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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


ar : [Sw] year.

ar- : ad-.

Ar : Arabic : [1500], a semitic language, origi­nally of the Arabs of the Hejaz and Nejd, now the prevailing speech of Arabia, Jordon, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, and parts of North Africa.

ar : argent, silver

-ar : -aris : -are : pertaining to.

ar : er : ere, before.

ar a dá ó : [Ir] second grandsonship.  Cf. grandsonship.[120]

Arabian Nights : [Ar] the collection of tales that frequently mention male homosexuality and even lesbianism.[121]

Arachne : spinner of the romantic entanglements of gods and men.

arachnitis : inflammation of the arachnoid and pia mater in the brain.

Araldus : Harold.

Aram : Aramaic.

Aramaic inscriptions : uses of the Aramaic alphabet that have been found in northern Arabia, Palestine, Lycia, Capadocia, Lydia, Cilicia, Assyria, Greece, Afghanistan, and India.

Aramis : Aranus Civitas : Dorsetshire.

Aranda of Australia : a society often cited as an example of an eight-section alliance system, wherein the preferred marriage is moiety exogamy between second cross cousins.  Cf. alliance.

Aranda system : eight-section system.

Arani : [Sk] the firestick goddess celebrated with lesbian rituals; the lesbian fire-stick goddess in India;[122] the tinder-stick used in producing fire by rubbing.  Opp. Ferula.

Arapahoe warriors androphilic : Some Arapahoe warriors were known to ‘fall in love’ with one another, and observed to maintain their affectionate interest in their partner for many years, even in spite of long separations.[123]

Arara : [1990] an indigenous tribe that lived near the Xingu River, Brazil.  The tribe has become famous in anthropology.  Cf. Yanomani.

Arbeit macht frei : [Gm] Work makes free.  The Nazi slogan that was fixed above the gate at Auchwitz.  Cf. Die Stadtluft macht frei.

arbiter: judge, umpire.

arbor Jessæ : Jesse’s tree; a genealogical pedigree showing the many descendants of Jesse, father of King David.  Cf. jesse.

arbor of Jesse : Cf. House of David, jesse.

arbori- : tree.

arcana major 00 : il Matto : the Fool.

arcana major 01 : I : il Mago : the Magician.

arcana major 02 : II : la Papessa : the Female Pope.

arcana major 03 : III : l’Imperatrice : the Empress.

arcana major 04 : IIII : l’Imperatore : the Emperor.

arcana major 05 : V : il Papa : the Pope.

arcana major 06 : VI : l’Innamorato : the Lover.

arcana major 07 : VII : il Carro : the Chariot.

arcana major 08 : VIII : la Giustizia : the Justice.

arcana major 09 : VIIII : l’Eremita : the Hermit.

arcana major 10 : X : Rota di Fortuna : Wheel of Fortune.

arcana major 11 : XI : la Forza : Strength.

arcana major 12 : l’Appeso : the Hanged Man.

arcana major 13 : XIII : la Morte : Death.

arcana major 14 : XIIII : la Temeranza : Temperance.

arcana major 15 : il Diavolo : the Devil.

arcana major 16 : XVI : la Torre : the Tower.

arcana major 17 : XVIII : le Stelle : the Stars.

arcana major 18 : XVIII : la Luna : the Moon.

arcana major 19 : XIX : il Sole : the Sun.

arcana major 20 : XX : il Giudizio : Judgement.

arcana major 21 : XXI : il Mondo : the World.

arcana major combinations : approximately 1.124,727 x 1021, or 11,247 x 1018; 1,124,727,000,777,607,680,000.

-arch : [Gk] one who rules.

archa- : archae- : arche- : [Gk] ancient, primitive, beginning.

archae- : archa- : arche- : [Gk] ancient, primitive, beginning.

archaic script : an old and obsolete manner of writing; a document consisting of old Latin abbreviations and truncations.

archangels : the eighth highest choir of angles, among nine.

archbishop : [polite address] His Grace, the Lord Archbishop of ——; [salutation] My Lord Archbishop; [reference] Your Grace.  An archbishop’s wives and children derive no titles from his office.

Archbishop of Armagh : [address] His Grace the Lord Primate of Ireland.

Archbishop of Canterbury : Primate of all England; the first peer of England next to the Royal Family, who ranks in precedence before all of the great officers of the Crown, and before Dukes.  The Archbishop of Canterbury appoints the Bishop of London to serve as his provincial Dean, the Bishop of Winchester as his Chancellor, and the Bishop of Worcester as his Chaplain.  No matter where they reside or where they abide, the Sovereign and his or her Consort are always styled ‘parishioners of the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury’ speciales domestici parochiani Arch Cant.  Cf. peer.

