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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


R : [NA] rejected claim, a pension claim filed by either a survivor or widow but rejected.  Such a file usually contains the application of a widow, because her claim was normally the last to be considered.

R : [Ogham Q-Celtic] riuben.[1]

R. : regina : queen.

R. : rex : king.

R.A.F. : Royal Air Force.

R.C. : Roman Catholic.

R.I. : RI : Rhode Island.

R.I.P. : requiescat in pace.

R.M.S. : Royal Mail Ship.

R.N. : Royal Navy.

R.S.V. : [1946] Revised Standard Version, a revision of the American Standard Version of the Bible, published in 1946 and 1952.

rabbit : [En] game of warren, the long-eared and timid mammal hunted on a warren.  We presume that a rabbit of the warrren was smaller and faster than a gray hare living in the forest.  Cf. conye, game, hare.

rabbit : Cf. hare.

rabdomancy : divination by a wand.

race : a socio-political construct, based upon the mistaken notion that the earth might be populated by different species of human beings.  The term race has been extensively used in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Europe and America, but with many meanings and nuances.  In fact, all the varieties of modern humans (homo sapiens sapiens) are practically identical to one another genetically, so the old definition of race does not hold true.  The theory of evolution, in unison with the civil rights movement, has largely dissembled our older concept of race, and has led us to many alternative methods of categorization.  Modern Americans have come to prefer such terms as ‘ethnic identity,’ but even this nomenclature can confusing because it frequently crosses or bridges the racial categories.  Cf. ethnic identities, genetic Eve, out-of-Africa.

race : a suborder of living being subordinate to species.  Cf. classification.

race : radice : a family ascending, a family descending; generation; breed; progress, course, train, process.

races : the five original geographic races that categorize all people living today.  In geographical taxonomy, the five races are called (1) Caucasoids, (2) Capoids, (3) Congoids, (4) Australoids, (5) Mongoloids.  Cf. ethnic identities.

racial categories : [1973 Am] the five categories adopted by the U.S. government to denote the major ethnic and/or linguistic groups in the United States, namely (1) Native American, (2) Asian/Pacific Islander, (3) White, (4) Black, and (5) Hispanic.  These five categories actually transcend racial boundaries, and therefore we have come to speak of such categories as ethnic identities.  Cf. ethnic identities, ethnicity.

racial categories : [1997 Am] The U.S. Census Bureau began listing five racial categories in 1973, but determined to allow multiracial subjects to be listed as belonging to more than one category in 1997.  Cf. ethnic identities, ethnicity.

racism : the practice of prejudice and discrimination against others by virtue of race; the doctrine holding that caucasian blood or Aryan descent is somehow superior to other races, and that whites have a birthright to subjugate and oppress non-white people.  Cf. ethnic identities, one-drop law.

rack : a large, horizontal frame, equipped with ropes, rollers, and levers, and used to stretch a human body laterally by the hands and feet, as a means of sadistic torture.  The rack was often used in cases of high treason, because the tormentors could prolong and intensify the victim’s anguish, thereby inducing him to confess his wrongdoing, and implicate other conspirators.  The rack was one of the several steps in a public execution.  Cf. draw and quarter, torture.

rack : equuleus.

rack cords : fidiculae.

radic- : root.

radicium : of the roots.

radiocarbon dating : calculating the age of an organic specimen by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon, namely carbon-14 (C14), that remains in the specimen.

radiometric dating : calculating the absolute age of mineral or rock by measuring the amount of residual radioactivity.

radius virilis : penis.

radix : root, the source of a family or breed; stock, source, origin.  Cf. ab radicæ.

radix and stems : the root and branches of a patrilineage, which sprout buds or scions.  Cf. stems and scions.

Radnors. : Radnorshire, Wales.

Radulfus : Ralph.

Raerae : [Otaheite, Tahitian] male homosexual; the nickname of a certain mahu whose story became popular in Tahiti.  The nickname Raerae does not connote transvestism.[2]

Raga : Rage : Ragæ : Leicester.

ragazza : [It] girl.

ragazzo : [It] boy.

raiment : vesture, vestment, dress, garment.

rainbow : seven colors of the spectrum, representing the six grades of ambisexuality and homosexuality (1-6), as contrasted with heterosexuality (0) in the Kinsey scale.

rainbow after a storm : Ochumare, an aspect of Oya.  Cf. Oya.

rainbow dress of Boudica : Cf. Boudica, Oya.

Rainbow Family : the world family of creatures born of the first mother, Gæa, Mother Earth.

rainbow flag : the flag raised at Gay Freedom Day in San Francisco on the last Sunday in June 1978.  The original two flags were handmade, in 8 colors, but subsequent flags made commercially were uniformly 6 colors.  Gilbert Baker designed and produced the flag, intending its colors to signify sex (pink), life (red), healing (orange), sun (yellow), nature (green), art (blue), harmony (indigo), and spirit (violet).  The commercial version dropped pink and violet, but retained red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and indigo.  When the first two flags were carried down Market Street in 1978, spectators tossed money, and many wept.[3]  The rainbow flag has become the international symbol of nonconformist genders and sexualities, for it represents lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgenerals, and transsexuals.  A permanent flag 20’ x 30’ was placed on a 70’ flag pole at the corner of Market and Castro Streets in San Francisco in October 1997.

rainbow flag of Germany : [1618-1648] German peasants carried a rainbow flag during the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648).

rainbow flag of Joan d’Arc : the flag with a white background, depicting a lily and two angels before a rainbow.  Joan explained that the two angels represented hope and victory, and that the flag was forty times more powerful than her sword.[4]  Her prosecutors claimed that the flag possessed magical powers.

rainbow flag of Thomas Paine : [1789] Thomas Paine flew a rainbow flag at his home, and he proposed that ships use the rainbow flag as a symbol of nonbelligerence, when the Maritime Compact was signed in 1789.

rainbow flags among ancients : the Egyptians and the Chinese used rainbow flags.

rainbow flags among Buddhists : The Tibetan flag features a jewel, flaming with the hues of the rainbow.  The international Buddhist flag was designed by Christmas Humphreys about 1920 to show the rainbow aura that emanated from the body of Siddhartha Gautama when he attained enlightenment.

rainbow flags in Central and South America : The Inca natives made a flag composed of feathers colored in the hues of the rainbow.  The Aztec natives raised a rainbow flag to represent their supreme diety Quetzalcoatl.  The Coöperative Movement in Guyana adopted the rainbow flag in the early 1900s to symbolize the unity of diverse peoples.[5]

rainbow of the thundergod : Cf. Uranus [Gk], Oya [Af & Brazil], Boudica’s rainbow dress; Isis, goddess of the rainbow.

rainbow skirt of Boudica : Cf. Boudica.

rainbow skirt of Oya: the nine-color dress of Oya.  Cf. Boudica, Ochumare.

rainbow stripes symbolizing unity : [1907] The Pan-American Union placed rainbow stripes on both sides of their flag as a symbol of unity.

raise : to breed or raise some animal for use or market.  Someone might raise cattle, but he rears children, properly speaking.  Cf. rear.

raisin : [Fr] died grape; the fruit of a vine left in place until completely ripe, and then dried for preservation.

raisin of Corinth : raison of Coraunte : [1440] a small seedless raisin grown in the Levant.  Cf. Reysyngs of Corance.

Reysyngs of Corance : [1519/10/16-22] raisins of Corinth.  The family le Strange purchased 2 pounds of Reysyngs of Corance at 3d per pound in 1519.[6]

ram : an uncastrated male sheep.  Cf. sheep.  Opp. crone, ewe, rigsey, wether.

Rammes : [1519/10/15] rams.

rams: Rammes.

ramage : [rare] conical clan, a unilineal descent group with its segments ranked hierarchically.  Cf. conical clan.

ramage : [usual] deme, sept; cognatic descent group.

ramage : a grouping of two or more lineages through descents that may be characterized as ambilineal or nonunilineal.  In a system of ramage, descents may be freely traced through both males and females.  Firth devised the term to specifically describe a process of fission or branching that is common in Polynesia and elsewhere in the world.[7]

ramage : a lineage which functions conventionally, but has a membership elected or chosen by the ego through his selective reckoning of descents through either males or females.  Such a ramage group certainly resembles a traditional lineage, in that it is consanguineal and can subdivide into segments, but it violates the principle of unilineal descent.[8]  Cf. lineage society.

