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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


a- : [Gk] not, non.

a- : [Lt] from, abs-.

A : [Ogham Q-Celtic] acab.[1]

a- : ab- : away, from.

A : Adult christening, an LDS Event subject to the Ordinances.

a die obitus mariti : after the death of her husband.

a dó a’s a dó i ngaol : [Ir] literally two and two in blood relationship; first cousins; a pair of consanguinal relatives, each twice removed from the apical ancestor, or remote from the common ancestor by two degrees (SoSo =SoDa =DaSo =DaDa).  This expression normally refers to father-son lineal descent, and therefore denotes two ascending steps and two descending steps, from the ego to his first cousin (ego + FaBrSo).[2]  Cf. a h-aon a’s a h-aon i ngaol.

a folio 3 usque ad folium 5 : from folio 3 through folio 5.  Cf. folium.

a h-aon a’s a h-aon I ngaol : [Ir] literally one and one in blood relationship; brother and sister; a pair of siblings removed from the apical ancestor by just one step.[3]  Cf. a dó a’s a dó I ngaol.

a quibus : from which.

a quibus Leonello et Elisabeth filia processit nomine Philippa heres unica : from which Lionel and Elizabeth proceeded a daughter, one heir named Philippa.[4]

a quo : from whom, of whom.

à quo divortiata est propter adulterium : from whom she divorced for adultery.

a trí a’s a trí ngaol : [Ir] second cousins; literally three and three generations; the three ascending and three descending steps that define the sixth col.  Cf. col seisear.

Ā, ā : [Sumerian] closed vowel, one of three later vowels.

A, a : [Sumerian] open vowel, one of the three primal Sumerian vowels.

Ā, ā : a long a.

a. : administration.

A.B.H(Ē).I.O.T.U. : A.B.H.I.O.T.V. : A.O.Y.H.I.B.T. : the first seven letters, invented by the Fates.  Cf. A.B.H.I.O.T.V.

A.B.H.I.O.T.V. : A.B.H(Ē).I.O.T.U. : A.O.Y.H.I.B.T. : A.O.U.E.I.B.T. : the first seven letters, invented by the Fates, and presented as a series five vowels (A.H.I.O.V.), with two consonants (B.T.) symetrically interspersed, next to the beginning (A) and end (O).  Palamedes added 11 letters, making 19 letters.  Simonides added 4, and Epicharmus added 2, making 25 letters.  Note the symmetry of the seven letters, showing five vowels (A.Ē.I.O.U) and two key consonants (B.T.), the voiced labial (B) and the unvoiced dental (T).

A.B.H.M. : the four cardinal letters, named Alpha, Beta, Eta, Mu.

a.c. : anno Christi, year of Christ; a.d.

a.d. : A.D. : ante diem, before the day.

a.d. : ad : anno Domini : year of our Lord; p.c.n., post Christum natum, after Christ’s birth.  Printers customarily set the initials in small capitals, and often drop the periods, to conserve space, and to avoid confusion with other abbreviations used in the narrative.  According to our modern, Gregorian reckoning, Jesus is presumed to have been born on Christmas, 25 December 1 bc, and the New Year ad 1 commenced on the day of his circumcision, 1 January (New Style).  According to the contemporary, Hebrew and Roman calendars, the New Year was reckoned to have begun the following March or April (Old Style).  Scholars have long believed that our continous reckoning of year-dates happens to be flawed, and therefore Noah Webster reported in 1806 that Jesus was actually born in 5 bc, recognizing a discrepancy of 4 years between our calendar and historical time (where ad 1 should have answered to 4 bc).  Recently, biblical scholars have come to generally agree that Jesus must have been born in 7 bc, and that we actually have a discrepancy of 6 years (where ad 1 should answer to 6 bc).  According to traditional reckoning, the first year of the Christian Era is 1 ad, =4714 Julian year, =A.U.C. 753, =4 Olympiad CXCIV (194th).  Cf. bc, C.E., Olympiad.

a.d.s. : autographed document, signed; a document written by the person himself, and then subscribed and signed by him.

A.E.Ō. : a.e.ô. : [Sumerian] three primal vowels.

A.F.L. : [1886] American Federation of Labor.

A.H. : [ad 622] anno Hegiræ, the first year of the Moslem era.

A.H. : anno Hibraico, the first year of the Hebrew era.

A.H.U.I. : A.H(ē).Ű(II).I. : Alef, He, Waw, and Yod : the four (4) vowels of Hebrew elected first for expression by a consonant letter.  This set of vowels has two closed vowels in the center (H.U. =ē.ű. =E.Y.), and two open vowels on the outsides (A.I.).

a.k.a. : also known as.  Cf. alias, alias dictus.

a.m. : ante meridiem.

A.M.D.G. : ad maiorem dei gloriam : to the greater glory of God.

A.O.U.E.I. : [Ogham] the five vowels as expressed in the Ogham script of notches:  B BB BBB BBBB BBBBB.

A.O.U.E.I.B.T. : the first seven letters, invented by the Fates, and presented as five vowels followed by two consonants.  Cf. A.B.H.I.O.T.V.

A.O.Y.H.I.B.T. : A.B.H.I.O.T.V. : A.B.H(Ē).I.O.T.U. : the first seven letters, invented by the Fates.  Cf. A.B.H.I.O.T.V.

a.r. : anno regni : in the regnal year.

A.R.R. : anno Regina Regis vel Reginæ : in the reign year of the king or queen.

a.u.c. : anno urbis conditæ, year of Rome.  To find the year of Rome, subtract the bc year from 753, and add one (+1), in this manner:  753-bc 44, =709+1, =710 a.u.c.

A.V. : [1611] Authorized Version, popularly known today as the King James Bible or King James Version (KJV), a revision of the English Bishops’ Bible carried out under James I (published 1611), and widely used by Protestants.

a.v. : annos vixit : he lived —— years.

AA : artes, arts.  Double letters commonly signify the plural, especially in bibliography, library science, Latin, and Italian.  Cf. cc., ff., pp.

AA the letter : Ō.

AA.LL.B. : artium liberalium baccalaureus, bachelor of liberal arts.