Archbishop of Canterbury: [formal address] The Most Reverend Father in Good (John ——), by Divine Providence, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury; [salutation] My Lord Archbishop; [reference] Your Grace.

Archbishop of York : [1540] Primate of England, the perpetual chaplain of the Queen Consort; the third peer of the United Kingdom, who precedes all secular peers except the Lord High Chancellor, and precedes all Lords Spiritual except the Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England.  His precedence as third peer was established by an Act of Parliament in 31 Hen VIII (1539’40).[124]

Archbishop of York : [formal address] The Most Reverend Father in Good (John ——), by Divine Providence, Lord Archbishop of York; [salutation] My Lord Archbishop; [reference] Your Grace.  Cf. Archbishop of Canterbury.

Archbishop of York, et cetera : [formal address] The Most Reverend Father in Good (John ——), by Divine Permission, Lord Archbishop of Canterbury; [salutation] My Lord Archbishop; [reference] Your Grace.  Cf. Archbishop of Canterbury.

Archbishops in England : the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York.

archdeacon : archdiaconus : archd. : one who acts in place of a bishop in discharging the duties of an episcopacy.

archdeaconry : the office and tenure of an archdeacon; a subdivision of a diocese in the Church of England.

archduke : title conferred on certain sovereign princes in Austria and Tuscany.

archdukedom : the territory of an archduke.

arche- : archa- : archae- : [Gk] ancient, primitive, beginning.

archenemy : one’s main foe.

archenteron : [1877] the cavity of the gastrula of an embryo.

Archeozoic era : a long period of prehistoric time, matching the Precambrian period.

arches. : archdeacons.

archfelon : chief of felons.

archicancellarius : archchancellor.

archicocus : master chef; chief cook.

archidiaconus : archdeacon.

archididascalus : school headmaster.

archidux : archduke.

archiepiscopus : archbishop.

archives : a keep or repository for historic documents and public records retained as evidence.  Cf. National Archives and Records Administration.

archivist : a custodian of documents and records.

-archy : [Gk] government, administratio, gubernatio, procuratio, cura.

-archy : [Gk] rule by.

Arcturus : Artorius : Arthur.

ardal : [We] country.

ardor : heat of affection.

area : [Lt] plot of earth.  Cf. ur.

Ares [Gk] : Mars [Lt] : god of war.  War corresponds to Mont [Eg]; Enlil or Marduk or Adad [Ba]; Indra or Skanda or Rudra [Sk]; Thor [Ns]; Morrigan or Macha or Taranis [Ce]; Hurakan [Ma]; Huitzilopochtli [Az].

Arfaxad autem genuit Sala qui et ipse genuit Heber : And Arphaxad begat Shelah, and Shelah begat Eber.[125]

arg. : argentum : silver, argent; white.  Medieval heralds had no pigment for the color silver, so they either left the silver parts blank, or colored them white.

argentum : silver, white.

Aries : ^ : the Ram.

Aries the Ram : 22 March to 20 April.

ariolation : hariolation : hariolus : soothsaying, vaticination.

-arion : -arium : [Gk] little.

-aris : -are : -ar : pertaining to.

Arisleus: Cf. Dream of Arisleus.

aristarchy : a body of good men holding power, an unlikely situation.

aristocracy : a form of government wherein nobles exercise supreme power; a government manipulated by the wealthy.  It has been estimated that 1% of the U.S. population holds 94% of the wealth, and that 5% of the populace holds nearly 90% of the wealth.  History provides us with countless examples of the U.S. government providing special preferments and entitlements to businesses, while at the same time burdening the common people with higher taxes.  Prime examples of aristocratic manipulation may be found in the homesteading acts, the mining industry, television broadcasting, the doling out of radio band widths, the pharmaceudical industry, and elsewhere.  The government catering to business interests is called corporate welfare, and the most egregious examples perpetually occur in armament procurements, for the defense industry has always been granted immunity from reform.

aristocracy : rule by the wealthy.  In a patriarchy, property passes from father to son, following the rule of primogeniture, or some other custom of succession.  Thus, a male lineage may be equated with aristocracy, and compared with other criteria of kinship, such as gerontocracy, sexocracy, and sybilocracy.  Cf. kinship and order, lineality, patrism, patriarchy.

