The Alphabetary Heraldic
bo : [Ir] cow.
bó : po : [Ch] FaBr(e), HuBr(e); father’s older brother, elder paternal uncle; husband’s older brother, elder brother-in-law. Cf. haku [SJ]; ojisan [Jp].
bo. : born; bought; bottom.
Boadaceia : Boudica.
Boadicea : Boudica.
Board for Certification of Genealogists : BCG : an independent board of volunteers established in 1964 to certify six degrees of genealogical learning. Applicants submit to an examination conducted by three judges unknown to one another. Vide CG, CGL, CGI, CALS, CGRS, CAILS.
Board of Commissioners of Emigration :  the agency of New York state that was created in May 1847 to superintend the immigration of Europeans to New York. Cf. Castle Garden, Ellis Island.
boarder : someone who eats with another at a fixed rate. A boarder shares the board or table of a household.
boards : benches, raised places atop which people may sit or lie. Cf. court of guard.
boat : a vessel smaller than an ocean-going ship, and used to land or transship cargo from ship to shore.
boat, ocean-going : At Hunstanton, owners and operators of large, ocean-going boats included John Causton (floruit 1510-1531) and William Osborn.
boat of considerable size : William Osborn used this ocean-going boat to freight coal across the Wash.
body dismorphic disorder : BDD : the state of having continuous or recurring obsessions about one’s bodily appearance. This is a rare and peculiar mental disturbance caused by an imbalance of serotonin.
bófù : [Ch] FaBr(e); father’s elder brother, elder paternal uncle.
Bogomils : a heretical movement that arose in Bulgaria, and spread through Europe; a synonym for buggery.
Boibel-Loth alphabet : Cf. alphabet.
bok : [Juang] one of 18 patriclans totemic and exogamous. Cf. descent system patrilineal.
bol- : ball- : ble- : [Gk] to throw, put.
bole : bolla, boll; 6 bushels; a measure of corn; one-sixth of a chalder (36 bushels). Cf. chalder.
bolla : bole.
boll : bole.
bolting house : a place where bran is bolted or sifted from flour.
bombasted : stuffed with cotton or hair.
bómŭ : [Ch] FaBr(e)Wi; father’s elder brother’s wife, elder paternal uncle’s wife, elder paternal aunt-in-law.
Bona Dea : the goddess worshipped by Roman women using sacred dildos; the Roman goddess who presided over lesbian practices and sacred obscenities. Cf. Aphroditic prototypes, Mise, Pudicitia.
Bona Dea of Rome : the Great Goddess who was celebrated with the ritual use of dildos.
bona fide : in good faith; authentic, not fraudulent.
bond : cord, chain, union, obligation. A bond is a written obligation to pay a sum or perform a contract.
bond of marriage : an especially close union that creates complex status relationships through affinity and consanguinity. Opp. link.
bondage : captivity, obligation.
bondage for transportation : the British practice of exiling convicts to America or Australia in lieu of imprisonment or execution. When a court commuted a convict’s sentence for transportation, the Treasury normally issued a payment for his or her transportation to the contractor, and the contractor would post a bond promising to forfeit a monetary penalty if he could not produce a Landing Certificate for the convict by a date certain. In some cases of treason or insurrection, a band of rebels might be expelled without any such provision, and be required to contract their own transportation by selling themselves into indentured servitude. Thus, bondage often led to a series of transactions, and became an enormously profitable. Ship masters and owners cultivated a network of transoceanic contacts to facilitate this trade in human cargo, and would sometimes engage in fraudulence or deception to enhance the benefits. Cf. indentured servant, redemptioner.
bonding : the cultivation of same-sex relationships by and among members of the same family group. Humans and chimpanzees mainly create male-bonded societies, whereas bonobo societies are female-bonded. It was once theorized that the sex which remains in its own natal group does the bonding, and this may well hold true among humans and chimpanzees. However, in bonobo society, it is the migrating females who create bonds with their host females.
bondmaid : a woman slave.
bondman : a man slave.
bonds : chains, imprisonment; cement of union; close social relationships. In societies that reckon lines of descent, kinship bonds are primary, and are based either upon patriliny or matriliny, whereas fraternal and sororal bonds are secondary.
bondservant : slave.
bondslave : a man in slavery.
bondsman : bndsmn. : slave, villein, serf, one who is bound to another; the surety of a bond; a person providing security for another.
bondswoman : a female slave.
bone : the bodily parts presumed by primitives to derive from patrikin. Opp. flesh and blood.
bonedd : [We] pedigree.
bonnet : bonett : a man’s hat. A millen black bonnet was purchased for Sir Thomas le Strange at 5s 4d in 12 Hen VIII, 1520.
bonobo : pan paniscus : pygmy chimpanzee : a race of apes native to the rainforests along the River Zaire in Africa numbering perhaps 10,000. Like humans, the bonobos frequently engage in face-to-face copulation. Unlike humans, bonobos are extraordinarily promiscuous and sexually active, routinely performing copulation, pseudocopulation, and other sexual acts with one another regardless of age and gender. The bonobos employ sex as a socializing instrument, which keeps aggression and combat to a minimum. The pacific bonobos exhibit all the markings of a matriarchy, and their natal groups are based upon women, not men. Cf. genito-genital rubbing, pseudocopulation, penis-fencing.
bonus : good, kind, high; honorable.