AA.LL.M. : artium liberalium magister, master of liveral arts.

ab : [We] son of; a Welsh name element derived from mab.  Cf. ap, mab.

ab- : a- : away, from.

ab hoc mense : from this month.

ab hoc tempore : from now, from this time.  Cf. nunc.  Opp. priusquam.

ab radicæ : from the root.  Cf. radix.

ab urbe condita : auc.

abab cdcd efef gg : the six rhymes of an English sonnet.  Cf. sonnet.

abacus : the square or capital that forms the uppermost part of a column.

abalienation : giving up one’s right to another person.

abamita : FaFaFaSi; amita maximus, soror abaviæ, paternal great-great-grandaunt, great-great-grandfather’s sister, Schwester des Ururgroßvaters.

abavia : FaFaFaMo; great-great-grandmother, Ururgroßmutter, Großurgroßmutter.

abavis frater : FaFaFaFaBr; frater abavis, paternal great-great-granduncle, great-great-grandfather’s brother.  Cf. abavunculus, avun­culus maximus.

abavis soror : FaFaFaMoBr; soror abaviæ, abmatertera, matert­era maximus, maternal great-great-grandaunt.

abavunculus : FaFaMoBr; avunculus maximus, great-grandmother’s brother, maternal great-granduncle; Bruder der Urgroßmutter.

abavunculus : MoMoMoMoBr; avunculus maximus, frater abavis, maternal great-great-granduncle, great-great-grandmother’s brother, Bruder de Ururgroßmutter.

abavus : FaFaFa; great-great-grandfather, Ururgroßvater, Uraltvater.  Cf. quartus pa­ter.

abbé : [Fr] abbot, priest.

abbr. : abbreviation.

abbreviation : abbr. : a shortened form of some common or recurring word or expression. The two major forms of abbreviation are suspension and contraction, and the difference between the two should be readily discernable by the presence or absence of a final period (.).  Nowadays, careless writers and Americans tend to ignore the rule for attaching a period, and thereby conceal the difference between the forms.  Stenography employs many special methods of abbreviation, including short-writing and speed-writing notations.  Cf. contraction, suspension.

abbreviation for a relative : [anthropology] a denominative range of kin types showing how the ego relates to the alter or referent.  The kin-type range FaFaBrSoSo means father’s father’s brother’s son’s son, and denotes the ego’s paternal second cousin.  Cf. kin types.

abdicare : to disinherit.

abdicatio hereditatis : abdication of one’s inheritance.

abeyance : [1926 antea] a temporary suspension of a peerage pending the satisfaction of some requirement of the peerage itself.

abiectis : those cast out, those disowned by their families.[5]

abjure : to renounce by oath; to disavow, forswear.

abjure the realm : to exile oneself from the country and promise to never return except by leave of the king.

abl. : ablative case.

ablaut : gradation; a change in the vowel sound of a verb, as in the series sing, sang, song.  Cf. umlaut.

-able : -ibilis : -bile : able to be, worthy to be; able to.

abmatertera : MoPaPaPaSi; matertera maximus, soror abaviæ, maternal great-great-grandaunt, Ururgroßmutter.

abnepos : SoSoSoSo; great-great-grandson, son in the fourth generation; Ururenkel, großurenkel, Urgroßenkel, Zweiturenkel.

abnepos fratris : BrSoSoSoSo; fraternal great-great-grand­nephew.

abnepos privignus : SoSoSoWiSo; great-great-grandstepson.

abnepos sororis : SiSoSoSoSo; sororal great-great-grand­nephew.

abnepotes : descendants, great-great-grandsons.

abneptis : SoSoSoDa; great-great-granddaughter.

abneptis fratris : BrSoSoSoDa; fraternal great-great-grandniece.

abneptis privigna : SoSoSoSpDa; great-great-grandstepdaughter.[6]

abneptis sororis : SiSoSoSoDa; sororal great-great-grandniece.

abomination : toevah.

aborsement : abortion.

aborticidum : Tötung der Frucht im Mutterleibe [Gm].

abortio : [female] miscarriage, untimely birth, spon­taneous abortion.

abortivum : drug for inducing abortion.

abortivus : stillborn, abortive; of premature birth.

abortus : [masculine] induced abortion, miscarriage.  To cause an abortion, partum abigere, abortum facere.

abpatruus : FaFaFaFaBr; patruus maximus, frater abavis, pater­nal great-great-grandun­cle, great-great-grandfa­ther’s brother; Bruder des Ururgroßvaters.

Abril : [Sp] April.

abruptio : to break off, divorce.

abs- : from, a-.

abs. : abstract.

Absaroka : Absaroke : [MT, WY] the native tribal name of the Crow.

Absaroke shaman : bote.

abscessus : separation, retirement, withdrawal, going away; death, passing away.

absentia : peregrinatio, residence, prolonged absence, a ground for divorce.

absolute age : Cf. radiometric dating.

absolute-sex reference :  Br, Si.  Opp. relative-sex reference.

absolutio : aquittal.

absolutio ab instantia : absolution in the presence of the sinner.

absolutio plenaria : complete absolution.

absque : without.

abstr. : abstract.

abstract : deed abstract, land abstract; a concise summary of the stipulations and the land plat of a deed; will abstract, an abbreviated record of one’s last will and testament showing the names of beneficiaries, witnesses, and executors.  A clerk creates an abstract to record a document or transaction in a register.  Cf. catalogus, register.

abt. : about, circa.

abu : abou : bu : ib : [Ar] Fa; father.  Arabic personal names often precede a patronym formed with abu, or one of its several variants, and the father’s personal name.

abuela : [Sp] MoMo; grandmother.

abuelastra : [Sp] FaFaWi; grandstepmother.

abuelastro : [Sp] FaMoHu; grandstepfather.

abuelo : [Sp] FaFa; grandfather.

Abundantia : the provider of life and nutriment; a name for the Great Mother.

Abundia : the Sabbat leader.

ac- : ad-, to, towards, in addition.

-ac : -ic : -tic : [Gk] pertaining to.

Acab : [Hb] locust; a synonym of God; a name often taken as the equivalent of Alpha.  The Greeks of Asia Minor regarded the golden locust as an emblem of Apollo the Sun.  Cf. Achab, Alpha.

Acadia : the former name of Nova Scotia.

acc. : according to; account.

acc. : accusative case.

Acca Laurentia : nobilissima meretrix, the noble prostitute who aided in the founding of Rome.  Cf. Gaia Terratia.

accent : a diacritical mark.

accepit autem ei Ioiadae uxores duas e quibus genuit filios et filias : and Jehoiada took for him two wives; and he begat [by them] sons and daughters.[7]

accepit ergo adhuc concubinas et uxores de Hierusalem ... : And David took him more concubines and wives out of Jerusalem ...[8]

accepit gravem infirmitatem : he received a grave infirmity.[9]

accepit in amorum : he received as a lovemate, he consorted with.[10]  Cf. duxit in uxorem.  Opp. accepit in uxorem.

accepit in uxorem : he received as a wife, he es­poused.

acceptance : reception with approbation.[11]

accidentia : accident.  Cf. per accidens.

accosted : side by side.

accoucheur : a man-midwife.

accounting period, ending Michaelmas : Michaelmas to Michaelmas.  [1523] Richard Banyard billed Sir Thomas for his accounting services on Michaelmas 1523/9/29, and was fully paid for his services about 1524/4/18.