Ramapithecus : [3,000-1,000th millennia bc] Hominidae of the basal Quaternary period.  Cf. Hominidae.

rambler : rover, wanderer.

rameau : [Fr] branch, bough, twig.

rameaux : [Fr] branches.

ramification: division or separation into branches.

ramify : to separate into branches, to part into branches.

ramous : ramus : branchy, consisting of branches.

rampant : [Sx] exuberant, overcoming restraint; the posture of a lion rearing up and ready to combat, facing the dexter.

rampant sinister : the rampant posture, facing the sinister.

rampart : the platform on the wall behind a parapet; the wall around a fortified place.

ramulus : a little branch, twig.

ramus : branch, bough, a genealogical branch; penis, a metaphor of the brothel.

rancheria : [Sp] temporary settlement, native campsite.

rank : [Sx] line of men standing abreast; row; range of subordination; class, order; degree of dignity, eminence, or excellence.

ransom : a price paid for redemption from captivity or punishment.

rape : a division in Sussex.

rape : Cf. date-rape drug, Rohypnol.

rape : one of the five dragons of crime.  Cf. crimes.

rape : raptus : constupration, the violent defloration of chastity; ravishment.

rapio : to rape; to drag off into captivity; a euphemism for duco.

raptor : rapist.

rate: ratio.  General rates of baptisms, births, marriages, deaths, and burials are usually expressed as factors among 1,000 people, and compare the numbers of vital events by a stable population.  Annual rates show the numbers of vital events in a certain locality within a fixed period of one year.  Cf. remarriage rate.

ratio: rate.

ratio of mothers dead by childbirth per mother : [1450-1700] 25/1000; approximately 25 mothers died in childbirth for every 1,000 mothers giving birth in England between 1450 and 1700.[9]

ratio of stillborns per birth : [1538-1575] 20/1000; 20 deaths in childbirth per 1,000 birth events was the ratio of stillborns to total births at Hunstanton between 1538 and 1575.[10]

ratio of baptisms per marriage : [1538-1553 En] 3.9/1; 3.9 baptisms for each marriage was the rate of baptisms to marriage at Hunstanton in the period 1538 to 1553.[11]

ratio of burials per baptism : [1571-1597 En] 6.4/6.8 (=.941); 6.4 burials per year, compared to 6.8 baptisms per year, at Hunstanton between 1571 and 1597.[12]

ratio of baptisms per burial : [1571-1597 En] 6.8/6.4 (=1.0625); 6.8 baptisms per year, compared to 6.4 burials per year, the averages at Hunstanton between 1571 and 1597.[13]

ratio of baptisms per marriage : [1561-1570 En] 2.9/1; 2.9 baptisms for each marriage was the rate of baptisms per marriage at Hunstanton in the period 1561 to 1570.[14]

ratsbane : poison for rats, arsenic.

ravisher : ravisseur [Fr] one who takes a woman by violence.

ravisher of boys: Knabenschänder.

ravishment : violation, forcible constupration.

rdo : reverendo : [Sp] reverend.

RDV : Reims-Douai Version (1609) of the Bible.

re : [It] king.

re- : again, against; back.

re- : back, again.

re: in the matter of, in the case of.  The word re is used in judicial proceedings to identify a case involving only one party, and is correlative to the use of versus for cases involving two parties.  Cf. versus.

re vera : real, actual, or true in the act.

real property : real estate; immovables; a parcel of land and anything natural or artificial considered to be a fixed and integral part same, such as trees, minerals, buildings, enclosures, and fences.  It is indeed possible to separate certain features of real estate, for an owner may, in some cases, transfer or sell the surface of real property to a buyer for residence or farming, and yet legally reserve the subsurface mineral rights for future mining.  It is also possible to dislodge and remove from the land some physical structure, such as a house.  However, for most ordinary purposes of testamentation and conveyance, real property represents some immovable and indivisible tract that must pass to a successor intact and whole.  Opp. personal property.

reality : inner reality : id, collective unconsciousness; the subjective world.  Opp. ego, outer reality.

reality : outer reality : ego, outer consciousness; the object world.  Opp. collective unconsciousness, id, inner reality.

rear : to bring up a person; to breed or raise some animal for use or market.  The verb rear denotes a rearing or upbringing suitable to humans.  Although it can also be used with respect to animals, it is usually reserved to human situations.  Parents rear their human children, but a herdsman raises his sheep.  Cf. raise.

reason : ratio : the power by which a man deduces one proposition from another, the progression from premises to consequences; argument, ground for persuasion.

recension : recensio : a critical revision of a text, a text established through critical revision; enumeration, assessment, tax, recensus.

receptacle : thalamus, torus.  Cf. flower.

receptive anal intercourse : Cf. intercourse.

receptive vaginal intercourse : Cf. intercourse.

recessive : receding, tending to go back; retiring, withdrawn.

recessive disorder : one of some 1,000 disorders known to be caused by autosomal recessive inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, galactosemia, phenylketonuria, sickle-cell anemia, thalassemia, Tay-Sachs disease, and Gaucher’s disease.  Cf. genetic inheritance.

recessive gene : [1900] an allele that shows little or no phenotypic effect when it occurs in the heterozygous condition.  A recessive gene only becomes detectable when its allele on the paired chromosome happens to be the same.

recessive inheritance : genetic inheritance wherein both parents are likely to remain unaffected, because they carry a normal gene (N) that predominates over its recessive and defective counterpart (r).  Each child stands a 1-in-4 or 25% chance of inheriting a double dose of the recessive counterpart (r), that would cause him to be affected.  Cf. genetic inheritance.

recessive trait : a trait that finds expression only when the determining gene is in the homogeneous condition.  Both parents must contribute alleles of the same recessive gene in order to make it apparent.

reciprocal relationship : parent-child (Pa & Ch), sibling-sibling (Br=Si & Br=Si).

reckon descent by generations : réidhteach gaol [Ir].

reckoning : calculation, account of time, computation.  In the accounting of historical time, the concept of reckoning is critical, because one’s method of reckoning determines how he will record his historical dates.

reckoning by weeks from 1 January : counting the New Year week of 1 January as the 1st week in the Stile Vetere (sv) Julian Calendar.  The English did not recognize 1 January as New Year Day until 1 January 1752 jc, and therefore never counted their weeks in this manner, prior to 1752.

reckoning by weeks from 25 March : counting the Lady Day week of 25 March as the 1st week in the English Calendar.  This type of reckoning by weeks was standard in English accounting.

reckoning by weeks from Accession Day : counting the monarch’s accession day as defining the 1st week of a Regnal Year.  Each sovereign had his or her own accession date, making it highly impractical to count the weeks of a regnal year.  Interestingly, John Syff employed such reckoning by weeks, based upon the accession of Edward VI on 28 January 1547, in the accounts he maintained at Hunstanton Hall.  However, John Syff’s peculiar reckoning by weeks was not critical to his accounts, because he dated each entry, and did not depend upon his reckoning by weeks.

reckoning by weeks from 29 September, Michaelmas : counting weeks from the Feast of Archangel Michael, which fell a few days after the Autumnal Equinox, and commenced the second half of the English year.  Lady Anne used this type of weekly reckoning at Hunstanton Hall from Sunday 25 September 1519.  Note that the first week of such reckoning included Michaelmas, but started on the preceding Sunday.

reckoning : Brøderbund Reckoning.

reckoning : Microsoft Reckoning.

recollection : revival of memory, recovery of notion.

recombinant DNA : a hybrid DNA sequence created in the laboratory by conjoining pieces of DNA from different sources.

recompense : to repay, requite, compensate, redeem.

recompositive : someone once thought of as two people, but lately thought of as a single individual.  Such a circumstance arises when a genealogist misapprehends his findings, or draws from them fallacious conclusions, and later determines to recombine the two sets of facts.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

record : [general] register, authetic memorial.

record : [specific] an entry or line-item written in a large register; the record of a birth, baptism, marriage, death, deed, testament, or administration.  A parish register usually contains birth, baptism, marriage, death, and burial records in chronological order, although these events are often segregated into different books, e.g. Marriage Book, Will Book, Death Book, et cetera.  Civil authorities maintain registers for births, marriages, and deaths, as well as for records abstracted from deeds, wills, and estate administrations.  Cf. index entry, item.

record : recordor [Lt] : recorder [Fr] : to register something so as not to loose its memory; to cause to be remembered solemnly.