Book of Ballymote :  the book that provided the key for the translation of Ogham script; the Irish source that mentioned several cypher alphabets and Oghams, and included the Book of Ollaves.
Book of Common Prayer : BCP :  the service book of the Anglican communion.
boor : beer : [Du] lout, clown, rustic.
boots : bots : boots. The family le Strange purchased a pair of bots for 2s per pair in 1520.
Bornhm. : [Dn] Bornholm.
borough : [En] town, an urban constituency that elects a Member of Parliament (MP).
borough : [Sx] fort, a fortified house with battlements and curtain walls; fortified community, a fortress with a collection of houses.
borough-English tenure: [ante 1925] the custom of preferring the youngest son over his older brothers in matters of inheritance. The tenure called borough English derived from the custom of ultimogeniture or gavelkind, which once prevailed in Kent. During the colonial era, many family members emigrated to other countries, and many served in the military for prolonged periods, so the custom of borough English experienced a certain revival, for it was the only practical way to settle the affairs of an estate while the older brothers were absent. This fairly curious exception to the rule of primogeniture was finally abolished by the Law of Property Act (1922) and the Administration of Estates Act (1925). Opp. primogeniture.
bosc : bosque : [Fr] wood.
boscage : boscage : [Fr] wood.
Boston marriage : a clandestine lesbian marriage.
bote : bo-te : [1850 Absaroka, Absaroke, Crow] a shaman male; a shaman ‘not-man, not woman.’ The Absaroke resided in Montana, and their Crow culture was characterized as a “Strange country … where males assume the dress and perform the duties of females, while women turn men and mate with their own sex.” By some accounts, the bote shamans of the Absaroke even transcended tribal borders, and formed alliances with the bote of alien tribes. Cf. hwame [Mojave and Pima].
bottle sizes : the standard wine bottle, containing one-fifth gallon or 0.7 liters of wine, and its multiples, namely the magnum (2x), flagon (3x), jeroboam or double magnum (4x or 6x), the methuselah or impériale (6x or 8x), salmanazar (12x), balthazar (16x), nebuchadnezzar (20x).
Boudica : Boudicca : Boadicea : Boaduca : Bonduca : Bouducca : Voadicea : Boudica : Boudicca : Boudouika [Gk] : Boadicea : Bunduca : Boadicea : Boadaceia : [obiit ad 62, Celtic] literally Victress; the wife of Prasutagus, King of the Iceni, in eastern Britain, now East Anglia. When Prasutagus died around ad 60, he left a Will wherein he divided his property between his daughters and the Romans. The Romans determined to ursurp the daughters’ share, and therefore commenced a war against the Iceni. Boadicea became the leader, and allied herself with the Trinobantes, to repeal the Romans. Suetonius Paulinus defeated Boadicea in ad 62. Plays celebrating the life of Boadicea were performed in 1697 and 1735, and 1759. Both Cowper and Tennyson made her a subject for poetry. She is today widely regarded as the Celtic ideal of an amazon warrior.
Boudica : the orthodox spelling; sacred Bullslayer, Cowslayer. Boadicea and Boadaceia are variants. Cf. bulldike, butch.
Boudica’s rainbow dress : the multicolored dress worn by Queen Boudica. Cf. Oya.
Boudicca : Boudica.
Boudouika : Boudica.
bought to and sold out : [1520 En] purchased for and sold from. David John made an account of ‘all manner of cattle … bought to the flock of Frynge & sold out of the seid flocke of Frynge.’
bougre : [Fr] heretic. In medieval times, the word denoted a sodomite, or homosexual male, but today it does not refer to any sexual practices. Linguists believe that bougre was the root word for the English buggery, and that it ultimately derived from Bulgaria, as a reference to the heretical movements that originalted in Bulgaria.
bougrerie : [Fr] heresy, buggery.
bougres : [Fr] usurers. This word probably denoted heretics, miscreants, or nonconformists in general, for it was used in different contexts to signify usurers and sodomites.
bounty land warrant : a grant of land in exchange for military service that specifies a location and measure of acrage of public land theretofore unallocated.
boustrophedon style : [Gk] literally as the ox draws the plow; the new form writing, from left to right, instead of right to left, as Semitic languages are written. Early Greek, Etruscan, and Latin were all originally written from right to left, but the Latins adopted the left-to-right Boustrophedon style about 600 bc. Pulling the stylus across papyri or paper, left to right, was probably preferred to pushing it right to left, because the boustrophedon style allowed the ink or pigment to dry without smearing.
bovate : [En obsolete] a measure of land ranging in size from 7 to 32 acres.
bowdash : berdache.
bowls :  an Elizabethan game, the object of which was to roll one’s ball or bowl down a green, aiming to have it touch or kiss the jack or mistress. The jack or mistress was simply another bowl placed at the end of the green as a target. The game was further complicated by misshaping each bowl with a bias, and by adding to the turf various divots and lumps called rubs.
bows : long and short bows.
boy : young male, man-child; lad, stripling.