Achab : [Hb] FaBr; father’s brother.

Achab, King of Israel : the prophet Agabus, a character in Acts of the Apostles.[12]

Achaemenid Dynasty : [700-329 bc] the period when Old Persian was written in cuneiform alphabetographs.  Cf. Behistun Inscription.

achievement : the escutcheon or coat-of-arms, or the ensigns armorial, which are granted to someone to commemorate great actions.  An achievement refers to the entire heraldic design, including the basic escutcheon, as well as the helm, crest, mantle, supporters, and motto.  Some grantees of low rank might never receive permission to use supporters and other embellishments.  Cf. hatchment.

Achilles : Cf. trumpet.

Achilles and Patroclus : Achilleus and Patroklos : Er & Ph; the comrade lovers depicted as heroes in Homer’s extremely passionate epic, the Illiad.  According to some, Patroclus was the older lover,[13] but the respective ages of the pair cannot be learned from any context.  Achilles was already a father when he became the beloved of Patroclus.  It was Aeschylus who assigned Achilles as the younger lover of Patroclus in his Myrmidons, but Plato’s Symposium contains a discussion as to whether his assignment of relative ages was correct.[14]  Apollo intervened on behalf of the Trojan Hector, who managed to slay Patroclus.  Upon learning of Patroclus’ death, Achilles initially became suicidal, but his grief soon changed into irrepressible wrath, and led to the wholesale slaughter and immolation of Hector and a large band of Trojans.

Achilleus and Patroklos : Achilles and Patroclus.

achnutschik : [1800 Konyaga, Kodiak] shaman a male transvestite wizard among the Konyaga people of Kodiak Island.  Cf. Kamchadale shaman.

-acious : tending to.

-acity : quality of being inclined to.

ackd. : acknowledged.

acolitus : acolytus : cleric, ministrant.

Acoma : [1598 NM] the Pueblo people who rebelled against conforming to the law of New Spain, in 1598.  In January 1599, the Spanish spent three days massacring perhaps 800 Acoma natives, and took 80 men and 500 women and children as captives.  The Spanish amputated the feet of the male survivors, and subjected the rest to slavery.  Children under 12 years of age were assigned to Spanish monasteries.  Cf. Keres, Queres.

Acoma Pueblo shaman : [Sp] mujerado.  Cf. Keres, Laguna, Queres.

acou- : acu- : [Gk] to hear.

acquisitive activity : consumerism.[15]  Cf. profit-making enterprise.

acquisivit : he acquired.

acr- : [Gk] highest, the extremities.

acr- : ac- : acu-.

acre : [1303] a measure of land fixed at 4,840 square yards, by statute in 31 Edw I (1302’3).  The statute acre is perhaps half the size of a Domesday acre.[16]  Cf. Domesday acre.

acrophony : the formulaic use of full words to represent letters of the alphabet, e.g. Beta =B, Gimmel =G.  Acrophony is a popular mnemonic device used to recall the orders of many alphabets and syllabaries throughout the world.

acrophony : using a common word to signify a single, initial consonant, such as using the words Alef, Bet, Gimmel to represent ABG.  Acrophony is merely a mnemonic device.

act- : ag- : ig- : to do, drive.

Act 24 Geo II, cap. 23 : [1751] Lord Chesterfield’s Act.

Act of Leases : [1540’1] the document dated 32 Henry VIII, that stipulates a limit of leasehold as being 3 lives, or 21 years.[17]  Cf. leasehold.

Act of Settlement : [1701] the parliamentary act that guaranteed the succession of a Protestant line of kings.  The English wished to ensure that a Protestant line of kings would follow Princess Anne, and that the Catholic House of Stuart would never return to the throne, so they passed the Act of Settlement on 12 June 1701.  The Act of Settlement, otherwise called the Succession Act, stipulated that if William III and his heir apparent Princess Anne were to die without male heirs, the crown would pass to James’ I granddaughter Princess Sophia of Hanover, and her Protestant heirs.  Thus, when William III died by reason of a horse accident, his cousin and sister-in-law Anne Stuart (1665-1714) succeeded him as Queen Anne.  When Queen Anne died in 1714, the crown passed to George Louis.

Act of Supremacy : [1534] the parliamentary act of 26 Hen VIII that recognized Henry VIII as the Protector and only Supreme Head of the Church and Clergy of England, having full power to correct all errors, heresies, abuses, offenses, contempts, and enormities.  This statute repudiated the pope, reducing him in recognition merely as the Bishop of Rome, and required subjects to sign the Supremacy Oath, so it marked the beginning of Protestantism in England.  The Lord Chancellor Sir Thomas More was beheaded in 1535 for refusing to sign the oath.

Act of Supremacy : [1559] the first act of Parliament under Elizabeth I, devised as a confirmation and modification of Henry VIII’s act of 1534.  It forbade allegiance to the pope, and declared the queen to be the “only Supreme Governor of this realm … in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes, as temporal.”  The queen’s measure required all the clergymen and public officials in England to swear obedience to the crown, and stipulated removal from office as a penalty for the first instance of refusal, life imprisonment for a second refusal, and death for a third offense.  Despite these stringent warnings, many in parliament opposed the act, and all of the bishops refused to make the oath.  Opposition to the act mainly stemmed from the sexist notion that a woman had no right to preside over apostolic successors.

Act of Union : [1707] the legislation that created Great Britain as the formal union of England and Scotland.  The act lifted several restrictions on Scottish trade with America, and therefore encouraged Scots emigration to America.

Actaeon : the son of a Maenad, who spied upon Diana the Huntress, and was killed by Diana, perhaps as a ritualistic sacrifice.  Cf. sacrifices of sons.

acter-kleindocter : [Du] SoSoDa; great-granddaughter.

acter-kleinzoon : [Du] SoSoSo; great-grandson.

actin- : [Gk] ray, radiating structure.

active and passive same-sex partners : drontes and paschontes or paskontes; paiderostai and paidika; arsenokoitai and parakoitai [Gk].

active male prostitutes: drauci, exoleti [Lt], aresenokoitai [Gk].

actor : performer.

actrix : actress.

actus : a sexual act.

acu- : ac- : acr- : sharp.

acu- : acou- : [Gk] to hear.