Aristophanes : the student who held that homosexuality was a mark of manliness and maturity.  He stated that young men who took male lovers were courageous, rather than shameless, and that such men were the only sort who ever distinguished themselves in public careers.  His speech was recorded by Plato in the Symposium, and stands as an example of counterprejudice against heterosexuals.[126]

-arium : -arion : [Gk] little.

Ariz. : AZ : Arizona.

Ark. : AR : Arkansas.

arma : arms, weapon; Wappen.

armifer : shield bearer, a bearer of arms and weapons.

armiger : bearer of a coat of arms; gentleman.

armiger : bearing arms, armed, warlike; armor­bearer; squire, esquire, a man next in degree to a knight and entitled to have his own armorial bearings; Knappe.  Cf. ensiger, milites.

armigeri : armorbearers.

armigerous : bearing heraldic arms.

armor : armour.[127]

armor bearer : he who carries the armor of another.

armorer: he that makes armor, he that dresses another in armor.

armorial : belonging to armor, relating to the arms of a family.

armorial bearings : the implements or weaponry that a knight carries into the field.  The expression especially refers to the decorated shield, escutcheon, or coat-of-arms, by which an individual knight could be readily identified.  The bearings may also refer in general to anything distinctive that the knight wears or carries for identification, such as a badge or pattern, or a helmet, crest, or banner.  Armorial bearings may also refer to all the decorative elements of a painted achievement.  Cf. achievement, escutcheon, hatchment.

Armorican : relating to Armorica, or Basse Bretagne, now Brittany.

armory : armaria : a keep wherein arms are stored.  The White Tower at the Tower of London perfectly illustrates the concept, for it contains a complete collection of arms from many historical periods.  Cf. aumbry, keep and bear arms.

arms : coat of arms : the ensigns armorial of a family displayed on a military shield or escutcheon.  The heraldic figures and tinctures painted upon a shield constitute an individual’s distinctive marks of dignity and cadency, and sometimes appear also on a banner, in the form of either a standard or pinsel.

arms of alliance : a composite coat of arms showing the union of families or individuals.

arms of assumption : assumptive arms, a fanciful coat of arms assumed by someone through caprice or volition, rather than legal right.

arms of community : the coats of arms of bishoprics, cities, companies, and other organizations.

arms of concession : a complete augmentation of honor that is added to a person’s coat of arms.  The escutcheon of Lord Heathfield showed the fortress of Gibraltar as arms concession.

arms of dominion : arms of sovereignty, the coat of arms of an emperor, king, or sovereign that normally denotes the territory, kingdom, or province he governs.  Modern states have their own arms of dominion, which must differ from the arms of the monarch.

arms of family : private coats of arms licensed to individual family heirs.

arms of patronage : coats of arms of governors of provinces, lords of manors, and other such officials.

arms of pretension : the coat of arms of some kingdom, territory, or province claimed by a lord, but actually possessed by another lord.  The kings of England and France frequently displayed arms of pretension, because large regions of France were continually disputed by the English and French monarchs.

arms of sovereignty : arms of dominion.

arms of succession : one’s inherited coat of arms impaled or quartered with a coat of arms representing some estate, manor, or property to which the individual has succeeded by will, entail, or donation.

arms, papal : [1294-1303] the first papal coat of arms was that of Boniface VIII (regnavit 1294-1303).  Earlier papal arms must be considered to be later inventions, for we have no contemporary proofs.  [1400] Papal arms appeared on coins in the thirteenth century.[128]

arms, parts of a coat of : the points of an escutcheon, namely (A) dexter chief, (B) precise middle chief, (C) sinister chief, (D) honor point, (E) fess point, (F) nombril point, (G) dexter base, (H) precise middle base, (I) sinister base; the nine points on a shield where the herald may place various charges.

army of Bohemian girls : Cf. buggery, Bulgaria, Libussa and Valeska.

arquebus : an improved handgun, of either the matchlock or wheellock type.

arquebus de calibre : caliver.

arrabo : earnest money.

Arras : Cf. witches of Arras.

arrière grand-mère : [Fr] FaFaMo; great-grandmother.

arrière grand-père : [Fr] FaFaFa; great-grandfather.

arrière petite-fille : [Fr] SoSoDa; great-granddaughter.

arrière petit-fils : [Fr] SoSoSo; great-grandson.

arrondissement : [Fr] a division of a department or county; a political subdivison for the registration of vital statistics.  The word is used for a county in Belgium, and for a civil district in the Netherlands.