Record System : Modified Register System : the style and format for writing a genealogy promulgated by the National Genealogical Society.  Cf. Register System.

recorder : one who registers events; the keeper of the rolls of a city or county; one who writes the line-items or records in a register.

recreation : amusement in sorrow or distress; relief from toil or pain; diversion.

recruit : to raise new soldiers; to supply an army with new men.

rect- : reg- : rig- : to straighten, rule.

rect- : right, straight.

recti-  straight.

rector : recteur : [Fr] ruler, lord, governor; the parson of an unimpropriated parish.  Cf. vicar.

rectory : parsonage; a spiritual living comprised of land, tithe, and other oblations of the people.

rectress : rectrix : governess.

recusant : recusans : nonconformist; one who refuses to acknowledge the king’s supremacy in matters of religion; one who refuses any terms of communion or society.

recusation : refusal; the act of recusing a judge from trying a cause in which the judge has some personal interest.

recusavit : he demurred, objected, protested.

red- : re-, back again.

red phalli : the painted red phallic symbols that marked the walls of a brothel in Rome.[15]

Redeshancks : [1520/1/15-21] redshanks.

redshank: Redeshanck : [1525] Tringa totanus; a common sandpiper with pale red legs and feet, native to the Old World.

red tape : excessive bureaucracy.  The expression derived from practice of affixing a seal impression in wax with a long strand of red ribbon handing pendant from the wax.  Cf. seal.

redemption : a sacrifice of personal liberty in return for the patronage of a superior power.  Christians hold that obedience to God provides redemption and salvation through the Christ.  Taxpayers theoretically hold the government responsible to provide suffrage and honor in return for payments, and therefore deem to be tyrannical whosoever fails to give proper redemption for money.  Communal and civil rights have evolved from this redemptionary balance between authority and freedom.  The world is a place of bosses and redemptioners, and whosoever stands outside such a hierarchy is customarily viewed as sinful, lawless, and disorderly.  American democracy requires that the communal requirements of the church to remain separate from the civil and criminal laws of the state, for the sake of religious freedom.  Cf. bondage, indentured servant, Sabbath year, sin tax.

redemptioner : one who bargains or sells himself into bondage or indentured servitude for a fixed period of time, in exchange for passage by ship to America.  The word indicates a personal bond or transaction made directly with the master or owner of a ship, and is absent the implications of the bondage of a convict for transportation.  The concept might sound like an anachronism, but the U.S. Coast Guard intercepted several Chinese vessels filled with redemptioners, in the early 1990s, and the INS raided several residences in New York where such immigrants were being detained.  Cf. bondage, indentured servant.

reduction : Cf. selective reduction.

reduction rules : Cf. rewrite rules.

reel : a Scottish round dance.  Cf. dances, jig.

reënfeoffment : the restoration of a fee to a vassal, typically after some term of forfeiture, exile, or disinheritance.

reeve : [Sx] steward.

reference : denoting someone by a kinship term relating him to the speaker.  Cf. absolute-sex reference, cross reference, headword, index entry, parallel reference, relative-sex reference, term of address, term of reference, vide.

reference versus address : Cf. terminology of address, terminology of reference.

referent : [anthropology] alter, the other person relative to the ego.  Cf. alter.  Opp. ego.

Reformation : [1517] the change of religion from the corruptions of popery to its primitive state.[16]  The Reformation was the continental movement founded by Martin Luther when he made public his Ninety-Five Theses on 31 October 1517.  The Reformation eventually influenced profoundly the sectarians of Scotland, as well as the dissenters of England, but it should never be confounded with Protestantism.

refugee : refugié : [Fr] one who flees to shelter or protection.

reg- : rect- : rig- : to straighten, rule.

regal : regalis : royal, kingly.

regale : an entertainment, treat.

regalia : the ensigns of royalty, namely the crown, scepter, orb, the sword of state, and other such devices.

regality : regalis : royalty, sovereignty, kinship.

Reganomics : the Trickle-down Theory, the American Federalist, or New Federalist, argument that only the wealthy should be entitled to redistribute wealth, and that the prosperity of the rich should ultimately accrue to the benefit of the downtrodden masses.  The conservative politics of Alexander Hamilton, Washington, and Adams, found their modern expression in the doctrines of Ronald Reagan.  Reganomics argues against egalitarianism and democracy, and advocates paternalistic, Platonic rule by theoretically beneficent and munificent plutocrats and aristocrats, in the vague context of a so-called Republic of divergent states, with different, local laws.  The model seemed to work for Victorian England, but seems to be utterly discordant to the democratic idealism of America.  Cf. reverse discrimination.

regency : authority, government; vicarious government; those to whom some vicarious regality has been entrusted; a district governed by a vicegerent.

regeneratus : reborn.

regeneratus sacro baptismate : reborn by sacred [adult] baptism.

regent : ruler, governor; one invested with vicarious royalty; a term formerly used as equivalent to professor, but now used to denote a professor of high rank

regg. : reggente : [It] ruled by a regent.

regia majestas vestra : who informs His Majesty.[17]

regicide : regicida : the murderer of his king; murder of a king.  Charles I was a victim of regicide in 1649.  Cf. Tyrrel, William II Rufus and Tyrrel.

regicides : Hippolyte, William II Rufus, Edward II, Charles I.  Cf. sacrificial killings.

regina : R. : queen.

register : registrum : regestum : a regularly maintained account of anything; registrar, the officer who writes and keeps the register.  A recorder enters record entries in a large, bound register, and because the entries normally appear in chronological order, such a register is sometimes called a calendar.  Cf.cadastre, calendar, catalogus, parish register, plat book, tract book.

Register System : the oldest style and format in the United States for writing a genealogy, promulgated by the New England Historical and Genealogical Register (NEHGR).  The National Genealogical Society (NGS) adopted the Modified Register System as their standard, and it later came to be known as the Record System.  Cf. Record System.

registered name : pu-ming [Ch].

registrar : registrarius : register; the officer who writes or records events, and keeps the register; one who records land abstracts and registers deeds; one who prepares a calendar of past events.  Cf. catalogus, notarius.

Registrar General : the title of the chief of Somerset House, London.

registrum : register.

registrum memoriarum : a register of deceased founders.

regnal year : the year reckoned on the basis of a monarch’s accession to the throne.

regnant : reigning, having regal authority.

regnavit : he ruled.

regrator : [1600] a merchant who violates statute law by buying his goods at a market or fair, and then selling the same at an escalated price within five miles of the same market or fair.[18]

regrator : [1700] engrosser, retailer; a merchant who buys goods at wholesale with the intention of reselling the same at retail, or an enhanced price.

regressive individuation : Cf. individuation.

regular : a regular soldier, a soldier belonging to a standing army rather than a reserve corps or militia.  Opp. militia.

réidhteach gaol : [Ir] to reckon descent by generations, or by counting glúin.[19]

reign : regnum : royal authority, sovereignty; kingdom, dominion.

reino : [Sp] kingdom.

reiter : pistolier, a light cavalryman armed with the pair of wheellock pistols.  Cf. petronel.