Boyd’s Marriage Index : a comprehensive index of early English marriages.
boyhood : the state of a boy.
boys of the hood : [AfAm slang] young gang members raised in the same neighborhood. Cf. hood.
bózŭfù : [Ch] FaFaBr(e); elder granduncle.
bózŭmŭ : [Ch] FaFaBr(e)Wi; elder granduncle’s wife.
bp. : baptized.
Bp. : Bishop.
bpl. : place of birth.
Br : [anthropology] brother. Cf. Si.
Br. : Baron : [Fr] Baron; British.
br. : bro. : brother.
Brabant : Brabant, Belgium.
bracchia macra : the extended arm; the phallus of Priapus. Even today, this symbol serves as an obscene gesture.
brackets : square brackets : [—] : Matching pairs of opening and closing square brackets normally enclose the special notes of a lexicographer, editor, or redactor. Dr. Johnson used square brackets to enclose etymological data, after the headwords in his Dictionary, even though he was generally opposed to the frequent use of parentheses, or rounded brackets, in base narratives.
brackets : rounded brackets : (—) : parentheses; a matching pair of opening and closing parentheses, used to show some annotation of helpful data. The data enclosed by rounded brackets should never be made integral to the narrative. Dr. Samuel Johnson abhorred parentheses, and believed that rounded brackets should never be used in a plain, declarative, English sentence. Notwithstanding Johnson’s opinion, historians and scientists have made the frequent use of parentheses into a common feature of technical writing, because bracketed data can show the reader many essential dates, formulae, and definitions that contribute to the reader’s understanding. For example, modern writers might be inclined to use parentheses in these instances: Princess Diana of Wales (1961-1997), tonnage ((L x B x D) / 100), special relativity (E = mc2). Thus, modern writers may draw a distinction between base narrative and technical writing, simply by comparing the uses of parentheses. Base narration should follow Dr. Johnson’s rule, and avoid rounded brackets. The use of parentheses should be restricted or confined to technical tracts and history. Cf. delta bracket, headword.
brackets : carrot brackets : <—> : [IGI] In IGI data, the carrot brackets (<>) may offset suspicious and possibly spurious information.
brachy- : [Gk] short.
brachygraphy : shortwriting. Cf. shortwriting.
brady- : [Gk] slow.
brain fever : an intense headache, fever, vertigo, sensitivity to light or sound; meningitis, encephalitis.
branch : branche : [Fr] the shoot of a tree from one of its main boughs, a part of a family descending in some collateral lineage; offspring; any part that shoots out from the rest.
branches and buds : the stems and scions of a patrilineage. Cf. stems and scions.
brand : a mark or insignia burned into the flesh of an animal or human to prove ownership. Husbandmen and ranchers customarily registered their cattle and horse brands, and often passed them to succeeding generations. Commercial insignias of this type were often regulated by local trade guilds and organizations, so surviving records records of brands are rare.
Brandbg. : Brandenburg, Germany.
branks :  an iron frame placed around the head and equipped with a sharpened bit for the mouth. The branks were typically used to punish a scold, or a mouthy woman who made a nuisance of herself with abusive speech and a ‘distracted’ demeanor. As this was a two-piece or hinged device, the name branks usually appeared in the plural form.
brass :  brasse, an alloy consisting mainly of copper and zinc. Different properties may be realized by altering the proportion of copper to zinc, and thus some popular varieties of brass have been created, such as latten. Cf. latten, monumental brass.
brattice : bretache [Fr] : bretaschia [Lt] : a movable gallery of woodwork overhanging the walls of a castle to enable defenders to throw things down upon assailants.
brawd : [We] brother.
brawl : a dance based on the French custom of chosing a pair of skillful dancers to lead the other dancers. The imitative movements of the crowd often resulted in mistakes and confusion, which accounts for the name.
bread and beer : assize of bread and beer.
bread and drink :  An immigrant could purchase bread and coffee, tea, or milk for 10 cents in the Rotunda at Castle Garden, New York, in 1877. Cf. food and lodging.
breakfast : [8 o’clock a.m.] the time of breaking one’s overnight fast; the first of three meals per day. The British typically had coffee, bread, porridge, and fish at breakfast. Cf. dinner, lunch, steerage fare, supper, tea.
breast cancer : cancerous lumps in a woman’s breast that must be removed by mastectomy or radiation. Today, scientists believe that at least two genes determine a woman’s tendency to develop this cancer.
breche : breeches.
breed : a suborder of living being subordinate to species. Cf. classification.
breed : family, cast, kind, progeny, hatch, a number produced at once.
breed : to preter, procreate, produce from one’s self, to contrive, to give birth to, to educate, to bring up from infancy, to conduct through the first stages of life. Cf. raise, rear [humans].
breeder : that which produces something, a prolific female; someone who raises another; one who takes care of raising a breed.
brehon : [Ir] judge.
bret : brett, a fish of the turbot kind.
