage service provided by one’s employer or government.  Parliamentarians, congressmen, and businessmen typically have a franking privilege when conducting official affairs.

franklin : [1400] franchisee, freeholder; a land holder of the middle class.

Franklin : [1784-1788] a state organized as a large subdivision of western North Carolina, but never admitted to independent statehood.  The north and south state borders of North Carolina theoretically extended across the continent, so there was some debate about the relatively small size of the eastern parts reserved for the existing state.  Consequently, this political entity of Franklin was dissolved, and the new state of Tennessee was formed instead, farther westward.

frankmarriage : a tenure that the father of a bride grants to his son-in-law and his direct blood descendants, perhaps as an endowment promised long before the marriage, or a wedding gift, or some postnuptial endowment.  The donor of a tenure in frankmarriage extracted the promise that the couple and their offspring would remain faithful to the donor and his heirs, serving them and no other lords in perpetuity.  It was traditional for couple to swear personal and successional allegiance to the donor and his heirs for no less than four generations.[57]

frankpledge : franciplegium : a pledge or surety for a freeman.[58]

Franks : the Frankish people.  Cf. Frank.

fratello : [It] Br; brother.

frater : Br; brother.  In some old documents, frater may be shown to actually mean brother-in-law, cousin, or kinsman, instead of brother-german, so the meaning of this medieval word seems to have been just as broad and encompassing as our modern word brother, which may sometimes be used universally, as it is among blacks, servicemen, clergymen, Quakers, and the like.

frater : refectory.

frater abavis : abavis frater : FaFaFaFaBr; paternal great-great-granduncle, great-great-grandfather’s brother.

frater germanus : Br; full brother.  Opp. half brother.  Cf. soror germana.

frater novercæ : FaWiBr; stepuncle, brother of one’s stepmother.

frater patruelis : FaBrSo; male paternal cousin, son of  pa­ternal uncle.

frater vitrici : MoHuBr; stepuncle, brother of one’s stepfather.

fraternal : fraternus : Br : brotherly, pertaining to brothers.  Cf. kin types.  Opp. sororal.

fraternal joint family : a family comprised of two or more consanguineal brothers and their spouses.  Cf. elementary family, extended family.

fraternal polyandry : adelphic polyandry.

fraternal polygyny : adelphic polygyny.  Opp. sororal polyandry.

fraternal twin daughters : nonidentical twin daughters, born of two eggs in the uterus.

fraternal twin daughters by different fathers : nonidentical twin daughters who are uterine halfsisters to one another, having been born of two eggs fertilized by different fathers.  In Spain in 1997, a father who suspected his wife of adultery demanded comparison by DNA of the couple’s twin daughters, and analysts concluded that the daughters had each been progenerated by different fathers, though they had been born of the same womb.[59]  Only 6 such cases of divergent paternity have been recorded, and verification of these claims have depended upon DNA analysis, so scientists believe that joint paternity must be more common than had been previously suspected.

fraternal twin sons by different fathers : nonidentical twin sons who are uterine halfbrothers to one another, but sired by different fathers.  Cf. fraternal twin daughters by different fathers; Gemini.

fraternal twins : nonidentical twins.

fraternity : fraternitas : property held jointly by several brothers; the state or quality of a brother; a body of men united; corporation, society, association, brotherhood.[60]

fraternization : [1997] sexual intimacy between an officer and an enlisted person.  Although this term once denoted inappropriate, same-sex familiarily between a soldier and his enemies, it became widely used in the 1990s to signify sexual misconduct between officers and enlisted personnel of the opposite sex.

fraternization : a type of brotherhood; friendship, society, or commerce with people deemed to be enemies.  Armies of occupation are typically enjoined not to fraternize with the enemy.

fratre suo : of his brother, from his brother.

fratres : FF. : Sb, Br, Si; brothers; brothers and sisters, siblings.

fratres gemini : MoSo=Br; twin brothers; Castor and Pollux, often identified as twins, who were purported to have been homozygous or uterine halfbrothers born of one mortal father and one immortal father.  Their close and constant companionship served as a model for same-sex marriages, and the pair had a prominent temple dedicated to them in the Forum.  Large statues of the pair stand on the Capitoline Hill.

fratricide : fratricidium : the murder of a brother; one who kills his brother.

fratris : of his brother, pertaining to his brother.

fratris filia : daughter of his brother.