Rel : [IGI] relative, a spouse related to the proband, presumably as his paternal or maternal cousin.  This IGI Relative field sometimes replaces that of an IGI Spouse, and is sometimes annotated ‘No parents listed.’

rel. : relative; religion; released.

related naturally : correlative.

related reciprocally : correlative.

relation : one of three types of relation, namely descent, siblingship, and affinity.[20]

relation : relatus : kinsman, kinswoman; a person related by birth or marriage; someone distantly related by kinship or affinity; someone distantly blood related or connected by marriage; connection between one thing and other.  We would expect a relation to belong to some parentela or stirps of the third or fourth degree, or older, but normally not beyond the sixth generation.  Cf. relative, connection.

relations : the bonds, links, or ties that connect two people.

relationship : a distinctive and habitual behavior between two relatives that indicates either distance or familiarity.  Cf. avoidance relationship, jocular relationship, respect relationship.

relationship : kinship and affinity.  The word relationship has often been used as a collective term to denote either cognate kindred or the affines of cognates.  However, in colloquial usage, the word may be used in reference to many ties between unrelated persons.

relationship : the state of being related to another by kindred or artificial alliance; a singular unity, duality, or companionship existing between two persons, singularly recognizable as a marriage or consortium, friendship or acquaintance, dependency or fostership.  Properly and genealogically, agnatic or cognatic blood relationship does not extend beyond the sixth generation, chiefly because that was the limit that canons of the Roman church imposed long ago.  Affined relationships with brothers-in-law, sisters-in-law, etc., often depend upon particular needs and proximities, but direct blood relationships certainly can extend as far as five living generations, and one remembered, sixth generation.  Most personal relationships exist by virtue of affinity, for marriage gives rise to progeny, and progeny reared in the same house or lodging happen to create and preserve many lasting entwinements and bonds.  Many relationships are public, and often result in the exercise of hereditary, judicial, or electoral right.  A few relationships are forbidden, such as polygamy or bigamy or erogamy.  Cf. mother, father, grandparents, siblings, friends, foster children, natal kindred, adoptive kindred.

relationship term : kin term.

relationship terminology : kinship terminology.

relationships : ruler-subject, master-servant, patron-client, friend-friend; ego-cognate, ego-affine, ego-ally.  Cf. affines, kindred.

relative : [1500] a person connected with another by blood or affinity; a plant or animal related to another by common descent.  Grammatically, one must speak of a relative by first mentioning or referring to the relative’s antecedent.  When the word relative is used to denote kinship or affinity, it always implies and connotes the reciprocal or referrent relative, because a kinship term always presupposes a corresponding kinship term.  For example, if a certain relative is identified as a nephew, the hearer will assume that the subject must have an uncle, or some reciprocal relative equivalent to his parent’s brother.

relative : relativus : relation, kinsman; someone closely blood related or connected by marriage; particular, close in connection.  Cf. agnate, cognate, connection, consanguinei, consobrini, enate, relation, patrueles, parenti, sibling, sobrini.

relative age of siblings : the denotation of age differences between brothers or sisters, with respect to the ego.  The abbreviation Br(e) stands for elder brother, whereas Si(y) stands for younger sister.  Cf. agism, denotative range, points, primary kin types.

relative-in-law : in-law; a relative of one’s husband or wife; one of the many relatives a proband affines to himself through marriage to his wife; one of the many relatives of a husband who accept his wife into their family through matrimony.  Cf. relatives-in-law.

relatives : persons closest to the subject, generally apprehended as being blood related or closely aligned by marriage.  Connections are more remote than relatives, and therefore persons unrelated by blood, such as spouses or affines, in-laws, friends, acquaintances, and commercial or political contacts, are sometimes called connections in contradistinction to relativesRelations are usually blood related, but they are more remote than relatives, and often less familiar to the subject than his connections.

relatives in the third degree : [Catholic] FaBrSo; first cousins.

relative-sex reference : Sb(ss), Sb(os).  Opp. absolute-sex reference.

relatives-in-law : [1998] in-laws through one’s wife; one’s uxorial affines through a wife legally married, by ecclesiastical and civil law.  Marriage under civil law should and ought to be independent of any church, but American civil marriage has rejected biblical marriages, and has instead adopted Christian ecclesiastical marriage rules (created circa ad 400).  Thus, civil marriages and church marriages in America are practically identical, because both of the codes uniformly prohibit every marriage norm expressly mentioned in the Bible.  Relatives-in-law are therefore one’s affines who are created and governed by Christian ecclesiastical and American civil laws, and their exclusive definition must needs reject any affines created through so-called Danish marriages, or marriages outside the control of church and civil authorities.[21]  Cf. clandestine marriage, in-laws, relatives-out-law.

relatives-out-law : [1998] one’s mistress’ family; affines outside the law.  The term would apply to such persons as the Blount family, who were affines to Henry VIII through his mistress Bessie Blount, mother of his natural son Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond.[22]  Cf. domestic partners, same-sex marriages.

relics : reliquiæ : parts of a corpse kept for religious veneration; remnants of a saint.

relict : relicta [Lt] : relicte [Fr] : [En 1545] widow, survivor; a wife made desolate by the death of her husband.

relicta : relict; widow, widowed.  Cf. uxor.

relictus : widower, widowed.  Cf. maritus.

religion : religio : a system of divine faith and worship based upon an expectation of future rewards and punishments.

religion of infinity and asceticism : Hinduism and Jainism.[23]

religion of love : Christianity.[24]

religion of majesty and humility : Islām.[25]

religion of nothingness and compassion : Buddhism.[26]

religion of strain and form : Hellenistic religion of Greece and Rome.[27]

religion of struggle : Zoroastrianism.[28]

religion of will and obedience : Judaism, the religion of Israel.[29]

religions of Eastern Christianity : the independent churches called Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, East Syrian, West Syrian.

religions of Eastern Orthodoxy : the Greek Orthodox and Russian Orthodox religions.  Opp. Roman Catholicism.

religions, African : the religions of black Africans.  Ancient Egyptian religion has been categorized as Near Eastern.

religions, American : the religions of native Americans.

religions, Chinese : Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Maoism.  The Chinese tend to have plural affiliations with different religions.

religions, Far Eastern : Confucianism, Taoism, Mahāyāna Buddism, Shintō.

religions, Hellenistic : the religions of Greek and Rome.

religions, Indian : Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism; Theravāda Buddhism.

religions, Japanese : Buddhism, complemented with indigenous Shintō rites.  Some Japanese proudly proclaim themselves to have no religion (mushūkyō), whereas some Japanese freely embrace Buddhism, Shintōism, and other doctrines at the same time, eclectically.  Although Confucianism has no formal establishment in Japan, its influence is evident in many sects of Buddhism.

religions, Near Eastern : Judaism, Christianity, Islām, Zoroastrianism; ancient Egyptian religion.

religions, Oceanic : the religious systems of Australia, New Zealand, and Polynesia.

religious name : sung, shih [Ch]; a surname adopted by a Buddhist monastic as his religious name.[30]

religious namesakes : Cf. namesakes.

relocation : moving to a new place of residence.  In the 1980s, about 20% of the U.S. residents relocated each year.  By 1997, the rate of relocation dropped to 16% each year.  Cf. migration.

rem habere : to have intercourse with a prostitute.

remainder : [1920] special remainder, an exceptional rule of succession for a baronetcy that provides for the male issue of daughters to succeed, in the event the direct male lines all meet with extinction.

remainder to a peerage : a special succession to a peerage whereby the title passes to the peer’s daughter, brother, or sister, and subsequently to the heirs male of their bodies.  A Patent that grants a special remainder to a peerage effectively increases the chances for that peerage’s survival, for it admits to the line of succession the male offspring of heirs general.

remainder to a peerage : a special succession to a peerage whereby the title passes to the peer’s heirs general.  Peerages that pass to heirs general, instead of only heirs male, have an advantage to survive longer than ordinary peerages.  Peerages created for war heroes often provide for special remainders, for such was the case in the Patents written for Nelson, Kitchener, Allenby, Mountbatten, and Portal.[31]

remainder to a peerage : male succession to a peerage by the rule of primogeniture.  A peerage created by Patent descends to heirs according to whatever limitations the Patent sets forth.  Peerages are usually made to descend to the heir male of the body of the first peer.

remainder to a peerage created by Writ of Summons to Parliament : succession to a lordship invented by act of Parliament, rather than by royal Patent.  The rules of succession for such baronies happen to be complicated, because baronies sometimes descend by their own limitations, and are further subject to the needs and limitations of Parliament.  Additionally, peerages created by Writ are subject to the Parliamentary doctrine of abeyance.[32]

remainder to a peerage in the Peerage of Scotland : [1885-1940] a shifting remainder that may pass to another holder if no heir comes forth.  The Earldom of Selkirk was created with a shifting remainder, whereby the title was to pass to the next son of the Duke of Hamilton, if line failed to produce a male heir.  This condition for shifting the remainder to the Duchy of Hamilton was met once in 1885, and again in 1940.[33]

remainder to a peerage in the Peerage of Scotland : succession as per limitation.  Scottish destinations for a peerage happen to include destinations to (1) heirs male whatsoever, meaning the surviving senior heir male, despite the extinction of the male line descending from the first peer, (2) heirs male of the body, (3) heirs male of tailzie, or entailed estates, (4) heirs whatsoever, either male or female, and (5) heirs who are listed in a series of individual successors named by the peer.