-acy : quality of being or having.

ad- : to, towards, in addition.

ad album firmam : ‘to the white rent’.  When leasing lands, it was customary to re­serve a specified income (rent or ‘farm’) for a special purpose.  The reserved rent was fre­quently payable in provisions, but sometimes payable in hard silver currency or ‘white rent’ (blanche firme).[18]

ad Bethsabee matrem Solomonis : unto Bathsheba the mother of Solomon.[19]

ad loc. : ad locum : at the place, to the place.

ad opus suum : ...had fed ‘for his own use’.[20]

ad patres : (now gone) to his fathers; now with his fathers; dead.

ad plenum certiorari, writ : [1271] the name of a writ ‘to fully ascer­tain’ the facts.[21]

ad potandum : drink to the King’s health.[22]

ad quod damnum : ad quod dampnum : [1243, 1363] the name of a kind of inquisition; a writ from the English chancery to a sheriff inquiring ‘to what damage (injury or loss)’ a specific act will cause.[23]  Such a writ may be comparable to a modern government’s request for an ‘environmental impact statement’.

ad solum opus : to the work of one; a leasehold clause that limited the use of property to one person and his family.[24]

ad transmarina : for export.

ad valorem duty : duty on the value, a customs assessment based upon the value of an item or commodity.

ad, in : [+ ablative] until, to.  Cf. dum quoad, non prius quam, non ante quam.

ad. : addatur, add.

adamita : atamita : FaFaFaFaFaSi; sister of a grandfather in the 5th degree (atavus).

adamita : atamita : FaFaFaFaSi; sister of one’s great-great-grandfather in the 4th degree (abavus).

adavunculus : atavunculus : FaFaFaFaFaBr; brother of a maternal grandmother in the 5th degree (atavia).

adavunculus : atavunculus : MoFaFaMoBr; brother of one’s maternal great-great-grandmother in the 4th degree.

addatur : add, let there be added.

addictus : bound over; a bondsman to one’s cred­itor until one’s debt is paid; an indentured ser­vant delivered into the custody of the plaintiff as a virtual slave until he can ar­range payment of debts or damages.  Cf. servus.

addorsed : back-to-back; beasts or similar figures depicted back-to-back in heraldry, facing opposite directions.

address : [1990] e-mail address; a linear address used in the routing of electronic mail, consisting of four parts, namely (1) user name, (2) the at-sign @, (3) host name, and (4) suffix.  E.g.,

address : a vocative that defines the relationship of the hearer to the speaker.  Cf. term of address.

address : inside address; the name and address of the intended recipient, as written on the letter itself, inside the envelope.  Opp. return address, taglines.

address : return address.  Cf. taglines.  Opp. inside address.

address : to speak directly to a person.  Cf. teknonymy, term of address.

address versus reference : Cf. terminology of address, terminology of reference.

addressee: referent.

adelantado : [Sp] colonial pioneer.

adelphic polyandry : Wi & Hu(1)=Hu(2)Br & Hu(2)=Hu(1)Br; fraternal polyandry; a marriage form in which two or more co-husbands are brothers; the marriage of a woman to a set of two or more brothers at the same time.  Cf. levirate marriage.  Opp. sororal polygyny.

adelphotes : monastic brotherhood.[25]

adelphus : [Gk] Br; brother.

aden- : [Gk] gland.

adenine : [1885] a purine base that codes hereditary information in the genetic code in DNA and RNA.  Cf. nucleotide.

adenosine : a nucleoside constituent of RNA.

adfina : affine, a female connected by marriage.

adfines : affines, connections by marriage.  Cf. cognati.

adfinis : related by marriage.  Cf. cognatus.

adfinitas : affinity, relationship by marriage, union of any kind.

adfinus : affine, a male connected by marriage.

adhesive love : male love.[26]

adi-wa-lona : [Lakota] shaman.

adj. : adjective; adjoining; adjourned.

adjutant : aid-major, assistant; an officer who assists the major of a regiment.

adjutrix : a female assistant.

adm. : administration.

admatertera : atmatertera : FaFaFaFaMoSi; sister of a paternal grandmother of the 5th degree (atavia)

admatertera : atmatertera : FaFaFaMoSi; sister of one’s paternal great-great-grandmother of the 4th degree (abavia).

administration : a. : adm. : adom. : administratio : probate, testamentary administration; the settlement of an estate by someone appointed by a court; the actions and settlements required to execute someone’s last will and testament, usually as ordered by a probate court.

administrator : adm. : admin. : admr. : adms. : admstr. : manager; administrator, he who is entrusted with the goods of a man who has died intestate; someone appointed by the court to settle an estate, in place of an executor unwilling to serve.  Cf. executor.

administrator cameralis : manager of the treasury.

administrator postulatus : prosecutor, administrator for the plaintiff.

administratorship : the office of administrator.

administratrix : she who administers, or has supreme direction of, an estate.  Typically, such a woman might be the widow or daughter of a man who has died intestate.

admissarius : stallion, a hardy horse trusted to deliver with speed a dispatch.

admissura : mare.

admitto : to bring the male to the female.

adnascent : adnacens : growing upon something else.

adnepos : atnepos : BrSoSoSoSo; great-great-grandnephew; Großurgroßenkel.

adnepos : atnepos : SoSoSoSoSo; great-great-great-grandson, Dritturenkel.

adolescence : Cf. individuation.

adolescence : maturation; exhalation; the struggle of the ego to reconcile his outer persona with his inner latencies.[27]  Opp. libido organization.

adolescence : the age succeeding childhood, adolescentia; 14-27 years, ætas adulescens, ætas nondum adulta.  In Latin, adolescence was regarded as a long period of fourteen years, commonly 14 to 27 years, which preceded youthful manhood, or ætas iuventas.  The Roman concept of adolescence extended to include years that we today call adulthood.  In modern nomenclature, adolescence refers to a far shorter period of maturation, between puberty and adulthood.[28]

adolescent : youth, the state of a person growing.[29]

adolesco : to grow up.

adoleverit : he grew up.

adolevit : he grew up.

adom. : administration.