Frau : [Gm] Wi; mistress, Mrs.; woman, housewife.

fraus : fraud, force, duress, a ground for divorce.

Fraxula Flu. : in Derbyshire.

Frdbg. : Frederiksborg, Denmark.

Fredegarius (floruit circa 642) : [642/3/1 New Year] the name Claude Fauchet assigned to the 7th century compiler of Historia Francorum (642).  Fredegarius placed the New Year at 1 March, instead of 1 January.  Cf. Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum.

Free Spirit : [1290-1539] the clantestine organization of beguines and beghards that arose during the suppression of 1290.  Members of the Free Spirit movement were said to believe that there were no sins ‘under the belt.’[61]  Spies in Cologne purportedly discovered that heretics of the Free Spirit were holding sex orgies in secret, so the heretics were arrested and burned to death, in 1325.  John Calvin condemned members of the Free Spirit as ‘spiritual libertines’ in 1539.  Cf. capital offence, death penalty, Men of Intelligence.

freebooter : pirate, plunderer.

freeborn : not a slave, someone who inherits his liberty.  Cf. freeman, freedman.

free-denizen : a citizen.

freedman : a manumitted slave, a slave liberated or set free.

freedom : liberty, independence, exemption from servitude; privileges, franchises, immunities.

freehold : the land or tenement someone holds in fee, as in fee-tail, or life term in fee simple.

freeholder : a yeoman, gentleman, or esquire; someone who held of his lord a freehold.

freeman : someone not a slave or vassal; someone who enjoys rights, privileges, and immunities; a fullfledged citizen; an alien fully indenized or naturalized.  Feudalism and plantation both depended upon agricultural pursuits, so residents of the countryside were seldom freemen, because practically everyone pledged their service in exchange for livings.  In the middle ages, and in the American south, agrarian society was based on patriarchy, so personal freedom could only be obtained in the context of frankpledge, tenancy in fee, or lordship.  The commerce of municipalities provided perhaps the only milieu wherein a man could actually exercise and enjoy some license or franchise to act as an independent freeman.  Thus, the concept of freedom first arose in urban and suburban areas, such as the City of London, in the style of townsmen, citizenry, and merchant burgesses.  Free markets enabled freedom, so the first freemen were typically members of trade guilds and companies, or townsmen admitted to the boroughs as equal citizens.  Cf. drug testing, franchises of the City of London, freemason.  Opp. servant, slave.

freeman of a city : a person permitted to join a craft guild or merchant guild in a city, and to freely buy and sell products within the city limits.  A citizen often obtained this privilege as a birthright, but the status of a freeman could also be acquired through gratuitous admission, or through admission by payment to a guild.

freeman of King’s Lynn : Thomas Johns moved from Hunstanton to King’s Lynn sometime after 1547, and purchased freeman status from that town in 1550’51, calling himself a merchant.[62]

freemason : mason, a bricklayer and master builder whose occupation takes him from place to place and who works as a journeyman.  The old and venerable occupation of masonry served as a libertarian model for the free trade guilds that flourished in the seventeenth century, and facilitated the formation of the archetypal brotherhood or guild known as Freemasonry.  Cf. freeman.

freewarren : a right to freely hunt in a warren;[63] the privilege of preserving or killing at will the game in a warren.

freewoman : a woman not enslaved.

frei : [Gm] free.

french : to kiss deeply with one’s tongue.  Cf. ear french.

French kiss : soul kiss, deep kiss; mutual exploration of one another’s mouth through the probing of the tongues.  Cf. ear french, glōttopoiein, kataglōttízein.