remainder to a peerage of the Peerage of Ireland : succession descending according to the limitation.  The Viscountcy of Massereene and the Barony of Loughneagh were both created in the sixteenth century, and they both had remainders, in default of issue male, to the heirs general.  As of 1990, these two lordships were the only Irish peerages that could pass in the female line, and both were held by the Viscount Massereene and Ferrard.[34]

remainder to heirs male : [1625-1707] a special remainder, the rule of succession whereby men descending from the 1st Baronet are all eligible to succeed to the baronetcy, whether or not they belong to the 1st Baronet’s direct male patriliny, which might be extinct.  This rule was customary among the Baronets of Nova Scotia and the Baronets of Scotland, and it omitted the phrase “of the body of the first baronet,” thereby permitting succession by collateral heirs male, descending through females from the 1st Baronet.  Cf. Baronet of Nova Scotia, Baronet of Scotland.

remainder to heirs male and of tailzie : [1990] a special remainder, the rule of succession whereby a Scottish baronetage may pass to heirs general.  As of the year 1990, there were only four such baronets, namely the Baronet Dalyell of the Binns, the Baronetess Dunbar of Hempriggs, the Baronet Hope-Dunbar of Baldoon, and the Baronet Stirling-Maxwell of Pollock.[35]  These four Scottish baronetages are all intended to pass to heirs male together with entail of estates, but have a special provision that permits females, or heirs general, to succeed.

remainder to the heir male of the body of the first baronet : [1611] the customary rule of succession for a baronetcy, whereby the baronetcy passes exclusively to men directly descended from the 1st Baronet, by order of their birth.

remainder to the heir male of the body of the first peer : the traditional and customary limitation on male succession to a peerage.

remarriage rate : [1538-1575 En] 281/1000; 28.1% of all marriages at Hunstanton were second and third marriages in the period 1538 to 1575.[36]  This was a far higher rate than normal.

remarriage rate : [1651-1750 En] 112/1000 to 150/1000; 11.2% was the aggregate rate of remarriages for a sampling of parish records in Yorkshire, Lincolnshire, and Norfolk, during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.  At times of high death rates, the number of second and third marriages tended to escalate to remarriage rate of 15%.[37]

remarry : to marry again, to marry a second time.

remedy : remedium : a medicine that cures illness.

remote relations : Cf. far out.

renal : pertaining to the kidneys.

renes : kidneys.

rent: [Sx] revenue, annual payment; money paid for anything held of another.

rent : a regular payment for tenancy.  In medieval times, rents were usually paid quarterly.  Today, rents are paid monthly.  A renter normally pays perhaps 30% of his income for rent.

rent of a clove of gilliflower : Cf. gilliflower.[38]

rep. : report.

Rep. : Representative, a Member of Congress.

report : repute, rumor, public character.

repositive person : someone once reassigned but now returned to his former position.  Cf. genealogical adjectives, recompositive.

repository : a safe place whereto documents and artifacts are deposed or removed for permanent storage, such as an archive, museum, or library.

repoussé : [Fr] relief ornamention made by hammering out metal from the reverse side.

representation : succession per stirpes; the right or principle by which the issue or offspring of a decedent take or inherit the share of an estate which the direct ancestor would take if he were still living.  Cf. succession per capita, succession per stirpes.

reproductive technologies : newly devised procedures for progeneration, mainly the three categories of (1) artificial insemination, (2) in vitro fertilization, (3) surrogate motherhood.

republic : respublica : commonweath, common interest; the public; a state in which power is shared by several groups of people.

republicanism : attachment to the idea that a commonweath governed by people is superior to monarchy.

repudiare uxorem: to divorce, refuse, reject, disdain his wife.

repudiatus : divorced, gescheiden [Gm].

repudiavit : he divorced or put away his married or betrothed wife.

repudium remittere uxori : to repay his wife with dis­tain or rejection; to divorce.

reputatus : reputed.

reputed : [1549] being such according to popular belief; reputable, having a good reputation.

requiem: a hymn dedicated to the rest or requiem of the dead.  The word requiem is the first word in an introit in a mass for the death, and therefore has become the name of the hymn or service.

requiescat in pace : R.I.P. : may he rest in peace.

reredos : retable.

res : nature, interest, cause, thing.

res : rei : Sache [Gm].

res certus : fact certain.  Cf. four degrees of certitude.

res commodata : loan.  Cf. pecunia.

res confusus : point of confusion.  Cf. four degrees of certitude.

res domestica : domestic affair.

res dubius : point of doubt; some doubtful point.  Cf. four degrees of certitude.

res familiaris : private property.  Cf. property.

res gesta : a matter performed.

res gestæ : historian, Geschichtsschreibung.

res incertus : fact uncertain.  Cf. four degrees of certitude.

res judicata : a matter for adjudication.

res moventes : movable property.

res patrius : property inherited from one’s father.

res privata : private property.

res publica : public thing, republican; city and state.

res salinaria : a matter of the salt store.

res uxoria : wife’s property.

res vacantes : unclaimed objects, denoting abandoned chil­dren.[39]

res veneria : the venereal thing; sexual intercourse.

res. : residence, resided in.

rescript : rescriptum : edict of an emperor.

reserve : a soldier belonging to a reserve corps or militia.  Opp. regular.

residence : the act of dwelling in a place; dwelling, abode.

residence : the particular residence of a man or married couple with respect to relatives.  The place of a man’s residence, or the residence of a married pair, will often provide clues to the overall social structure.  We commonly speak of four patterns of residence, namely the virilocal, uxorilocal, avunculocal, and neolocal residence.[40]  Variant patterns include duolocal, bilocal, and matripatrilocal residence.

residence rules : a social group defined through common residence, property holding, unity in forming marriage alliances, political and social action, economic coöperation, gift exchange, and common ritual.  Cf. ambilocal, amitalocal, avunculocal, duolocal, matrilocal, natolocal, neolocal, patrilocal, patrivirilocal, utrolocal, uxorilocal, virilocal.  Opp. descent rules.

resignation : a voluntary abrogation of one’s peerage.  Cf. destination.

resignation : the act of resigning or giving up a claim or possession; unresisting acquiescence.

resigned : the deliberate abrogation of a peerage, as an act of defiance or contempt.

resins : the noble resins, such as frankincense and amber, said to constitute the tears of the immortal Earth Mother, Great Mother, or Mater Dolorosa, shed on behalf of her mortal son, doomed to die.[41]  Cf. Mater Dolorosa.

resp. : res publica, republic.

respect : respectus : regard, attention, reverence, honor, consideration.

respect relationship : a pattern of behavior between kinsfolk that involves outward demonstrations of respect or veneration.  People establish respect relationships in order to avoid conflicts, and uphold social norms.  For example, respect provides the distance that may distinguish a relative as belonging to a close degree, prohibitive of incest.  Cf. avoidance relationship, jocular relationship, relationship.

respiratory diseases : emphysema, bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis.

respite care : nursing services provided at home or hospital, ostensibly to give respite or relief to the principal care-giver.  Cf. hospice care.

responsalis : [ante 1189, temp Hen II] a response to charges in which parties to litigation may ap­pear in person, or through the proxy of a friend, relative, or even a bailiff in petty assizes.

respublica : republican, in the public interest.

rest : sleep, repose; the quietude of death.

restrictive marriage regulations : Chinese marriage.  Cf. marriage regulations.

retable : reredos, a painting or sculture positioned behind an altar.

retailer : regrator, engrosser.  Cf. regrator.

retainer : adherent, dependant.

retinens in manu sua honorem de Glocester : he kept in his hands the honor of Gloucester.[42]

retinue : retenue : [Fr] train, meiny; a crowd of persons attending some principal person.

retoured heir-in-general : acknowledged by jury and Chancery as heir-in-general.[43]

retribution : repayment.

retro- : backward.

retrospection : looking backward, looking behind oneself.  Cf. Julian Period.

retrovirus : an enveloped virus, with its genetic material in RNA form, that uses reverse transcriptase to translate its RNA into DNA; one of two lentiviruses that slowly cause AIDS, namely HIV-1 or HIV-2; one of two oncoviruses that rapidly cause leukemia, namely HTLV-1 or HTLV-2.  Cf. lentivirus, oncovirus, virus.

retroviruses : oncoviruses and lentiviruses.

return address : Cf. address.

reunion : return to a state of concord, cohesion, or juncture; an annual or periodical gathering of family relatives and relations.

rev. : revised.