Adonis : a youth of remarkable beauty.  Zeus determined that Adonis should spend one-third of his time with Persephone, a third with Aphrodite, and a third as a free and unattached man.  Cf. polygynous peregrination, visitational marriage.

adopt : to affiliate; to voluntarily accept a child born of other parents and legally make the child one’s own.

adoptavit : he adopted.

adoptee : [1892] one that is adopted.

adoptio : adoption of a filius familias by a new family.

adoption : a change of surname, when the person drops or abandons his paternal, natal surname, and uses an alien surname.  The term has broad implications, for it can embrace the notions of fosterhood, legal adoption, surname adoption by license or patent, stepparenthood, and even one’s succession to some maternal, matrilineal, or matrilateral inheritance.

adoption : a permanent alteration of an adoptee’s status.  Adoption is often undertaken for the sake of the child, but is sometimes elected as a means to acquire the child as one’s heir.  The adoptee sometimes marries the child of his adoptive parents.

adoption : the act of adopting, which may be characterized as either an open adoption, or closed adoption.

adoptive : made or acquired by adoption; of or pertaining to adoption.  This adjective can be broadly used to characterize relatives, relations, connections, surnames, and rôles, for it is descriptive of anyone or anything selectively or deliberately chosen by the adopter.  In modern English, the word adoptive often implies the formal and legal adoption of a child, but this legalistic interpretation is not necessary, because the adjective can be applied to a wide range of relatives and subjects.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

adoptive child : adoptive son or daughter.

adoptive father : a stepfather, relative, acquaintance, or stranger who has elected to recognize a child as his own.  The phrase implies that the pater has taken legal steps to formalize the adoption.

adoptive kinship : pseudo-kinship arising from some fictive relationship, such as adoption, blood-brotherhood, coparenthood, or fosterhood.  Women are often inclined to adoption, whereas men are less likely to accept it.  Cf. kinship.

adoptive parents : chi fu me [Ch].[30]  Cf. birth parents, pun shung fu me.

adoptive sons : Augustus Caesar, Meroveus II.

adoptivus : adopted child, protégé, charge, fa­vorite, minion.

adpatruus : FaFaFaFaBr; brother of one’s great-great-grandfather in the 4th degree (abavus).

adpatruus : FaFaFaFaFaBr; brother of one’s grandfather in the 5th degree (atavus).

adrogatio : the voluntary submission of an inde­pendent person sui iuris to the patria potestas of another.

adscriptitiorum : dependents.

adsignatum : assigned to ——.[31]

adulatress : she who flatters.

adulescens : youth,[32] adolescent, young man, young woman.  The term is sometimes used to distinguish a per­son from someone older with the same name.

adulescentia : adolescence; 14 to 27 years, or 15 to 30 years.

adulescentula : a young girl.

adulescentulus : young man, one younger than about thirty-three years.  Cicero used this word in reference to himself when he was 27 years of age.  Sallust used this word to describe Caesar when Caesar must have been 33 or 35 years of age.  Thus, it appears that adolescence was originally a fairly long period of time, which included part of the age later called ætas iuventatis.

adult: man, a person grown up to maturity; grown up, past the age of infancy.[33]

adulter : adulterer.

adulter solidorum : counterfeiter; a corruptor of metals.

adultera : adulteress; a woman guilty of adultery.

adulterer : someone guilty of adultery; one who seduces another man’s wife; one who corrupts.

adulteress : a woman who commits adultery.

adulterine bastard : a child born to an adulteress.  The term was once part of canon law, and represented a category of outcaste child.  An adulterine bastard was not allowed the status of a natural child, and was deemed ineligible for holy orders.  If the mother was deceived by her husband, and knew nothing of her husband’s bigamy with another wife, then her children by her deceitful husband were not condemned as adulterine.  The bastard child of an unmarried pair enjoyed the status of a simple bastard or natural child, and was not condemned as adulterine.  Cf. natural child.

adulterinus : adulterous, spurious, falsus.  Cf. supposititius.

adulterium : adultery, a ground for divorce; a fine imposed for the comission of adultery.

adultery : [1997] a patristic charge of marital infidelity levied against a wife for consorting with a married man during her separation from her husband.  The U.S. Army gave a general discharge to a woman officer charged in adultery in May 1997.  This case was remarkable in that the Army does not allege men of adultery, and thus provides another instance of witchhunting.

adultery : biblical adultery : [Hb] a man’s violation of the bed of another married man.  In biblical contexts, which were usually polygynous, adultery always referred to a man offending another man by sleeping with one of the other’s wives.  The polygynous men of the Bible could never be guilty of adultery vis-à-vis their own wife, because they usually had a plurality of wives.  Today, in the context of Americo-Christian monogamy, subject to the American prohibitions of virtually all of the biblical marital norms, we commonly think of adultery as an offence against the spouse.  The American concept of adultery has embraced women as equal partners only since the passage of Universal Suffrage (1920).  Our modern concept is utterly different from the Hebraic concept of adultery that was mentioned in the Ten Commandments.  All of the Hebrew Patriarchs were polygynous, with the sole exception of Isaac, who preferred fidelity to Rebecca, as an exception to the Judaic norm.  Cf. cuckold.

adultery : double adultery : volitional sexual intercourse between partners married to two other persons.  Double adultery excludes instances of intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman.  Cf. biblical adultery, infidelity, traditional American adultery.

adultery : Hu & Cc; Osiris and Nephtis, in repudiation of Osiris’ sister-wife Isis.

adultery : modern American adultery : [1921 et postea Am] single adultery; voluntary sexual intercourse of a married spouse with someone other than than the adulterer’s husband or wife.[34]  Originally and biblically, single adultery was deemed to be a grade of infidelity, and was never categorized as criminal adultery in biblical, Hebrew, and Roman law, as well as some forms of American law.  The concept of single adultery as a marital violation against one’s spouse is an entirely new criminalization of infidelity, postdating the passage of Universal Suffrage (1920), and has been codified in Texas and other states, but not in all states.  Cf. infidelity.  Opp. biblical adultery, double adultery.

adultery : moicheia, moikeia.

adultery : single adultery : volitional sexual intercourse between two partners, one of whom is married to a third party, whereas the other is unmarried.  Single adultery between a married man and an unmarried woman did not rank as criminal adultery in biblical, Hebrew, and Roman law, as well as some forms of American law.  Cf. infidelity, modern American adultery.

adultery : traditional American adultery : [1920 et antea, Hb, Rm, Am] double adultery; consortium between a married man and the wife of a third person.  Many American states based their adultery laws upon the Bible, Hebrew law, and Roman law, which all defined adultery as sexual intercourse between a man married to a third party and a woman married to a fourth party.

adultery in the military : [1997] The U.S. Air Force expelled Lieutentant Kelly Flynn in 1997, for having had an adulterous affair with the husband of an enlisted woman.  Shortly thereafter, the Secretary of Defense considered General Joseph Ralston, USAF, as a candidate for promotion to Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, thereby ignoring Ralston’s long history of adultery.  Thus, the U.S. military made plain its adherence to radically divergent standards for men and women.  Cf. military scandals.

adults : puberes.

adultum : pubes, adult, grown up.  This familiar term is nothing more than a participle of adolesco, which seems to explain why the Roman term of so-called ‘adolescence’ covered such a long time.  In Cicero’s day, the word was synonymous with ‘adultery,’ and therefore we believe that our modern meaning of a fully matured ‘adult’ did not arise until Late Latin or medieval Latin.  Cf. pubertas.

adultus : adultery.

advena : guest, stranger, night visitor.  The word advena ‘immigrant’ carries a feminine ending, regardless of the sex of the subject, and seems to adhere grammatically more closely to the emigratory or immigratory destination, than to the person.

advena Indiana : immigrant or emigrant to Indiana.

adventine : advenio : adventum : adventurous.