French Republican calendar : [1793-1805] a revolutionary reckoning invented in 1793, but abandoned in 1805.

frêre : [Fr] brother.

freshman : novice, someone practicing the rudiments of any knowledge.

freshmanship : the state of a freshman.

friar : freer : fryer.  Sir Thomas le Strange gave 2d to a friar at Ware in 1520.[64]

fricatrice : lesbian, one who frigs other women; she who rubs, she who engages in tribadism.

frico : to masturbate.

frictrix : fellatrix.  Cf. natrix.

Friday : sixth day of the week.  Cf. Frig, Viernes [Sp].

friend : vriend [Du] : [Sx] companion, attendant; someone joined with another in mutual benevolence and intimacy; someone devoid of hostile intentions; a cant expression denoting a paramour or illicit lover.

friendliness : [Ir] consanguinal companionship; a close, personal relationship within an Irish exogamous group.  Close kindred in the Irish countryside maintain consanguinal ties that may provide many pleasures of companionship or friendship, but which typically incur familial obligations and often call for gift-giving.[65]  Friendliness often implies reciprocal or communal farm work.

Friends : [1652] Quakers, the adherents of a strict and exclusive Reformation religion, who became, by unanimous consent, atypically egalitarian and pacific.  The branches were styled Society of Friends, Religious Society of Friends, Orthodox Conservative Friends, and Primitive Friends.  Traditionally the religion had no preachers, and all of its cardinal decisions were made unanimously at Monthly Meetings consisting of both men and women.  Unanimity posed no particular problem, because Quakers simply disowned any dissenters, and required nonbelievers to convert to Quakerism upon marriage to a Quaker.  The extant minutes of Monthly Meetings constitute an extraordinarily detailed resource for genealogists.  After the Stuart Restoration (1660), the Quakers demanded and received special exemption and consideration for their independent beliefs, and their rights were confirmed in the Quaker Act (1662).  The arrangement caused a rift among the Independents, because other Nonconformists demanded to have the same rights as Quakers, and eventually moved the government to repeal the Act of Uniformity (1662), replacing it with the Act of Toleration (1689).  Cf. Baptists, Dissenter sects, Independents, Nonconformist.

Friends : [1652] Society of Friends.

friends : [Ir] kindred; an exogamous kinship group in Ireland.  Irish countrymen tend to use the words people or friends to denote close kinsmen, but tend to avoid English and American terms such as cousin.  Cf. muninntear, people.

friendship : amity, the state of minds united by mutual benevolence; favor, personal kindness, assistance, help, affinity.

Friesl. : Freisland, Netherlands.

Frig : [Nw] the Nordic goddess of the sun, who is often portrayed as a hermaphrodite.[66]  Cf. finnochio, Friday, frig.

frig : to rub against another for sexual stimulation.  This verb is used to describe a manual sex act between lesbians, and might be connected to the Nordic goddess Frig.  Cf. Frig, intercrural intercourse.

frigate : [Fr] a small ship.

fring- : frang- : fract- : to break.

frog : a symbol of lewdness.

from : [Sx] a preposition noting procession, descent, or birth.

from that time : inde.

fruit : Cf. flower.

fruit : fructus : the product of a tree or plant which contains the seeds; production; the offspring of the womb.

fruitful : fertile, prolific; childbearing, not barren.

fs : [anthropology] female speaking.  Cf. f-, ws.  Opp. m-, ms.

ft : feet.

: fu : [Ch] Fa, FaBr; father, man of the generation above Ego’s; male relative of a senior generation.  Anciently, this term embraced both one’s natal father and one’s paternal uncles.[67]  Cf. bó, shū [Ch]; fu [SJ], chichi, otōsan [Jp].

: fu : [Ch] Hu; the ego’s husband; husband.  Cf. , fu [SJ]; otto, tsuma [Jp].