Rev. : the Reverend.

reveille : [Fr] the beat of a drum or sound of a horn that gives notice of daybreak, or the time to rise.

revenge : revanche : [Fr] return of an injury; the passion of vengeance; the desire to hurt someone from whom hurt has been received.  An injury may be revenged, but a crime is avenged Revenge is an act of passion, whereas vengeance is an act associated with justice.

revengements : instances wherein a widowed lover slew the killer of his or her lover.  Having lost his lover Patroclus, Achilles killed Hector and dozens of other Trojans in avengement.  After the amazon Pantariste lost her lover Thraso in battle, she singled out Thraso’s killer Tiamides during the contest with Hercules, and attacked him, cutting off his head.  Cf. Achilles and Patroclus, Pantariste and Thraso.

revenue : revenu : [Fr] income, annual profits received from lands or other funds.

Reverend : reverendus : venerable, deserving reverence; a courtesy title designating a clergyman and commonly used from the eighteenth century.  Prior to the eighteenth century, it was common to use the term ‘clerk’ or ‘cleric.’[44]  We customarily style a clergyman as the Reverend, a bishop as the Right Reverend, and an archbishop as the Most Reverend.

reversal of rôles in sexual intercourse : allelobasias.

reverse discrimination : [1981] supposititious victimization of the majority by the minority.  Reverse discrimination was a political slogan expressing the Reaganean doctrine that all remedies for social discrimination must needs diminish the rights and privileges of the majority.  Reaganites believed that allegations of social discrimination should be categorically discounted and rejected, because the redistribution of wealth and civil rights requires abrogation and sacrifice by the aristocratic majority.  The phrase reverse discrimination was devised as a rhetorical counterblast to arguments for social equalization.  Democracy presupposes social equality, in sectors where no discrimination should or ought exist, and therefore the rationale for reverse discrimination must depend strictly upon aristocratic notions, and plutocratic devices.  Reagan’s dictums held that all wealth must flow from the wealthy, and that social wealth and prosperity would eventually ‘trickle down’ to the lower masses through purely economic operations.  Cf. Muscular Christianity, Promise Keepers, Republicanism, rhetoric, victimhood.

reverse transcriptase : [1971] a polymerase that catalyzes the translation of RNA genetic material into DNA; a polymerase that uses RNA as a template to catalyze the formation of DNA.  Reverse transcriptase is the means by which retroviruses replicate and spread.  Cf. lentivirus, oncovirus, retrovirus.

reverse transcriptase inhibitor : RTI : [1995] a drug that blocks retroviral replication by interfering with the polymerase, or the reverse transcriptase enzyme, that catalyzes the translation of RNA genetic material into DNA.  RTIs are used to prevent the translation of harmful retroviruses that cause influenza, leukemia, and AIDS.

reversed hypergamy : hypogamy.

reversed virgules : \\ : the two backslashes that mark the beginning and end of a transcription.

reversion : succession; right of succession; future possession after the death of the present possessor.

revestiary : revestiare : [Fr] closet, a place where dresses are stored.

revivication : the act of recalling to life.

revolution : revolutus : a radical change or tumultuous alteration in the state of a government or country.  The word is typically used for the relatively peaceful Glorious Revolution (1688) in England, the American Revolution (1775-1783), or the French Revolution (1789).

Revolutionary War : a common appellation for the War of the American Revolution (1775-1783).

rewd : reward.

reward : rewd : rewarde, recompense for good performed; a payment in money for some specific task or act; a tip or gratuity paid to another’s servant for his temporary assistance; money paid as charity to the poor.

rewrite rules : equivalence rules, the rules by which one kin category may be deemed to be the terminological equivalent of another kin category.  The generational Hawaiian system happens to categorize relatives by genealogical levels rather than lines of descent, and therefore the same kin category may be used to designate both father and uncle (Fa=FaBr).

rewrite rules : expansion rules, the rules by which a kin category may be expanded into a larger genealogical formula consisting of primary kin types.  The English word nephew (Ne) does not qualify as a primary kin type, so it needs expansion into a longer denotative range of kin types, such as BrSo, SiSo, or SbSo.

rewrite rules : reduction rules, expansion rules, and equivalence rules.  Cf. kinship analysis.

rewrite rules : reduction rules, the rules by which a kin category may be broken down into the various kin types it represents.  In Anglo-American terminology, the category uncle may be reduced to several genealogical positions, such as FaBr, MoBr, FaSiHu, WiFaBr, et cetera.

rex : R. : king.

rex autem Salomon amavit mulieres alienigenas multas, filiam quoque Pharaonis et Moabitidas et Ammanitidas Idumeas et Sidonias et Chettheas : But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites; ...[45]

Rex fuit Elizabeth, nunc est regina Jacobus : [1603] Elizabeth was king, now James is queen.  This was a jocular statement, contrasting the apparent masculinity of Elizabeth I with the feminoid homosexuality of her successor James I.[46]

rexit : he ruled.[47]

rgstr. : registrar.

Rgt : Régiment : [Fr] Regiment.

Rhage : Leicester.

Rhea : Great Mother of the Cretans, equivalent to Cybele.  Cf. Cybele.

Rhenish : Rhine wine : Rynnyshe Wyne : a German wine exported via the River Rhine.

rhetoric : [Gk] the art and eloquence of public speaking; oratory; the power of persuasion.

rhetoric : fundamentalist rhetoric; specious arguments and postulations invented to justify and bolster feelings of bigotry, prejudice, and intolerance.  Cf. covenant marriage, family values, politically correct, reverse discrimination, right to life, secular humanism, school vouchers.

rhetoric : writing or speech designed to impress the reader or hearer, but often devoid of real or rational meaning.

rheumatism : inflammation of the joints.

rheumatismus : rheumatism.

rhin- : -rrhin- : [Gk] nose.

Rhine wine : Rhenish wine : Rynnyshe Wyne : German wine from the River Rhine.

rhino- : [Gk] nose, naso.

rhomb : rhombus : lozenge, a diamond shape; a parallelogram, a quadangular figure.  The rhomb has four equal sides, made of two sets of parallel lines, with two acute angles opposite one another, and two obtuse angles opposite one another.  English heraldry often uses the lozenge or rhomb as the customary and exclusive shape for a woman’s coat of arms, as it provides a field, but does not resemble the escutcheon or shield of a knight.

rhotacism : excessive or incessant use of \r\; pronouncing \r\ for \l\, or \l\ as \r\, as Japanese speakers do.  Cf. lallation.

rhymes : abab cdcd efef gg represent the rhymes of an English sonnet, consisting of three quatrains and a couplet.  Cf. sonnet.

riband : ribbon.

ribbon : riband : rybband : ruban [Fr] : a narrow web of silk; a fillet of silk worn as an ornament.  The family le Strange purchased rybbands for a girdle for 20d, and rybbands for garters at 8d, in 1520.[48]

ribonucleic acid : RNA.

ribosome : [1958] any of the cytoplasmic granules rich in RNA that serve as sites for protein synthesis.  Cf. mRNA, rRNA, tRNA.

rich : wealthy, opulent, abounding in wealth; plentifully stocked; fertile and fruitful.

Richard I Lionheart and Blondel the Troubadour : Cf. same-sex marriage.

Richard I Lionheart and Philip of France : a famous relationship.

Richardus : Richard.