Bret : Breton.
bretaschia : brattice.
Brethren :  brothers; German Baptist Dunkers. Cf. Moravians.
brevi- : short.
breviary : breviarium : [Lt] an abridgement, the book showing the daily service of the Roman church.
brew :  to brew beer or ale.
brew house : the place where beer or ale is prepared by steeping, boiling, and fermenting. Cf. wages for helper in brew house.
bridal : belonging to a wedding; the nuptial festival.
bridal register : a register or book provided by some commercial establishment for the use of brides and wedding guests; a register showing the material needs anticipated by a bride, and the corresponding purchases made by wedding guests to fill those needs. Cf. tabulæ dotales, tabulæ dotis.
bridality : celebration of the nuptial feast.
bride : [Sx] Wi; a woman newly married; a woman governed by her husband, in the same manner as a horse is bridled and tamed by a bridler. This analogy with animal training compares a new wife to a horse tamed by a trainer. Another important analogy uses the Latin uxor to compare the wife to an ox restrained by a yoke. Cf. uxor.
bride capture : mock combat between future affines wherein the groom’s family fights for the capture of a new bride. Cf. affinity.
bride donees : wife-takers; an exogamous group reciprocal to bride donors or wife-givers.
bride donors : wife-givers; an exogamous group reciprocal to bride donees or wife-takers.
bride price : compensation that a husband pays to the bride’s parents to ameliorate the loss of their daughter, and to demonstrate that he will provide well for his spouse; a common misnomer for bride weath, bride service, or progeny wealth. The concept derived from the Hebrew practice of the groom giving a gift to the bride’s father, and was fortified by the Roman practice of paying a price for a bride in a marriage as a mock sale. Cf. coëmptio marriage. Opp. dowry.
bride service : bridewealth.
bridebed : marriage bed.
bridechamber : the nuptial chamber.
bridegroom : [Sx] Hu; a man newly married.
brideman : he who attends the bride and bridegroom during a wedding ceremony; the masculine correlative of a bridesmaid.
brideprice : bridewealth. This term has fallen out of favor, because it implies that the bride is purchased, or bought and sold like a commodity. The more general term bridewealth is now preferred. Cf. coëmptio marriage.
brideservice : a marriage prestation paid mainly in labor. In some societies, it is customary for the groom to provide his labor to the bride’s family, in lieu of bridewealth or in addition to bridewealth. In such cases, the groom’s uxorilocal residence might be a temporary situation for the purpose of paying brideservice.
bridesmaid : she who attends upon the bride.
bridewealth : bride service, progeny wealth; a gift or gifts the groom gives the bride’s lineage. This custom is typical among many peoples of the world, and it survives in Western marriage as the groom’s gift of the wedding ring. Primitive people make gifts of iron, gold, cattle, or pigs to the bride’s family, to demonstrate that the bride will be well treated, and to demonstrate that the progeny will be members of the husband's lineage. Cf. bride price, coëmptio marriage. Opp. dowry.
bridewealth : prestation and counter-prestation; a property transfer made for a bride, by the groom and often by the groom’s kin group. The payment of brideweath often connotes an alliance between two families, especially in Africa. Normally, bridewealth is not a unidirectional payment, because allied families tend to exchange more than one bride and groom, and therefore the bridewealth tends to circulate between families. The spouse-exchange groups make a series of prestations and counter-prestations, sometimes over several generations. The payment of bridewealth is viewed as compensation for the loss of the bride, and is often regarded as a ritual to ensure the bride’s fertility. In some societies, a brother cannot take a bride until his sister has been married, so the brother cannot pay bridewealth until bridewealth has been received for his sister’s marriage. Thus, bridewealth constitutes a reciprocal exchange that serves to fortify alliance.
bridge organ :  an organ extracted from an animal and transplanted to a human being. This procedure will involve the genetic alteration of the animal egg with selected human genes to make its cells compatible with human cells. The objective will be to raise genetically modified animals to produce critical bridge organs, for temporary implantation while the human patient waits for the donation of a suitable a human replacement organ.
bridle : [Sx] the headstall and reins with which one tames and controls a horse.
bridler : one who directs or restrains a horse or animal with a bridle.
brief : writing of any kind, a short extract; a species of writ or precept; a written pleading stating one’s case; letters patent licensing a charitable activity.
brigade : a body of men consisting of several squadrons of horse, or battalions of infantry.
brigandine : a material used to make light armor, consisting of metal splints sewn to linen, canvas, or leather, and then covered with another layer. Two pieces of this armor were worn on the front and back of the torso, and were called a pair of brigandines.