: fu : [Ch] SoWi; son’s wife; wife.  Cf. fu [SJ]; fujin [Jp].

fuck you : a vulgar exclamation of contempt; an idiom related to the exclamations ‘fuck off’ or ‘get fucked.’  This English expression comes from a male practice of great antiquity, which required a warrior to establish a jocular relationship with a passive androphile, for the purpose of establishing leadership and discerning sexual rôles.  Some believe that this expression serves as a ceremonial method for bifurcating men into heterosexual and androphilic phratries, and that the very common, casual use of the phrase tends to engender jocular relationships among camarades.  Societies with matristic inclinations tend to employ ceremonial insults as a means to distinguish the loving and compliant berdache from the hating and disputational warrior.  Cf. berdache, ergi, nið, niðdikning.

fueruntque ei uxores quasi reginae septingentae et concubinae trecentae : And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines:  and his wives turned away his heart.[68]

-fugal : flee from.

-fuge : flee from, -phego [Gk].

fugit a castris : he fled from camp, he deserted.

fuit : was.

fuit ergo Iosaphat dives et inclitus multum, et adfinitate coniunctus est Ahab descenditque post annos ad eum in Samariam : Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honour in abundance, and joined affinity with Ahab.[69]

Full Name: : [MS] the courtesy title and name fully expressed, for use on an envelope or inside address; a tag used by Microsoft.  Cf. courtesy title.

fumage : fumus : hearthmoney, hearth tax, taxation based on the number of fireplaces in a house.

fund- : fus- : found- : to pour, melt.

fundamentalist rhetoric : Cf. rhetoric.

fundamentalist themes : baptism, faith healing, premillenialism, glossolalia.  Cf. Pentecostalism.

fundavit : he founded, he laid the foundation of.

funebrial : funebris : belonging to funerals.

funeral : funereus [Lt] : funerailles [Fr] : the solemnization of a burial; obsequies; paying the last honors to the dead; the pomp or procession with which the dead are carried.  Traditionally, English monarchs never attended funerals, because the association of a monarch with a funeral was considered ominous and unlucky.  English monarchs began attending funerals in Victorian times.

funerary feast : one of two feasts that customarily followed the funeral of a Roman citizen, namely silicernium, the initial feast eaten at the grave site after burial, and cena novendialis, the secondary feast eaten at the grave on the ninth day, or the first day after the octave of a period of full mourning.  Cf. denicalis, mourning, silicernium, tonsure.

funerate : funeratus : to bury.

funeration : the solemnization of a funeral.

funeratus : done to death; sent to one’s funeral.

funereal : dark, dismal, befitting a funeral.

funero : to solemnly bury; to inter with funerary rites.

funus : the final offices performed between the hour of a person’s death and the last post-burial ceremonies.

funus imperatorium : final offices for emperors and members of their families.

funus indictivum : a funeral for a very important person to which all citizens were summoned by a herald.

funus militare : final offices for a soldier, funerary rites with military honors.

funus publicum : final offices for a person who has given distinguished service to the state.

funus translaticum : final offices for citizens of moderate and great wealth.

furca : fork; the cross-bar of a cross used for punishment in the Roman Empire, such as the cross-bar used to suspend and execute Jesus Christ; a general term for punishment.  The Christ carried a furca to Calvary, not the entire cross.  Cf. naturam expelles furca.

furca capitalis : capital fork; carrying the furca until scourged to death.

furca ignominiosa : unspecified fork; carrying the furca for a slight offence.

furca paenalis : penal fork; carrying the furca while being scourged.

furcas : punishments, specifically the jurisdiction of the gallows and the pit.  Cf. habuit furcas.

furn. : furniture.

furniture: moveables, goods placed in a house for functional use or ornament.

Furr and Skeene : [1922] An & He; lesbian characters in the story by Gertrude Stein, entitled, “Miss Furr and Miss Skeene.”  They learned together “ways of being gay,” and thus the author introduced one the earliest known modern uses of the word gay.

furs : ermine, vair.

furtum : adultery, theft; illicit sexual intercourse.

fus- : fund- : found- : to pour, melt.

fusion : a union or merging of lineages brought about by exogamy.  Opp. fission, ramage.

fustian : fusthian : [1537/11/4] 2s per 3 yards; a coarse cloth made of cotton and flax.  Lady Anne purchased of Shavyngton 3 yards of fusthian at 2s, for her son “Mr Henry” [Master Henry le Strange].

fusthian : [1537] fustian.

fut. : future.

futo : hit, beat.

futuo : fot-en-cul [Fr] : pedico, to act as a pederast.

futuo : to have sexual intercourse with a woman.

fututio : pedicatio.