Richmond Herald : one of six secondary heralds.

riding : triding : [Sx] the old name for one of three large administrative divisions in York.  The word derived from the Saxon triding, meaning ‘third part,’ and it was traditionally used in York to signify East Riding and North Riding, along the coast, and the interior section called West Riding.  The subdivisions were called wappentakes.  The term riding was later used for political divisions in Pennsylvania and on Long Island, NY.[49]

rig- : rect- : reg- : to straighten, rule.

right : justice, not injury; goodness, not wrong; freedom from guilt or error; just claim, that which justly belongs to oneself; property, interest; prerogative, power; privilege, immunity.

right to life : the absolute right to life that an embryo is presumed to have, from the moment of its conception.  The phrase was adopted as a political slogan by anti-choice and anti-abortion advocates opposed to feminine freedoms.

right to marry : [1751- DATE \@ "yyyy" \* MERGEFORMAT 2004] the civil right that any free citizen should and ought to have to marry the spouse of his or her choice, and to enjoy social recognition of that marriage.  The right to marry has never been universal.  The American Revolution and the French Revolution, as well as certain legal reforms made in England during the 1830s, established civil marriages as an alternative to ecclesiastical marriages.  American civil marriages are still modeled upon ecclesiastical models, and therefore remain practically identical to Christian marriages.  As the emulation of Christian norms virtually ensures the absolute exclusion of many persons and many groups of persons from the institution and benefits of marriage, the American people are still struggling for égalité and equality in civil marriage.  Those who aspire to true democracy advocate a complete separation the church and state institutions of marriage.  As the situation stands today, Christian heterosexuals appropriate to themselves an exclusive right to marry that ultimately provides them with more than 170 special rights and privileges that people barred from marriage cannot enjoy.  Cf. National Right to Marry Day.

Right trusty and well-beloved and counsellor : a royal address to a baron who sits in the Privy Council.[50]  Cf. Our …

right-to-left inscription : the ancient and monumental direction of writing, which was the original direction used by Semites, Greeks, Etruscans, and Latins.  The Semitic languages are still written right to left, but the Latins changed the order to left to right around 600 bc, and the Greeks soon followed their example.  Sanskrit grammarians also abandoned right-to-left writing, and adopted the Roman style of left-to-right script.

rigidus : male erection.  Cf. tentigo.

rigsey : male sheep with only one stone or testicle removed.

ring : ringe, a piece of jewelry sold by a goldsmith.[51]  Cf. engagement ring, wedding ring.

ring dance: fairy dance.

riot : riote [Fr] : riotta [It] : wild and loose festivity; sedition; uproar; to move or act without control and restraint.[52]  Political and public demonstrations may easily devolve into riots in the absence of adequate policing.

riptowell : gratuity, a reward to tenants made after the reaping of the lord’s corn.

rites de passage : [Fr 1908] the significant changes in status between birth and death.[53]

rites of passage : birth, puberty, marriage, and death; the significant changes in status that most societies mark with ritual events.

ritual : a book which sets forth the rites and observances of a religion.

ritual kinship : godparenthood; blood-brotherhood; fraternity, sorority; pseudo-kinship created through sponsorship, initiation, or sacred ritual.  Cf. kinship.

rivalry : emulation, competition.

river : rivus [Lt] : riviere [Fr] : a current of water crossing land, and larger than a creek or brook.

rivulet : rivulus : brook, streamlet, a small river.

-rix : she who does.

rl : real : [Sp contraction] district.

rlnq. : relinquished.

RNA : ribonucleic acid : [1931] any of several nucleic acids that contain ribose and uracil as structural components and are associated with the control of cellular chemical activities.  RNA constitutes an essential element of any cell, for it provides the means for protein production and genetic replication.  Cf. messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA.

roamer : rambler, wanderer, rover, vagrant.

roberdsman : robertsman : bold robbers and night thieves.  The nomenclature is said to have derived from some corruption of Robinhood, the archetypal robber of English lore.

Robertus : Robert.

robes of a banneret : the relatively simple robes of the lowest rank of knight.[54]

roboration : roboration : [Fr] strengthening, a confirmation of strength.

robust : robur, of things made of oak or hard wood; robustus, strong, sinewy, vigorous.

robust love : male homosexuality; a literary allusion characteristic of Walt Whitman.

robustness : lustiness, hard­ness, strength, firmness; pith; vigor, vigour, lustiness, force, energy.

rock : rock [Dn] : rocca [It] : a distaff held in a woman’s hand from which she spins wool by twirling a heavy ball from the strand.  Cf. distaff.

rod : roede : [Du] a long twig, sceptre; anything long and slender; an instrument for measuring; a bundle of twigs used for corporeal punishment.

rod : rood : [Sx] the fourth part of an acre in square measurement; 1,210 square yards; a linear measurement, equivalent to a pole measuring 16.5 feet, or 5.5 yards, or 5.029 meters.  A mile equals 320 rods, or 1,760 yards or 5,280 feet.

rods : Cf. divination by rods.

roe : [Sx] a species of deer.

roe : raun [Dn] : rogen [Gm] : the eggs of fish, caviar.

Roesia : Rose.

rog- : to ask.

rogation : litany, supplication.

Rogation Week : the second week before Whitsunday, so called from the three Rogation Days of fasting on Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, directly prior to Holy Thursday, the occasion for special prayers and processions celebrating the fruits of the earth.

Rogerus : Roger.

Rohypnol : [1997] the date-rape drug; a dissolvable tranquilizer that rapists have sometimes used to intoxicate their victims.

rôle-reversal in sexual intercourse : allelobasias.

roll : scroll, volume, writing rolled upon itself; register, catalog, chronicle.  Cf. tomus.

Roman : Romanus : native of Rome, freeman of Rome.

Roman canon : [1546] the official structure of the Bible, as it was fixed at the Council of Trent (1546).  The canon excluded the Epistle of Barnabas, and omitted the Apocalypse.[55]

Roman Catholic : R.C. : [1534] papist, romanist; an adherent of the Roman Catholic church rather than the Anglican church, holding to papal supremacy instead of regal supremacy and episcopacy.  Cf. Act of Supremacy, Catholicism.

Roman Catholicism : [1534] the Anglican name for the Roman church.  The need to distinguish the Roman church from others first arose with the emergence of Lutheranism (1519) or the Reformation in Germany, and Protestantism (1534) in England.

romance : roman [Fr] : romanza [It] : a military fable typical of the middle ages, a tale of wild adventures of love and war.

romancer : a writer of romances; liar, forger of tales.[56]

romantic love : Cf. courtly love.

Rome : a place name derived from the names of Etruscan tribes, namely Rumate and Rumulna.

Romulus and Remus : Br & Br; the boys fostered in a cave by a wolf, who founded Rome, and ruled it in a dualistic fashion.  Rome was purported to have been the female earth navel that Romulus found amidst the moist underbrush.[57]

Rood : a representation of Christ on the cross with the Virgin Mary on one side and Saint John the Beloved Disciple on the other.

rood : rod.

Rood screen : a decorative division in a church atop which the Rood is displayed.

Roodloft : a gallery in a church atop which the Rood is displayed.

room : [Sx] an apartment in a house, enclosed by partitions.

Roosevelt, Eleanor : the First Lady of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  Her private correspondence documented a long lesbian affair.

root : roed [Dn] : rot [Sw] : the first ancestor; the original cause; the bottom or lower part of a plant, resting beneath the ground.

rope baby : Cf. koskalada.

Rosa : Rosia : Rose.

Rosalia : Rosaria : Feast of Roses held in May and June, when bereaved survivors scatter roses on graves.

rosary : rosarium : chaplet, a number of beads on which devotees count their prayers.

Roscom. : Roscommon, Ireland.

Rose : Roesia : Rosa : Rose.

rose : rosa : a flower.

rose cold : hay fever, which was once attributed to rose pollen.[58]

rose rash : false measles, roseola.

roses : [1929] the scroll-work motif of a Badge of Ulster, designating a Baronet of England.  Cf. shamrocks, thistles.

roses and thistles : [1929] the scroll-work motif of a Badge of Ulster, designating a Baronet of Great Britain.  Cf. shamrocks.

roses, thistles, and shamrocks : [1929] the scroll-work motif of a Badge of Ulster, designating a Baronet of the United Kingdom.

Rosetta Stone : [1799] the stone inscription unearthed by Napoléon’s troops near the River Nile in 1799.  The stone presented the same message in three different scripts, namely Egyptian hieroglyphics, Greek, and cuneiform, and therefore provided the key for deciphering hieroglyphics.  Cf. Zambia Stone.

Rosetta Stone : Cf. Behistun Inscription, stones, Zambia Stone.