Arrosauk shamans : Cf. Battle of the Sto-ro-ka and Ka-tsi-na, ka-tsi-na, ko-qui-ma, sto-ro-ka.

ars : art.

ars equistris : equestrian art.

ars heraldica : heraldry, shield art.

arseno- : [Gk Hellenic] male.  Cf. appeno-.

arsenokoitai : [ad 400 Gk] a male prostitute, servicing women and passive men.  This meaning endured until the fourth century.[129]

arsenokoitai : [Gk] active male prostitute, capable of sexual intercourse with men or women; a biblical word often mistranslated as child molester.  Puritan interpreters of the Bible delight in citing this word as evidence that Saint Paul specifically condemned homosexuals, but no contemporaries of Saint Paul ever used this word to signify homosexual relations.  Saint Jerome translated the word as masculorum concubitores.  Cf. drauci, exoleti, Knabenschänder, masculorum concubitores.  Opp. parakoitai.

arsenokoitia : [Gk] anal intercourse.  This word was used in the Penitential of John the Faster (obiit 595) to denote both active and passive anal intercourse.  However, the same author also used arsenokoitia to signify heterosexual anal intercourse, so the meaning was not restricted to homosexuality.[130]

art- : art, skill.

art : human artifice and invention.

Artemis : [Gk] goddess of charity, childbirth, and the young; Diana [Lt].  As goddess of the Moon, Artemis corresponds to Thoth or Hathor or Isis [Eg]; Nanna or Sin [Ba]; Soma or Yaruna [Sk]; Branwen [Ce]; Meztli [Az].  She had no equivalent in Norse or Mayan mythologies.

Artemis of Ephesus : [Gk] Diana the Huntress; the principle Amazon who stands as a foundress in Asia Minor, now Turkey.  The features of Artemis included chains of rubies and the severed right breasts of Amazon warriors.  Celebrants of the goddess performed dances by clanging together their shields and swords.  As part of a contest designed to pay homage to Artemis, the artists Cresilas, Phidias, Polycletus, and Phradmon all sculpted statues of Artemis, which survive.[131]  Cf. Amazon foundresses and godmothers.

Artemisia : an amazon who served in Xerxe’s army.

artes liberales : liberal arts.

arthr- joint, speech sound, articulation.

articles for marriage : mariage art.[132]

articulated : laminated, connoting armor fabricated with overlapping plates.

artificial insemination : Cf. reproductive technologies.

artium liberalium : AA.LL. : liberal arts.

artium liberalium baccalaureus : AA.LL.B. : bachelor of liberal arts.

artium liberalium magister : AA.LL.M. : master of liberal arts.

Artorius : Arcturus : Arthur.

arts and sciences : art and technology in opposition to nature.  Cf. agism, fatherhood, law and order, lineality, patrism, sexism.

arvum : [Lt] ploughed field.  Cf. ur.

-ary : -arium : place for.

-ary : pertaining to.

as- : ad-.

as chevas et armes : [Fr] you have horses and arms.  Cf. equis et armis, horse and arms.

asce- : to exercise.

ascendancy : ancestry, as traced retrogressively through lines of direct descent.  Cf. ascendencia [Sp].  Opp. descendancy.

ascendant : ancestor, one of the degrees of kindred reckoned upwards; the opposite of descendant or progeny; an­tecedent; a lineal or collateral rela­tive in the ascending line.  Old English law established the principle that a ‘lord cannot be heir of a tenant who has paid him homage,’ and the rule that one cannot be both ‘lord and heir’ in one person was applied by extension to families, thus excluding ascendants from fam­ily inheritance.[133]  Opp. descendant.

ascendants : senior generations, belonging to the generational levels +1, +2, et cetera.  Cf. generational level.

ascendencia : [Sp] ascendancy.

ascendency : influence, power.  Cf. English ascendency.

ascender : a letter with an ascending part, such as may be seen in the letters for several stops, namely b, d, k, t.

ascensus : a count or tally of ancestors both living and dead.  Cf. census, descensus.

ascetic : [Gk] someone completely absorbed in devotion and mortification.

ascites : dropsy of the stomach, edema.  Cf. hydrops.

ashes : the remains of a body, the remains of anything burned, arca [Sx].

Ashikaga Yoshimitsu : Cf. Yoshimitsu and Zeami.