Bright, Timothy : author of Characterie: An Arte of Shorte, Swifte, and Secrete Writing by Character (1588). Bright’s system featured straight lines, circles, and half circles. Cf. shortwriting.
Bright’s disease : albumen in the urine, albuminuria, a disease of the kidneys.
Brigida : Brigitta : Bridget.
Brinker, Beebo : a fictional lesbian character popularized in romance novels of the 1950s.
Brit. : British, Britain.
Britomart vs. Radigunde : the good and evil amazons in Spenser’s Faerie Queene. They fought together like a tiger and lioness, and Britomart finally killed Radigunde with her sword of goodness.
Brne : Baronne : [Fr] Baroness.
bro : [AfAm] brother; friend, compatriot.
bro : [We] country.
bro. : brother.
bro.-in-law : [En abbreviation] brother-in-law.
broder : bror : [Dn] Br; brother.
Brøderbund Error in Centesimal Leap Years (ad 100-1582) : the unexplained elimination of 12 centesimal leap years; the peculiar substitution of Gregorian Retrospective reckoning for the historical Julian Calendar. All of the Brøderbund Calendars prior to 1582 are entirely fictitious, and should never be used for historical and genealogical work. The programmers apparently wanted to extend the Gregorian Calendar backward in time, so as to provide a single measure for calendrical time. However, Brøderbund’s decision to expand Gregorian Retrospection far into the past resulted in some horrible mistakes. In the Julian Calendar, every centesimal year was a leap year, and therefore there were 15 centesimal leap years between ad 100 and ad 1500. Brøderbund determined to ignore these historical facts, and to present a series of Gregorian Retrospective calendars that record merely 3 centesimal leap years, and convert 12 centesimal years into common years. Consequently, Brøderbund entirely dropped 12 centesimal leap-year dates of 29 February, testifying to the user that these 12 dates never existed. Brøderbund also ignored the Gregorian rules for calendar conversion, and therefore presented a Gregorian-style series of Dominical Letters for the years prior that 1582 that were never used by anybody in history.
BrøderbundSpurious Dominical Letters : [1993-1997] The Brøderbund Calendar in Family Tree Maker, Version 4.0a, began on the fictive date Friday* 1 January ad 100, and ended on Saturday* 31 December ad 4095 (100/1/1/Fr* - 4095/12/31/Sa*). However, the Julian Dominical Letter for 1 January ad 100 was ED, and therefore New Year Day would have fallen on Wednesday 1 January ad 100, not Friday. Brøderbund continued its erroneous reckoning for many centuries, for it identified the year 1485 as having had the Dominical Letter E, when it did not. Brøderbund purported that 1 January 1485 fell on Thursday*; but the year actually had the Dominical Letter B, and the date 1 January actually fell on Saturday 1 January 1485, not Thursday. Historically, we know that the Romans held these four years to have been centesimal leap years: ad 100 (ED) commenced on Wednesday 1 January, ad 200 (FE) commenced on Tuesday 1 January, ad 300 (GF) commenced on Monday 1 January, and ad 400 (AG) commenced on Sunday 1 January. Brøderbund ignored the Julian Calendar and historical Julian reckoning, and likewise ignored the Dominical Letters recorded by Oxford University and other authorities. Brøderbund elected to identify the same centesimal years as the three common years* ad 100 (C, Friday*), ad 200 (E, Wednesday*), and ad 300 (G, Monday*), and the one leap year ad 400 (BA, Saturday*). Brøderbund entirely failed to explain why it applied Gregorian rules to years that properly belonged to Julian Calendar reckoning. Cf. MR, Microsoft Reckoning, reckoning.
Brøderbund Family Tree Maker Calendar (ad 100-1582 gr) : [1996 Version 4.0] a Gregorian Retrospective view of history, from ad 100 through 1582 and 1752. Cf. Gregorian Retrospection.