Ross & Crom. : Ross and Cromarty, Scotland.

rota philosophica : philosophical wheel; a depiction of 22 spheres, showing the soul’s fall from divinity to earthly baseness, and charting the reverse course of Hermetic redemption.  When ascending, the soul passes through the 4 elements of earth, water, air, and fire (sphere 22 through 19), the 7 planetary spheres (sphere 18 through 12), reaching the heavenly caelum stellatum ‘starry sky’ (sphere 11), home of unborn souls.  In the heavenly spheres (sphere 11 through 1), the soul ascends through 9 choirs of angels standing in the spheres of pure spirits (sphere 10 through 2).  At the final stage of this opus circulatorium ‘wheeling work,’ the ‘dry’ ascending soul unites with the fiery pure being, or nature of nature, called mens ‘mind’ or deus ‘god’ (sphere 1).[59]  The 22 spheres correspond to the number of Hebrew letters, as well as the number of the Minor Arcana.

Rotelandia : Rutland.

Rouge Croix Pursuivant at Arms : one of four junior heralds.

Rouge Dragon Pursuivant at Arms : one of four junior heralds.

rough trade : an extremely masculine partner who shows no sensitivity and might be inclined to the sadistic behaviors of the Mike Hammer syndrome.[60]

round dance: fairy dance.

rounded brackets : parentheses.  Cf. brackets.

Roundhead : Puritan, so named after the Puritan practice of cropping their hair in a rounded shape.  Opp. cavalier.

rovastikunta : [Fi] rural deanery.

rover : wanderer, ranger, robber, pirate.

row : [Sx] a rank or file; a number things arranged in a line.

row-barge : a barge propelled by oars; a kind of galley used mainly for carrying burdens from ship to shore.  Cf. ship, ship Galie Subtile.

Roxb. : Roxburgh, Scotland.

royal : kingly, regal, belonging to a king, becoming a king; noble, illustrious.

Royal Pall : the covering that decorates the coffin of royal decedent, consisting of the Royal Standard, with a wide, white border decorated with a few ermine spots.  Cf. pall.

Royal Standard : the standard of H.M. Elizabeth II, Queen of England; arms of the House of Windsor; 1st and 4th quarters, gules, three lions passant gardant, arms of England; 2nd quarter, the Scottish lion rampant; 3rd quarter, the Irish harp.

-rrhea : -rrhoea : [Gk] abnormal discharge.

-rrhin- : rhin- : [Gk] nose.

-rrhoea : -rrhea : [Gk] abnormal discharge.

rRNA : ribosomal RNA : [1961] the RNA that acts as a fundamental structural element in ribosomes.

RSV : Revised Standard Version:  New Testament (1946), and Revised Standard Version:  Old Testament (1952), of the Bible.

RTI : reverse transcriptase inhibitor.

rub : a lump or divot on a bowling green.  Cf. bowls.

Rubaiyat : the poem of Omar Khayyam that features a male as the love object of a male.  Translations have often omitted the single word in the work that reveals its orientation of genders.[61]

rubric : Cf. seal, signature, Yuan ya.

ruby : 40th year of marriage; symbol of the fortieth wedding anniversary.

rubyfruit: pomegranate.

Rufus and Tyrrel : Ph & Er; William II Rufus and Tyrrel.

ruilium : windlass of a well.[62]

rule : [Sx] government, supreme command; canon, precept by which one directs thought and action.

rule of uniform descent : a kinship rule that requires consistent kin terms for lineal relationships.  If the ego calls a parent A and calls the parent’s children B, then he must consistently call B all of the children filiated to all the parents the ego calls A.  Cf. kinship rules.

rule of uniform reciprocals : a kinship rule that requires consistent kin terms for pairs of relatives standing in reciprocal relationships.  If A and B symbolize reciprocal kin terms used between a pair of relatives, then all the reciprocals of A will be named B.

rules of descent : descent rules.

rules of residence : residence rules.

ruma : rumis : teat.

Rumate and Rumulna : the Etruscan tribes associated with Romulus and Rome.

rumis : ruma : teat.

runaway : fugitive, one who flees from danger; an escaped slave, one who departs by stealth.

runaway match : elopement, clandestine marriage.

runaway women : Cf. desertion, no-fault divorce.

runes : ancient Scandinavian characters sometimes found as inscriptions.

rupt- : to break.

rural deanery : a deanery of several parishes in the country.

ruricola : husbandman.

rus : country; farm; country seat.

Rus : Russia, the country east of which there once resided an exclusively female realm of amazons who destroyed their male babies.

Russell, Ada : Cf. Lowell and Russell.

rustica : a country girl.

rustication : a country dwelling, a kind of exile into the country.

rusticus : pastoral, bucolic, georgic; pertaining to the country.

rut : rugitus [Lt] : ruit, rut [Fr] : copulation of deer.

ruta : the herb rue.

Ruth and Naomi : He & An & Hu; : Wi & Hu(1)Mo=An & Hu(2); the widow Ruth and her mother-in-law Naomi; Ruth was a Moabitess who went to Bethlehem with Naomi, and there married Boaz, in the Book of Ruth.  Naomi instructed her daughter-in-law Ruth in methods of seduction, so that she could ensnare the rich Boaz as her second husband.  Boaz and Ruth became ancestors of David.  Ruth and Naomi have become a famous model for lesbian mateship, and their pairing is correlative to the male example of David and Jonathan.  Cf. David and Jonathan.

Ruth, Naomi, and Boaz : Wi & HuMo=An & Hu, the widow Ruth, her mother-in-law Naomi, and Ruth’s second husband Boaz. 

Rutland : Rotelandia : Rutlanda : Rutlandia.

Rutlds. : Rutlandshire.

rutting : [1625] to be in a state of rut; to be in heat; to be in a state of sexual excitement.

rutulam : a little bit of rue.

RW : R.W. : Revolutionary War.

rybband : ribbon.

rye : a coarse kind of bread corn.

Rynnyshe Wyne : Rhine wine.

[1] According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens.  Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  116-117.

[2] Grahn 1990:  127.

[3] David Perry, “The Betsy Ross of the Rainbow Banner,” The Advocate, 1989/6/20.

[4] Paul Zomcheck, “Vexed by Rainbows:  Our Gay Flag of Many Colors May Possess Ancient Magical Powers,” Bay Area Reporter, 1986/6/26.

[5] Jim Ferrigan.  Zomcheck 1986.

[6] HHA 1519.

[7] Firth 1936.  Schusky 1972:  92.

[8] Murdock 1960:  11.  Shusky 1972:  92.

[9] R.A. Houlbrooke, The English Family 1450-1700, London, 1984:  129.  Oestmann 1994:  171.

[10] Oestmann 1994:  172.

[11] Oestmann 1994:  166.

[12] Oestmann 1994:  166.

[13] Oestmann 1994:  166.

[14] Oestmann 1994:  166.

[15] Hunt 1956;  59.

[16] Atterbury, cited by Johnson.

[17] HL:  115.

[18] Davis 1924:  619.

[19] Arensberg 1968:  82.

[20] Parkin 1997:  139.

[21] JRM.  The editor’s invention of an expanded kin term.

[22] JRM.  The editor’s coinage.

[23] G. van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation.

[24] G. van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation.

[25] G. van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation.

[26] G. van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation.

[27] G. van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation.

[28] G. van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation.

[29] G. van der Leeuw, Religion in Essence and Manifestation.

[30] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[31] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  58.

[32] See detailed discussion in Complete Peerage, 4.H.  Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  58.

[33] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  58.

[34] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  58.

[35] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  62.

[36] Oestmann 1994:  172-173.

[37] B.A. Holderness.  Oestmann 1994:  173.

[38] HL:  51.

[39] Boswell 1988:  63.

[40] Schusky 1972:  70.

[41] Diner 1965:  20.

[42] Leland:  4.I.154.

[43] Thomas Strang (natus circa 1602), BALC 21.#.

[44] Hey 1993:  179.

[45] 1 Kings, 11.1.

[46] Eglinton 1964:  319.

[47] Leland:  1.3.266.

[48] HHA 1520.

[49] Everton 1971.

[50] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  61.

[51] Gurney, 565.14.

[52] L’Estrange, cited by Johnson.

[53] Van Gennep 1908.  Schusky 1972;  63.

[54] HL:  274.

[55] Boswell 1980:  92.

[56] L’Estrange, cited by Johnson.

[57] Diner 1965:  65, 241.

[58] Gormley 1989:  105.

[59] Fabricius 1989:  15, figure 19.

[60] Eglinton 1964:  488.

[61] Boswell 1980:  19.

[62] HL:  62.

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