Ashon nutli’ : [Navajo] Turquoise Boy.  Cf. nadle, Navajo creation story.

aspic : a dragon gargoyle with its tail in its ear, symbolizing the refusal of the unpenitent to listen to the word of God.

asr. : assessor.

assarts : essarts : lands cleared for tillage; clearings in the forest ready for cultivation.[134]

assassination : the act of murdering by surprise, the act of waylaying.  The term derived from ‘hashish users’ who worked as killers for the Old Man of the Mountain.  Marco Polo and others recount this ancient story.

assault : to attack, storm; hostile violence, injury to a man’s person.

assault purpensé : premedidated assault.[135]  Cf. assultus premeditatus.

assertio : a trial involving a person’s liberty.

assigned birth sex : the sex determined by a surgeon attempting to rectify the undeveloped,  deformed, or inappropriate genitalia of a newborn child.

assize : [1145-1150] action; an inquisition of 12 men.  Trial by inquisition or jury was in­stituted for all important civil litigation.[136]

assize : [1400] circuit court; a solemn session of a council or court; judgement, legal inquest, trial; [1400] a periodic ses­sion of a superior court in an English county;[137] a ses­sion of a justice of assize in the provinces.  Travelling jus­tices were established to try assizes more speedily.[138]

assize : [1500] enact­ment, legislative decree, ordinance, statute, regulation;  an enactment of a solemn ses­sion of council or court;[139] measure, form of action.[140]

assize of aiel : action of one’s grandfather.[141]  Cf. basaiel, cosinage.

assize of besaiel : action of one’s great-grand­father.[142]

assize of bread, etc. : Cf. liberties.

assize of cosinage : action of cousinage, an action governing all relations other than the seisin of the grandfa­ther (aiel) and great-grand­father (besaiel).  In chancery usage, a great-great-grand­father is classified as a ‘cousin,’ because he is not a close or immediate relation, even though he is a direct ascen­dant.[143]

assize of darrein presentment : the principle of novel dis­seisin as applied to advowsons; the 3d of 4 petty assizes.  The assize had to determine whether the plaintiff was the last patron in time of peace who presented a person to the church in dispute; and if so, it seized the plaintiff and entitled him to present again.[144]

assize of mort d’ancester : [1176] an action designed to sue for land, and supported by a writ of mort d’ancester.  This was an assize of 12 free and lawful men, formed to rec­ognize whether a plaintiff’s ancestor died seised in his demesne as of fee of the tenements in dispute, whether he died since the period of limitation, and whether the de­mandant is his next heir.  The final determination resulted in a writ of mort d’ancester.  This assize was the second of four petty assizes.[145]

assize of novel disseisin : [1166] action of new eviction; action of new ejectment; an action es­tablished at an assembly at Clarendon; an in­novation of Henry II to re­store a person dis­seised (ejected) from his land; a case in which the tenant (i.e. defendant in a real action; dis­seisor; spoliator), unjustly and without judge­ment, dis­seised the demandant (plaintiff).[146]

assize of nuisance : [1300] an assize through which certain torts were litigated.[147]

assize of nuisance : [ante 1189, temp Hen II] an act separated from the assize of novel disseisin.  The history of this term is obsure, for it was used in cases of damage to realty, but did not amount to trespass.  It seems to have addressed incidents of negligence, such as when a landholder would fail to clean his ditches or repair his banks, and his neglect of his duty would result in the flooding of his neighbor’s land.[148]

assize of utrum : a preliminary proceeding to ascertain whether litigious land fell under the jurisdiction of the church or crown, which came to be decided upon certain principal questions.  The 4th of the 4 petty assizes.[149]

assizer : assiser : an officer in charge of weights and measures.

assizes : [1166] petty assizes.  Cf. novel disseisin.

assizes : [1176] petty assizes.  Cf. mort d’ancestor; darrein presentment; utrum.

assizes : actions.  Cf. aiel, besaiel, cosinage, Darrein Presentment, Mort d’Ancestor, Novel Disseisin, Nuisance, Utrum.

associate : confederate.

Association of Professional Genealogists : APG : an organization with open membership and a quarterly, based in Washington, DC.[150]

associative : [1812] acquired by or dependent upon learning or association.  Cf. adoptive, genealogical adjectives, relative.

assultus premeditatus : premeditated assault.[151]  Cf. assault purpensé.

assumptive arms : arms of assumption.