Adventism : [1874] belief in the second coming; the doctrine that the end of the world and the second coming of the Christ are imminent; the religion of Seventh-day Adventists.

adventores : clients, Johns of prostitutes.

advocate : advocatio : the patron of a church, the holder of an advowson.

advocate : advocatus : [1400 Lt tempus Hen III et Edw I] advo­cate, one who presents a litigant’s case in court; causidicus, barrister.  An advocate’s acts are binding on his principal.  Plea Rolls contain records of the pleas submitted by advocates.[35]

advowson : advocatio : the right to present to a benefice; the right to present qualified nominees to a church or ecclesiastical benefice to fill vacant posi­tions.  An advowson was compara­ble to a feudal seignory, because the holder had the power to control churches.  Cf. protectors.[36]

Ae : æ : æ : aesc, æsc : [Old En] \a\ : the ash, a combination of letters used to represent several vowel sounds.  Æsc is the name of a Runic letter, and it signifies ornus [Lt] the wild mountain ash.  The ligature was often used in Old English, and survives in several phonetic alphabets to represent the low front vowel \a\.

AE : Anno Extranei.

ae. : aet. : aetat. : æt. : ætatis, aged, of age; anno ætatis suæ ——, in the year he was —— years of age.

Aed. : aedilis.

ædes : building, rooms, house, household.  Cf. domus.

aedilis : aedile, a public officer in Rome charged with street maintenance, traffic control, markets, and public games.  Originally there were two aediles.  After 367 bc, there were two pairs of aediles, namely the aediles curules and aediles plebeii, or the patrician aediles and plebeian aediles.

æger : sick, ill.

æger animi : mentally ill.

Ægidius : Giles.

aegis : [Gk] goatskin armor; the armor of Pallas Athena, said to consist of red goatskins covered with ribbons, in the style of a Libyan amazon.  The aegis came to specifically signify the shield of Pallas Athena.  Cf. aigeon.

Ælizia : Alice.

äeltester : [Gm] oldest, eldest.

Aemetzaine : [Kalmuck] a strong and heroic woman.

Æneas : a Trojan prince held to have been the son of Anchises, King of Dardanus, and Aphrodite.  Homer told us that Æneas was present at the sack of Troy, and that he and his descendants served in the Troad that ruled after the extinction of the House of Priam.  Some variants of the story say that Æneas settled in Greece.  Virgil made Æneas into the sometime consort of Dido, Queen of Carthage, and later the founder Rome, by right of his wife Lavinia, daughter of Latinus.  Cf. House of Julus.

aeon : an extremely long and cosmic period of time, as long as one billion years and longer.  The Precambrian period lasted some 2 billion years, and therefore might be called an aeon.  Time in general can be divided and subdivided into aeons, eras, periods, and epochs.  Aeons, eras, and periods represent segments of prehistoric time, decreasing in length, such that eras last for millions of years and 10s of millions of years, and periods last for 10s of thousands, to 10s of millions of years.  Epochs are even smaller segments of prehistoric time, but an epoch typically signifies some specific stage of evolution or formation.  Cf. era, period, epoch.

ærarium : treasury.

ærarius : treasurer.

aesthe- : esthe- : [Gk] to feel, perceive.

ætas : period; old, years of age.

ætas ingravescens : old age, when the body has grown heavy.

ætas legitima : legal age.

ætas mala : old age, infirmity.

aetas patrum nostrorum : lifetimes of our forefathers.

ætas provecta : advanced age.

ætas senilis : old age, senility.

ætas uirginis : maidenhood.

ætat. : ætatis, aged, of age.

ætatis 70 annos et aliquos dies excurrit : he lived his 70 years and a few days.

ætatis suæ : his age.

ætatis suæ 70 annos : at 70 years of age.

ætatis suæ LXXV : aged sev­enty-five.

ætatula : a very tender childhood.

ævum : eternity, for ages.  Cf. medium ævum.

ævum æqualis : of the same age.

af- : ad-.

AfAm : Afro-American : African-American : [1989 AmEn] black English.

affectio maritalis : marital intention.

affection : love, kindness, passion of any kind.

affiance : a marriage contract, betrothal.

affidavit : a sworn statement; a statement written and sworn before some authority.

affiliation : ad + filius : adoption, the act of adopting a son.[37]

affiliation : adoptive kinship.  Cf. filiation.[38]

affiliation : the ego’s general links to lines of descent through one or both parents, as opposed to the ego’s lineally stressed links of filiation through a specific parent.[39]

affinage : refining materials by the cupel.

affinal relation : the legal tie created by marriage; the marital tie of the parents.  Opp. consanguineal relationship.

affinal relatives : persons connected by one or more marital links.

affinal terminology : a group of kin terms for affines related to the ego through his wife, or her husband.  Marital relationships determine the nature and use of affinal terms.[40]

affinal ties of kinship : the ties a man forms through legal marriage, including the ties with his wife, her parents, and her siblings, or his wife and in-laws.  Opp. consanguine ties.

affination : the acceptance of a bride from another family.  When the native family of patrikin accepts the donation of a bride and her matrimony, the patrikin become donee affines with respect to the donor affines who give away the bride.  In most cases, the need for exchange and reciprocity is settled at the time of marriage, through the prestations of bridewealth, dowry, and dower, and therefore the donation of one spouse or several spouses will usually signify a single instance of donation, in one direction, often within a single generation.  If subsequent donations recur in both directions, especially over several generations, then the series of spousal exchanges might be called an alliance.

affine : adfinus, adfina : a relation through affinity, such as a brother-in-law, or mother-in-law.  Cf. kin, socer, socrus, socius sanguinis, sororius, soror.

affined family : in-laws, affines, relatives affined, connected, or bound to oneself by marriage and close relationship.  Cf. adfines.

affines : hūn yīn, two categories of matrilocal groups in China, namely the donor affines or hun who give wives, and the donee affines or yin who receive wives.[41]  Cf. allies, oblique marriage.

affines : relatives by marriage; persons related by marriage.  Cf. allies, primary affines.  Opp. cognates.