-fy : to make.

fylker : [Nw] county.

fyllyng of the mucke carts at Hunstanton : [1519/10/16] Nicholas Bedon spent 2 days filling the muck carts with manure, and was paid 4d for the job.[70]

filling of the muck carts : Cf. fyllyng of the mucke carts at Hunstanton.

fyrd : host, an ancient kind of national militia.

FZD marriage : FaSiDa marriage : father’s sister’s daughter marriage.




[1] According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens.  Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  116-117.

[2] Grahn 1990:  207.

[3] HHA 1519.

[4] Grahn 1990:  78.

[5] Grahn 1990:  78.

[6] Grahn 1990:  291.

[7] LIMO.

[8] LIMO.

[9] LIMO.

[10] HL:  340.

[11] Schusky 1972:  91.

[12] Schusky 1972:  91.

[13] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[14] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[15] Gurney 1833:  433.21. 

[16] Arensberg 1968:  77-78.

[17] Feng 1937:  268.

[18] Caius Julius Hyginus, Fables, 277.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  224-225.

[19] Parkin 1997:  102.

[20] Court Order, Elizabeth City, VA, now Hampton, VA, 1698/7/18.  Chandler Newsletter, 1993/10.4.

[21] Sir Flinders Petrie. Graves 1948, edition 1966:  159.

[22] Henslowe.

[23] HL : 226.  Plucknett 1956 : 523, 549-552, 558-560, 570, 593, 713.

[24] Ptak 1995, edition 1997:  13.

[25] Grahn 1990:  322.

[26] Harrison 1948:  1647.

[27] HL : 298, 300.

[28] Plucknett 1956 : 558-559, 577-578.  HL:  25, sub earliest feoffment of a le Strange in Shropshire.

[29] Plucknett 1956 : 577-578.

[30] HL:  77.

[31] Grahn 1990:  206.

[32] CP, 12.549f, sub Westmorland.

[33] Leland, 1.237.

[34] Boswell 1988:  394.n102.

[35] Boswell 1988:  27.n55.

[36] 1 Chronicles, 5.3.

[37] Boswell 1988:  371.

[38] Hey 1993:  179.

[39] Oestmann 1994:  66.72.

[40] Grahn 1990:  322.

[41] Gavin Arthur.  Eglinton 1964:  482.

[42] HL:  234.

[43] Leland:  5.11.215.

[44] Eglinton 1964:  482.

[45] Leland, 5.200.

[46] Eglinton 1964:  482.

[47] Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9:  14.5.  EGH 1997/9-10:  18.

[48] Plucknett 1956:  614.

[49] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[50] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[51] HL:  242, 358.

[52] HL:  67.

[53] HL:  65.

[54] Johnson.

[55] Exceptional franchises acquired by le Stranges, HL:  363.

[56] Davis 1924:  617.

[57] Everton 191:  179-180.

[58] HL : 50, 186, 199, 240, 276.

[59] Fertility and Sterility, 1997/6.  “DNA Shows Twins Were Fathered by Two Men,” San Francisco Chronicle, 1997/6/17.

[60] L’Estrange, cited by Johnson.

[61] Evans 1978:  163.

[62] Oestmann, 51.

[63] HL : 121, 204, 206, 224, 290, 309, 363.

[64] HHA 1520.

[65] Arensberg 1968:  78.

[66] Grahn 1990:  322.

[67] Lévi-Strauss 1967:  317.

[68] 1 Kings, 11.3.

[69] II Chronicles, 18.1.  II Paralipomenon, 18.1.

[70] Gurney 1833:  421.8.



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