-ast : -st : [Gk] one who does.

aster- : astr- : [Gk] star.

astr- : aster- : [Gk] star.

astro- : [Gk] star, stelli-.

astrologer: John Dee, Astologer to Elizabeth I.

asymmetric affinal alliance : Cf. alliance.

asymmetrical cross cousin marriage : an institution that permits a husband to marry only a unilateral cross cousin, either an asymmetrical matrilateral cross cousin (MoBrDa), or an asymmetrical patrilateral cross cousin (FaSiDa).  In matrilateral cross cousin marriage, a single lineage always provides brides to the opposite lineage.  In patrilateral cross cousin marriage, a single lineage first gives brides to the second lineage in one generation, but then takes brides from the second lineage in the second generation.  Whether matrilateral or patrilateral in type, the resulting exchange between lineages is always the same.  Cf. cross cousin marriage.  Opp. bilateral cross cousin marriage, symmetrical cross cousin marriage.

asymmetrical relationship : a relationship between two persons dissimilar to one another in age, maturity, emotion, or interest.[152]

at- : ad-.

atamita : adamita.

atavia : FaFaFaFaMo; paternal great-great-great-grandmother; grandmother of the 5th degree; Urgroßurgroßmutter.

atavunculus : adavunculus.

atavus : FaFaFaFaFa; third-great-grandfather, great-great-great-grandfather; grandfather of the 5th degree; Urgroßurgroßvater; ancestor.

ate : [Tagalog] Si(e); older sister; a determinant of kinship, usually prefixed to the personal name of some older female.  The speaker drops the prefix to address a younger females.  Opp. kuya.

-ate : a verbal suffix.

-ate : office of.

-ate : possessing.

ater : flat black, dead black.  Cf. niger.  Opp. albus.

athair criona : seanathair : [Ir] PaFa; grandfather, parent’s father.

Atheling : William Atheling.

Athena & Apollo : [Gk] Minerva & Vulcan [Lt] : an opposite-sex pair representing Wisdom and Knowledge.  The Greek Apollo had no equivalent in Roman mythology, and therefore Vulcan instead was paired with Minerva.  The equivalents include Thoth and Isis [Eg]; Nabu and Ea [Ba]; Rudra or Sarasvati [Sk]; Odin or Bragi or Mimir [Ns]; Lug or Brigit or Bran [Ce]; Itzamna or Kukulcan [Ma]; Quetzalcoatl [Az].

Athena : Athene [Gk], goddess of prudence and wisdom; Minerva [Lt].  As the epitomy of Creativity, Athena corresponds to Ptah [Eg]; Ea [Ba]; Vulcan & Minerva [Lt]; Volund or Frigg [Ns]; Goibniu or Lug [Ce]; Ixazaluoah [Ma]; Quetzalcoatl [Az].

Athena [Gk] : Vulcan & Minerva.

Athena and Poseidon : the female and male gods who competed for control of Athens.  Athenian women enjoyed the right to vote, and when the populace was canvassed, the women strongly supported Athena, such that Athena prevailed as the elected leader, by a margin of one vote.  Poseidon became enraged, and innundated Attica with a flood.  The oracle of Dodona explained that, due to the fear of Poseidon’s wrath, the Athenians denied citizenship to women, deprived women of suffrage, prohibited matriarchal surnames, and outlawed women from serving as priestesses.  Poseidon’s intimidations effectively transformed Athens from an egalitarian center of matrism into to male-dominated, patristic society.[153]

Athena vis-à-vis Artemis : two Greek godesses contrasted as archtypes of good vs. evil.  Both were Amazons, but Athena stands for what is good and patriarchal, whereas Artemis stands for man-slaying and matrism.  Cf. Britomart vs. Radigunde, Gorgons vs. Myrines, dualism.

atmatertera : admatertera.

atnepos : adnepos : SoSoSoSo; great-great-great-grandson.

atnepos privignus : SoSosoSoWiSo; great-great-great-grandstepson.

atneptis : SoSoSoSoDa; great-great-great-granddaughter.

atneptis privigna : SoSoSoSoWiDa; great-great-great-grandstepdaughter.

atpatruus : adpatruus.

atque : and, and also; and too; even; as much as if; than; yet; nevertheless.

atqui : however, rather; but, yet; notwithstanding.

at-sign : @ : [1990] the second part of an e-mail address; the sign that separates a user name from the domain.  Cf. address.

attendant on a knight : esquire, squire.

attest : to certify, bear witness; to affirm to be true or genuine.

Attic lovers : Harmodius and Aristogiton.

attorney : [1800] a member of a class of the le­gal professionals that grew rapidly as part of the clerical staffs of courts.  Attorneys became the clients of barristers, the consulting experts on law.  An attorney’s acts are binding on his principal, whereas the acts of a narrator are not.

attorney : atty. : atturnatus : [1550] a legal professional be­longing to a lower class of legal scholars, ex­cluded from Inns of Court for not being barristers.  Attorneys are chief figures in the Plea Rolls.[154]

atty. : attorney.