Brøderbund Family Tree Maker Calendar : [1996 Version 4.0] a popular calendar that generates GEDCOM files with unreliable and unidentified calendars. Brøderbund provided a curious feature for a ‘cut-off date’ with a default of 1752, which could only refer to the peculiar English / Scots Old Style / New Style Julian Calendar (OS/NS Julian). Brøderbund then provided a series of Gregorian Perpetual Calendars, and overlaid the Gregorian Calendar (GC) with the familiar os/ns Julian Calendar (JC) double year-date for the periods between 1 January and 24 March. The programmers did not provide any header to identify their calendars, and therefore the reader apprehends that the calendars must represent either (1) Gregorian Perpetual Calendars with Julian overlays, or (2) Julian Perpetual Calendars with seemingly Gregorian weekdays. If the user elects to accept Brøderbund’s so-called “double date” defaulting at 1752, then he must accept Gregorian Calendars with the peculiar double year-date, Julian / Gregorian (jc/gc) notations. As Brøderbund has blended the two calendars together, creating some weird hybrid calendar, the reader never quite knows in what Julian Period year he is supposed to be. The Gregorian Calendar omitted 10 days, and leaped 11 days ahead of the Julian Calendar in 1582. From the contemporary viewpoint of historical Englishmen and Scotsmen who were uniformly using the Julian Calendar, the Gregorian Brøderbund Calendar is always 11 to 14 days ahead of Julian reckoning. Thus, Brøderbund’s double year-date 1600’01/1/1 gc should correspond to 1599/12/21 jc.
Brøderbund Omission of Julian Calendars : If a genealogist wishes to analyze an original parchment written on 21 December 1599 JC, and needs to know the days of the week in that month, Brøderbund’s FTM Calendar will not give him a Julian Calendar for 1599. The programmers made matters worse by extending the year-date disparity farther back in time, even beyond 15 October 1582, or the inception of Gregorian reckoning, and even as far as the Brøderbund beginning date of ad 100/1/1/Friday. Thus, Brøderbund’s year-date reckoning seems to confuse the os/ns Julian disparity with two other kinds of double year-date in Anglo-Scottish reckoning, namely (1) the Era of Incarnation, and (2) the overlapping regnal dates. The most troubling aspect of Family Tree Maker is the program’s feature for automatically scripting these so-called “double dates.” It does not seem to be a sound practice to new generate Brøderbund’s “double dates” often unwittingly, because the readers will never be able to discern whether such double year-dates were authentic and contemporary, or whether they were created post facto in the twentieth century. When examining data printed with FTM, one must constantly wonder whether the double-years are merely the inventions of Brøderbund. Cf. Era of Incarnation, Microsoft Outlook Calendar, regnal year.
BR : Brøderbund Reckoning.
broderdatter : [Dn] BrDa; niece, brother’s daughter.
brodersøn : [Dn] BrSo; nephew, brother’s son.
broeder : [Du] Br; brother.
broken family : single-parent family.
bronchorrhea : bronchial flu.
bronze John : yellow fever.
bronze, or electrical appliances : 8th year of marriage; symbol of the eighth wedding anniversary.
brood : [Sx] offspring, progeny, something bred, the number hatched at once; production; covering the eggs.
bror : [Nw] Br; brother.
brorsdotter : [Sw] BrDa; niece, brother’s daughter.
brorson : [Sw] BrSo; nephew, brother’s son.
brothel : bordel : [Fr] a house of lewd entertainments.
brothel slang : the colloquial terms of the brothel, as opposed to those used in a household, e.g. eugium, spurium, calo, sturtheum.
brothelhouse : brothel.
brothelly : whoredom, obscenity.
brothels : porneia, houses of male prostitution; the male brothels in medieval Paris, Chartres, Orléans, and Sens.
brothels in Athens : Cf. Solon.
brother : bro [AfAm] : b. : br. : bro. : [En] Br; son of one’s parents; a male belonging to the same sibship; friend, a fellow man; a compatriot in some cause or struggle; broeder [Du] : broder [Dn, Sw] : bror [Nw].
brother’s daughter : [Ir] niece.
brother’s son : [Ir] nephew.
brother-german : brother of the whole blood. Opp. halfbrother, stepbrother.
Brotherhood of John :  presumably the followers of an itinerant homosexual named John. The brothers were tried in Leopoli, Italy, and accused of claiming to have visited the souls of the dead on the Mound of Venus, and of practicing necromancy.
brother-husband : Br=Hu; Osiris, the brother and husband of Isis. King Tutankhamen (1343-1325 bc) married his putative sister, but Tut’s father was deformed, and therefore some have suggested that the genitor or natal father of Tut and Tut’s sister must have been their putative grandfather. Opp. Isis.
brother-in-law : SiHu; HuBr, WiBr; HuSiHu, WiSiHu; sister’s husband; wife’s brother; husband’s brother; the husband of one’s wife’s sister. Cf. gener.
brother-outlaw : the male lover of one’s brother; the same-sex mate of one’s brother. Cf. inlaw, outlaw. Opp. brother-in-law.
brothers : brother, mechanical solidarity; brother-in-law, organic solidarity. Opp. others.
brothers : WiSiHu & WiSiHu; uxoral brothers-in-law. Two men who have married a pair of sisters sometimes call one another brother, for they have both married into the same descent group.
brothers by adoption : blood brothers among native Americans. Cf. Arapahoe.
brother-sister marriage : King Tut of Egypt married his sister. Tut’s father was deformed, and therefore some suspect that Tut might have been actually sired by his grandfather rather than his father, in which case Tut might have been his wife’s uncle.
brother-sister marriages : unions once popular among blond-haired residents of northern Africa, prior to the immigration of Christians and others who held brother-sister marriages to be taboo.
brown-tail rash : an itchy rash caused by the hairs of the gypsy moth or its caterpillar. When the gypsy moth sheds its small hairs, the wind carries the shedded hair, and the hair sometimes becomes trapped in human pores, causing the brown-tail rash.