affinitas : adfinitas : affinity, the tie created by marriage between each spouse and the kinsmen of the other.[42]

affinity : [narrow] same-sex relationships created through marriage, such as brothers-in-law.  This restrictive definition has no practical application in Anglo-American genealogy, but it has some utility in ethnic studies.  Cf. alliance, marriage.

affinity : in-law relationship; relation by marriage, connection by marriage, adfinitas: relations a husband acquires through marriage to their kinswoman; relations a wife acquires through marriage to their kinsman.  In many societies, affinity requires the migration of the bride to her husband’s family, and implies that conflict and hardship will ensue.  Therefore, societies have devised several customs to ameliorate or facilitate this transition.  Bride capture is a type of mock combat that the husband’s family performs to justify the taking of the bride.  Institutions such as levirate marriage and cousin marriage provide familiar affines to the bride, and are therefore thought of as conventions created to expressly ease the act of sex migration.  Cf. affinitas, bride capture.  Opp. consanguinity, cousin marriage, kinship, levirate marriage.

affirmative action : [1965] an active effort to improve the educational and employment opportunities for women and racial minorities.  The Republicans first proposed that each black freedmen be provided with ‘40 acres and a mule’ as a method for social equalization and redistribution of wealth, after the Civil War.  However, this and other recommendations made during Reconstruction (1865-1877) were never adopted.  When the U.S. courts finally ordered school desegregation and busing in the 1950s and 1960s, the Republicans entirely reversed their position, and strongly opposed all preferments for minorities and women.  Cf. meritocracy.

afft : affidavit.

affy : to betroth another in order to marry, to bind, to join.

African-American : AfAm : [1989] the ethnic appellation formally proposed by the Reverend Jesse Jackson in 1989.

Afrikete : [Yoruba] an ancient west African trickster; the old hermaphrodite thundergod that preceded the Yoruba god Eshu; a warrior goddess whose achievements were later identified with Eshu or Elegba.[43]  Afrikete is the trickster god as a linguist and poet, for he or she can purportedly understand all the languages of all the gods.  She appears in all kinds of costumes and guises, and often appears as animals and objects.  Cf. Eshu.

Afro-American : AfAm : [1853] an ethnic appellation for black American language and culture; black English.  The term was popularized in the 1960s as a respectable substitute for negro.

afsd. : aforesaid.

aft. : after; afternoon.

afterbirth : secundine, the membrane expelled at the birth of a child.

afterlife : life after death; a proposition that thrives among Christians and Muslims, but which remains of little importance to Jews.  The Buddha taught that questions of creation and afterlife are irrelevant to spiritual life.  Confucian cultures promote remembrance and ancestor veneration, but give little credence to the possibility that an aggregate creature could survive dissolution.  Notions of heaven, afterlife, and angels are typical in Hinduism, Taoistim, and many indigenous religious of the world.

afterliver : survivor, he who lives in succeeding times.

afterlove : one’s second or later love.[44]

afterwards : postquam, post quam, postea quam.

ag- : ad-.

A-G : Dominical Letters.

ag- : ig- : act- : to do, drive.

Agabus : Cf. Achab.

against nature : contra naturem.  This phrase was a Latin invention, based on a mistranslation of the Greek para physein ‘beyond the physical.’  Cf. para physein, sodomy.

agamy : marriage that is not governed by any rules of exogamy or endogamy; the absence of any rule of marriage either inside or outside a group; the lack of marriage regulations affecting a social unit.

agape : [Gk] spiritual love; love as a mixture of philia and eros.

Agathon : Cf. Euripides and Agathon.

age : a long period of prehistoric time used to reckon the ages of man, and human activity.  The three ages of man are the Pre-Stone Age, Middle Stone Age, and Old Stone Age.  Cf. year 11,000 bc, year 4 million bc.

age : ætas : sæculum, period of time.

age : âge : [Fr] the number of years one has lived since birth.

age and sex : two important determinants of kinship that are employed by men to impose patrism and masculinism upon society.

age groups: Altersklassen [Gm].

age of consent : [1828] 10 years of age, the age of consent to a sexual proposition.[45]  Cf. age of sex play.

age of consent to a sexual proposition : [1885].  The English raised this age from 13 years to 16 years in the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1885.[46]

Age of Iron and Silver: the name of our present Druidic Age, which is reckoned in years Mag Tured (1871 bc + ad year-date).  Cf. Druidic Age, Mag Tured.

age of onset : ao. : the age at which the proband acquires a disease or becomes afflicted by some disorder.  Annotation of the age of onset is typical of a genogram or medical pedigree, but normally does not appear in a genealogical pedigree.

age of sex play : [1960] 14 years of age.  The British outlawed all sex play with children younger than 14 years of age, regardless of consent, in the Indecency with Children Act (1960).[47]  Cf. age of consent.

âgée : [Fr] aged.

age-grades : Konso age-grades, called the Gada system of age-sets.  Cf. age-sets, Konso age-grades.

age-mate : [1583] one who is approximately the same age as another; someone closely connected to another mainly because of proximity in ages.

ager : field.

ager peregrinus : foreign land.

ager Romanus : Roman land.

age-sets : [Ethiopia, Konso] the men of a particular generation, who advance to a higher age-grade every 18 years, in the Gada system of age-grades.  Cf. generation, Konso age-grades.

agglutinative language : Cf. language.

agism : [Am disparagement] disrespect to the elderly; viewing the age and station of an older person as being demeritorious, instead of worthy of veneration.

agism : relative agism; taking account of relative age differences, such as older and younger, for the purpose of defining the rôles for reverence and courtesy.  This is age discrimination for the sake of social order, which happens to survive to some degree in British societies, but which seems to have perished in American societies.  The Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, as well as many other immigrant ethnic groups preserve agism in daily native speech, but not in English speech.  Cf. patrism, sexism.

agism : same-sex agism; a key component of homosexual affinity.  In same-sex unions, a disparity of ages is carefully noted, and different terms are used for the older lover (erastes) and younger lover (eromenos).  Androphiles often make agism a keystone for their relationship, in the imitative establishment of patriarchal hierarchy.  Gynecophiles seldom attach much importance to age, and instead seem to prefer to organize their unions by pseudosexism and collateral duties.  This difference seems to connote a disparity we may observe around the world:  females tend to have sororal organizations that are horizontal and departmental, whereas males tend to have hierarchal organizations based on agism and sexism.  Cf. pseudosexism.

agist : to give the right of pasturage in any part of a forest.

agistment : enjoying pasturage in any part of a forest.

agito : to drive, herd, pasture, feed animals.