ATVAE : American TV-Announcer English.

au pair : [1960 Am-Fr] literally on even terms; on par; a nanny, nursemaid; a foreign girl who performs domestic work in exchange for room and board.  An au pair arrangement often includes a modest salary, provides the girl an opportunity for learning English, and sometimes results in a long-term surrogate relationships that become lasting bonds.  The phrase has become popular in the eastern U.S., where it is commonly used by working couples to advertise for domestic help.  Cf. domestic worker.

AUC : ab urbe condita : 1 auc : bc 753 : year-date after the founding of the city of Rome, which took place on 22 April 753 bc.  The year-date ad +753 yields the year-date auc.

aud- : audit- : to hear.

aud. : auditor.

audiencia : [Sp] high court.

audio- : hearing, acou- [Gk].

audit- : aud- : to hear.

augmentation of honor : arms of concession.

August: /8/ : [ad 8] sextilis, literally the 6th month; a month of 31 days; the eighth month of the Gregorian Calendar, eighth month of the Scottish NS Julian Calendar, but the sixth month of the English OS Julian Calendar.  Cf. Agosto [Sp], July, September.

Augusta Trinobantum : Augusta : London.

Augustinus : Austin.

auios : [Gk] So; son.  Cf. filius.

auletrides : flute players; girls hired out to play, dance, and amuse men at private dinners.  Cf. pornæ, hetaerae.

aumbry: armaria [Lt] : armarie [Fr] : a cupboard, originally fashioned to safekeep arms, but later used in churches to lock up the plate and sacred vessels.

aunt : aintín : [En-Ir] an English classificatory term.  Although Irish nomenclature sometimes employs this term, the indigenous custom is to use descriptive terms, such as mother’s sister, or father’s sister.  Cf. uncle.

aura clitoridis : the blue light in fire that represents the essential female and creative power; the fire that lives in the wood of a female substance.[155]

aurum potabile : elixir of life.

Ausonius : a Christian who maintained a large library of homosexual literature.[156]

Australian bilinear kin groups : the four or eight classes, or the sections and subsections, that divide Australian lineages into bilinear kin groups.  Cf. bilinear kin groups, sections and subsections.

Australoids : one of the five races; the peoples of southeastern Asia and Oceania, namely the Tasmanians, Australian Aborigines, Papuans, Negritos, Melanesians, Micronesians, and Polynesians.  Cf. races.

Australopithecus : [3,000-1,000th millennia bc] Hominidae of the basal Quaternary period, divided into Australopithecus robustus, and Australopithecus africanus.  Cf. Hominidae.

aut- : [Gk] self.

author : auctor : writer, the prime mover or first beginner, the efficient, the first writer of anything.

authoress : a female efficient, a female writer.

auto- : [Gk] self, ipse.

autobiography : memoirs, a biography written by the subject himself.

automobile : [1922] 1 in 10 Americans owned an automobile in 1922.

automobile accidents : [1997] Each year in the United States, approximately 40,000 people are killed in automobile accidents, and some 3 million are injured.  Greater numbers of Americans happen to be killed and injured annually by firearms.

autosomal dominant disorder : one of some 2,000 inherited disorders caused by autosomal transmission from parent to child.  Such a disorder will usually be present in one parent, and each child of that parent will stand a 50% risk for inheriting the same condition.  The autosomal dominant disorders include Huntington’s disease or chorea, polydactyly or having extra fingers or toes, achondroplasia dwarfism, chronic simple glaucoma, and hypercholesterolemia.  Cf. genetic inheritance.

autosome : one of 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes in human cells; any non-sex chromosome.

autumnal equinox : Cf. equinox.

auxilium vicecomitis : Sheriff’s aide.

ava : avia [Lt] : avola [It] : FaMo; grandmother.

avenage : avena : a quantity of oats paid as rent.[157]

avener : avenor : an officer of the stable.

avengeance : punishment, vengeance.

aventaille : avant-taille : [Fr] ventail, vizor.

avi : ancestors, forefathers.

avi- : bird, ornitho- [Gk].

avia : ava : FaMo; grandmother.

aviomies : [Fi] Hu; husband.

avioton : [Fi] illegitimate.

avo : avola [It] : FaFa; grandfather.

avoidance relationship : the extreme expression of respect toward another person; a pattern of complete avoidance of any speech or physical contact between two relatives.[158]  In a Navajo family, a mother-in-law and her son-in-law customarily avoid one another, and the mother-in-law traditionally wears bell earrings to warn her son-in-law of her approach.[159]  A man is not allowed to see his mother-in-law in the Tlinkit tribe of Alaska as well as among the Caribs of South America, and the tribes Arapaho, Navajo, Chirichua Apache, Dakota, Ojibway, and Cherokee.  A boy in New Guinea will instantly hide himself if he learns that the mother-in-law of one of his elder brothers happens to be in the neighborhood.  An Australian bushman will try to avoid being unwittingly touched by even the shadow of his mother-in-law.  A Melanesian is likely to avoid a beach having vestiges of his mother-in-law’s tracks.[160]  Thus, the avoidance relationship with a mother-in-law may be observed in Africa, Australia, Melanesia, and America.  Anthropologists have never found a satisfactory explanation for mother-in-law avoidance, but usually connect it with the symbolic abduction of the wife, or the violation of the daughter.  Cf. doyishini, mother-in-law avoidance, relationship, respect relationship.  Opp. mother-in-law consortia.