Bruder : [Gm] Br; brother. Cf. warm Bruder.
Brunsw. : Braunschweig : Brunswick, Germany.
Bt. : Baronet.
bu : abu : [Ar] a name element in Arabic. Cf. abu.
Buannan : the Lasting One, a martial artist paired with the Shadowy One. Cf. Scáthach.
buck: stag, a game of chase; a male animal, such as a stag, hare, or goat. The term derived from the French bouc ‘goat.’ Cf. goat.
Bucking Island : [Am] an old English name for Ellis Island, NY.
Buckingeham : Bucks. : Buckinghamshire.
Buckinghamia : Buckingham.
buckle : bokell : a clasp purchased for 10d in 12 Hen VIII, 1520.
Bucks. : Buckingeham : Buckinghamshire.
bucol- : [Gk] cowherd.
Buddhism : a large religion divided into three main branches, namely Theravāda Buddhism, Mahāyāna Buddhism, and Vajrayāna Buddhism.
Buddhist name : sung, shih [Ch]; a surname adopted by a Buddhist monastic as his religious name.
Budiforda : Bedford.
buggery :  Bulgaria; anal intercourse. Throughout the English-speaking world, buggery denotes anal intercourse or pedico, and especially androphilia. The word actually derived from Bulgaria, the place were a religious uprising took place in the eleventh century. Cf. army of Bohemian girls, Libussa and Valeska; Bogomils, Bulgaria; bulgaro [It], bougre [Fr], bugger [En].
bugles : beads.
Builder’s Old Measurement : B.O.M. : Cf. tonnage.
B.O.M. : Builder’s Old Measurement : Cf. tonnage.
buitenechelijk : [Du] illegitimate.
Bulgaria :  a country west of the Black Sea, where an army of Bohemian girls joined a religious rebellion in the eleventh century. As the army arose west of the Black Sea, the girls have always been associated with amazons, for the amazon realm of Thermodontia was situated on the eastern shore. Cf. buggery, Libussa and Valeska.
bulimy : bulimia [Gk] : a voracious appetite, sometimes occasioning fainting and coldness in the extremities.
bull : Bole. Cf. calf, cow.
Bole : bull.
bulla : a phallic symbol.
bullbaiting :  an Elizabethan blood sport wherein a team of mastiffs attacked a bull, either tethered to a pole, or allowed to run within fences. The dogs could seldom kill the bull outright, but they were allowed to molest and chase the bull until it simply died of exhaustion and fright. Cf. bearbaiting, horsebaiting.
bulldike : bulldyke : [Celtic] a strong and warrior-like lesbian. The word represents a variant prounciation of Boudica, Boadicea, or Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni, or the Celtic Hicca people, who mounted a rebellion against the Romans in ad 61. Boudica was subjugated and killed by the Romans in ad 62. The word has been used in America since before the 1950s, as a codeword for lesbian, and its modern variants include bulldagger, bulldag, and Dieseldike.
bundling :  the practice of allowing an unmarried couple to occupy the same bed while fully dressed. This custom probably arose out of necessity, for a suitor needed to visit his betrothed during courtship, and might need to spend the night from time to time. Few families could afford to maintain extra rooms and beds, so bundling the couple together in their clothes was a practical compromise. Such an unwedded pair was probably supervised by others sleeping nearby beds. Colonial American families sometimes positioned a board down the length of the bed, so as to separate persons of the opposite sex who had to share the bed, whether they were courting or not. Cf. trundle bed.
bundosh : Er; berdache.
Bunduca : Boudica.
bur. : buried, burial.
burel cloth : coarse woolen cloth.
burg : [Gm] castle.
burgage : bourgage : [Fr] a tenure proper to cities and towns whereby men hold their lands or tenements of the king or other lord in exchange for fixed payments of rent.