agnate : agnation, relationship through male lines only.  Cf. cognate.  Opp. enate.

agnates : FaFa; patrikin, patrilineal kin; a class of cognates; paternal relatives and relations; male and female relatives on the father’s side; kinsmen whose lineal descents are known or traceable exclusively through males.  The ego’s paternal grandmother (FaMo) is not classed as an agnate, because she belongs to a different line of descent. Cf. cognates.  Opp. enates, uterine kin, uterine relatives.

agnati : plural of agnatus.  Cf. gentiles.

agnatic descent : patrilineal descent.  Opp. matrilineal descent, uterine descent.

agnatic relatives : patrilineal cognates, male or female relatives connected to the ego through male links from the same male ancestor.  Cf. enatic relatives, uterine relatives.

agnation : agnatio : relationship reckoned through males only.  Cf. patriliny, patrilineal descent.  Opp. matrilineal descent, uterine descent.

agnatus : paternal relation, a relation descended from a common an­cestor in the male line, a child born into a family wherein a regular heir already exists.  Agnatic kinship, as opposed to more distant clan mem­bership in a gens. Agnatic kinship through males, as opposed to cognatic kinship through males and females and affinity through marriage.  Cf. gens.  Opp. cognatus.

agnus : lamb.

agnus Dei : lamb of God.

Ago. : Agto : Agosto : [Sp] August.

agog- : -agogue : [Gk] to lead.

a-go-kwa : [Chippewa] shaman.

agon- : [Gk] struggle, contest.

agonia : cramps.

agouroi : [Gk] Er; young companions,[48] minions.

agrarius : farmer, cultivator.

agreement : supplicatio.[49]

agrippo : pneumonia.

ague : fever, any fever accompanied by chills; malaria.

Ahne : [Gm] ancestor.

Ahnentafel : die Ahnentafel : [Gm] an ancestor table or fan-chart showing a fixed array of ancestor numbers.  The system was first devised in Spain, but popularized in Germany.  Cf. cuadro genealógical [Sp].

Ahnenziffer : die Ahnenziffer : [Gm] Ahnentafel number, a distinctive number assigned to each individual appearing in an ancestor table.  The proband’s number is one (1), his father is two (2), and his mother is three (3).  The Ahnentafel array then continues retrogressively through all the paternal and maternal lines.  Due to the order and regularity of the fan-chart, all the male ancestors have even numbers, and all the females have even numbers.  Furthermore, a father’s number is always double his son’s number, and the same rule holds true for mothers and daughters.  Cf. diagram, genogram, genography, pedigree.

ai : [Jp] love; one of three words for love in Japanese, the others being koi and suki.  Cf. katanaki ai, koi, suki.

aicme : [Ir] group of letters, classified phonetically.  Ogham script has 4 groups (aicme) consisting of 5 letters each.

Aid to Families with Dependent Children : welfare payments made by the U.S. government to assist children in poor families.  The cost was $22 billion in 1994.

AIDS : [1981] acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome, caused by the lentiviruses HIV-1 and HIV-2.  Cf. dementia, retrovirus.

aiel : [Fr] FaFa; grandfather.  Cf. assize of aiel.

aïeul : [Fr] FaFa; grandfather.

aïeule : [Fr] FaMo; grandmother.

aïeules : [Fr] FaPa, FaFa; grandparents, grandfathers.

aïeux : [Fr] ancestors, forefathers.

Aife and Medb : two Celtic amazons contemporary with Scáthach.

aigeon : [Gk] shield of Pallas Athena.  Cf. aegis.

ail hendaid : [We] FaFaFaFa; great-great-grandfather, second-great-grandfather.

ailettes : little wings, features on armor.

âiné : âiné : [Fr] eldest.

aintín : [Ir] aunt; a Gaelic adaptation of the English kin term.

air : △ : ♠ : ï : the sign |:| meaning division; the sign + meaning increase.

air : the second of four elements, corresponding to blood, sanguine humor.

Airorpatai : [Gk] killers of men; a reference to the Amazons of Scythia.

air-swellings : tympanites, air or gas in the intestines.

aïtas : [Doric masculine] Er; hearer, listener; younger lover.[50]  Cf. erōmenos, parastatēs.  Opp. eíspnēlas, philētōr.

Ajax : [1596] a euphemism for ‘a jakes,’ meaning privy.  John Harington invented a primitive form of the water closet, and used the mythological name Ajax to discuss his invention, in The Metamorphosis of Ajax.  Cf. jakes, john.

Akkadian : Cf. Sumerian.

[1] According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens.  Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  116-117.

[2] Arensberg 1968:  81.

[3] Arensberg 1968:  81.

[4] Leland:  4.I.156.

[5] Boswell 1988:  278.n16.

[6] MONT 8:13316241A.

[7] II Chronicles, 24.3.  II Paralipomenon, 24.3.

[8] II Samuel, 5.13.

[9] Leland:  1.1.92.

[10] DAVI.

[11] Spencer, quoted by Johnson.

[12] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  118-119.

[13] Bullfinch 1855:  176.

[14] Boswell 1980:  28.

[15] Webber edited by Parsons, 1947:  196.

[16] Eyton, 12.152.  HL:  17.

[17] The Act of Leases, 32 Hen VIII, chapter 28.  Oestmann 1994:  59.

[18] HL:  50.

[19] 1 Kings, 1.11.

[20] HL:  73.

[21] HL:  158.

[22] HL:  189.

[23] HL:  164, 241, 319.

[24] Oestmann 1994:  210.

[25] Ariès & Duby:  1.609.

[26] Whitman.  Eglinton 1964:  368.

[27] Fabricius 1989:  227.

[28] Black’s Law Dictionary.

[29] Webster 1806.

[30] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[31] ONSL, PITT.

[32] Ariès & Duby:  1.105.

[33] Webster 1806.

[34] Franzetti v. Franzetti.  Texas Civil Appeal Reports, 120 S.W.2d 123, 127.  Black 1891, edition 19

[35] Plucknett 1956:  216.

[36] Plucknett 1956:  216.

[37] Johnson.

[38] Boswell 1988:  394.n102.

[39] Parkin 1997:  16.

[40] Feng 1937:  267.

[41] Lévi-Strauss 1967:  347.

[42] Sandars 1952:  35.

[43] Grahn 1990:  321.

[44] Shakespeare, quoted by Johnson.

[45] Speech by Sir Robert Peel in Hansard, 1828.  Eglinton 1964:  454.

[46] Eglinton 1964:  44.

[47] Eglinton 1964:  454.

[48] Ariès & Duby:  1.630.

[49] HL:  321.

[50] Eglinton 1964:  241.

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