Avona Mediterranea, sive Borealis : Northampton.

avuncuclan : a matrisib localized around male members rather than female members, when a son will leave his father’s home to take of residence with his mother’s brother, or his maternal uncle, for rearing and permanent settlement.  Opp. amitaclan.

avuncula : MoSi; maternal aunt, mother’s sister.  Cf. matertera.

avuncular: [1831] belonging to a maternal uncle.  Cf. amital, patruel.  Opp. materteral.

avuncular marriage : ZD-MB marriage; SiDa-MoBr marriage; sister’s daughter’s marriage.

avunculocal residence : living temporarily or permanently in the home or village of a maternal uncle; residing near one’s mother’s brother; a norm wherein unmarried male leaves his paternal home to reside with his mother’s brother, or his maternal uncle (MoBr), and then upon marriage, brings his wife to live there also.  Cf. matrilineal family, residence rules, uxorilocal, virilocal.  Opp. amitalocal residence.

avunculus : MoBr, MoSiHu; frater matris, maternal uncle, mother’s brother, mother’s sister’s husband; mother’s brother-in-law.  The word is the diminutive for avus.  In medieval times avunculus came to mean father’s brother, or even paternal cousin, or maternal cousin.  Opp. of patruus.

avunculus magnus : MoMoBr, MoFaBr; frater aviæ, granduncle, grandmothers’ brother, ma­ternal granduncle; Großonkel, Großmutterbruder, Bruder der avia.

avunculus maior : avunculus major : FaFaFaMoBr; proavunculus, great-great-granduncle.

avunculus maior : avunculus major : FaMoBr; granduncle, grandmother’s brother.[161]

avunculus maximus : abavunculus : FaFaMoBr; great-grandmother’s brother, maternal great-granduncle; Bruder der Urgroßmutter.

avus : FaFa; grandfather, ancestor.

awlispian : [1375] lisping.

axial line: the central line of an architectural drawing; the axis of a building, by which all of its walls and elements are aligned.

az : azure, blue.

azona : [Gk] chastity belt.  Cf. amazosas.

[120] Arensberg 1968:  83.

[121] Boswell 1980:  257.

[122] Grahn 1990:  205.

[123] Grahn 1990:  69.

[124] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[125] I Paralipomenon, 1.13.  I Chronicles, 1.18.

[126] Boswell 1980:  24.

[127] HL:  231.

[128] Cogswell 1847.

[129] Boswell 1980:  107.

[130] Boswell 1980:  364.

[131] Diner 1965:  126.

[132] Dave B. Strong.

[133] Plucknett 1956:  715-716.

[134] HL:  100.n7, 226.

[135] Plucknett 1956 : 444.

[136] Plucknett 1956:  110-112.

[137] Plucknett 1956:  110-112.

[138] Plucknett 1956:  110-112.

[139] Plucknett 1956:  110-112.

[140] Plucknett 1956:  110-112.

[141] Plucknett 1956:  361.

[142] Plucknett 1956 : 361.

[143] Plucknett 1956 : 361.

[144] Plucknett 1956:  360.

[145] HL : 71.  Plucknett 1956 : 111.

[146] Plucknett 1956 : 111, 358-360, 372, 394.1, 409, 609.  HL:  310.

[147] Plucknett 1956 : 372, 456, 469.2.

[148] Plutcknett 1956:  469.2.

[149] Plucknett 1956:  360.

[150] APG, 3421 M Street NW, Suite 236, Washington, DC 20007-3552, 1997.

[151] Plucknett 1956;  444.

[152] Eglinton 1964:  489.

[153] Diner 1965:  146.

[154] Plucknett 1956:  217.

[155] Grahn 1990:  240.

[156] Boswell 1980:  132.

[157] Johnson.

[158] Schusky 1972:  89.

[159] Schusky 1972:  61-62.

[160] Diner 1965:  185.

[161] Everton 1971.

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