Burgenld. : Burgenland, Austria.
burgensis : burger.
burgess : bourgeois : [Fr] citizen, a freeman of a city or corporate town, a representative of the town.
burgher register : [Sz] a register maintained for the proof of citizenship.
burgmote : an assembly of burgesses. Cf. folkmote, mote, motfee.
burgonet :  a steel cap with a chin-piece, typically worn in the sixteenth century.
burgrave : [Gm] a hereditary count who governs a castle or town.
burial : the inhumation of a corpse in an excavated grave. The ancients had every incentive to bury, entomb, or cremate a corpse at the earliest opportunity, because they normally lacked the enbalming and refrigeration techniques needed to preserve the corpse from deterioration. The Jews still preserve their old custom of burying their dead immediately, normally within one day after death. Christians have adopted the custom of burying the corpse three or four days after death, to allow relatives the opportunity of attending the funeral rites. Cf. funerary feast, sepultus, humatus, intumulatus.
burial club : collegia funeraticia.
burial customs : corpses buried in northern Africa show two orientations. The oldest corpses represent an ancient blond-haired race that endorsed brother-sister marriages, and buried their dead with heads pointing West, as if looking toward the afterlife. The newer, Christian corpses, were buried with heads points East, to symbolize faith in resurrection.
burial rites : cremation, embalmment, inhumation.
burials per year : the annual rate showing the number of burials in a certain community in a certain year. Cf. baptisms per year, burial rate.
burials per year at Hunstanton : [1571-1597] 6.4 burials per year. Cf. baptisms per year.
baptisms per year at Hunstanton : [1571-1597] 6.8 baptisms per year. Cf. burials per year.
burial rate : Cf. burials per year.
burial urns : ollæ.
burial, prehistoric : The custom of burying the dead was brought to Europe by the homini sapiensi about 35,000 years ago. The earlier homini erecti did not perform burial.
buried: sepultus, humatus, intumulatus.
bursa : purse, scrotum.
bury : [Sx] to inter with the rites of sepulture, put into a grave.
burying-place : a place appointed for sepulture.
bus : omnibus, a motorized vehicle used for mass transit.
bush :  a typical sign for a wine shop.
business interest : [Am] majority dictatorship, the national interest of the U.S., as represented by both the Democratic and Republic constiuents of the bipartisan system; an interest led by and serving the 10% of the populace that controls 86% of the income-producing assets of the country. Variously called the ‘silent majority’ or ‘moral majority’ this important arm of plutocratic politics is commonly perceived to advance individual interests; yet, it invites corruption. Particularly in times of peace and prosperity, voters enthusiastically support the business interest, because it promotes their own prosperity. Outside the business interest are the numerous special interests that comprise the minority rights of the people. A balance between minority rights and majority dictatorship is the foundation of American liberty.
Buskd. : [Nw] Buskerud.
bustard : busterd : the largest European bird, once common but rare now in England. The male courts the female by inflating his pouch. Its long legs give it a stately gait and its large body causes it to fly in a slow but powerful way. It weighs as much as 14 kilograms (31 pounds) and can be 120 centimeters (4 feet) long. Cf. grete Byrds.
busterd : bustard.
bustum : bust; tomb, sepulcre.
butch : bouch : [Fr] Ph, An; goat, the masculine counterpart of any same-sex relationship; the dominant, male androphile who appears more masculine than his partner; bulldike, antianeira [Lt], the butch lesbian who appears more masculine than her partner. The association of the masculine rôle with the goat had its origin in the costume of the goat-god, or horned goat, which had a central place in a shamanistic ceremony performed by both female and male priests and shamens, which often featured tranvestism. The appellation butch often implies a militaristic appearance, such as a plain and uniformed costume and closely cropped hair. Cf. bull dyke, diesel dyke.
butcher : boucher : [Fr] someone who kills animals to sell their flesh, someone who delights in blood.
butcher : boucher : [Fr] to slaughter. The verb was based on bouc ‘goat.’ Cf. goat.
butchering : the killing or kyllynge of a swine or sheep. Cf. killing.
buticularius : pincerna, butler.
butler : bouteiller [Fr] : pincerna, buticularius [Lt] : [1300 En] bottle bearer, a servant employed in furnishing the table. Cf. chamberlain, household officers, steward.
butter :  The maximum price for butter was set at 4d per pound in August 1599.
buttery : botelerie : a storeroom for bottles containing wine or beer.
buwch : [We] cow.
buying col : ceannach col [Ir].
-by : [Dn, Nw] city, town; village, a small town.
byname : secondary name, nickname. This term is sometimes used to discuss the early stages of surname development, when such as the Irish began to invent patronyms and gentilitious names by attaching prefixes to the names of fathers and ancestors. Cf. ap, filius, fitz, Mac-, O’.
byrnie : a mail shirt, an older version of the hauberk.
 BCG, Post Office Box 14291, Washington, DC 20044, 1977.
 Oestmann 1994: 122-123.
 Le Strange Collection, P.1.336. Oestmann 1994: 122.
 Cornelius Tacitus. Grahn 1990: 313.
 From the Greek of Cassius Dio. Grahn 1990: 313.
 The preferred spelling of T.C. Lethbridge, Witches, New York: Citadel, 1968. Grahn 1990: 313.
 Gurney 1833: 437, sub No. 3d, “This boke …”
 Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9: 14.5. EGH 1997/9-10: 18.
 KILR 4.1111. Paul 1904: 4.431.