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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


V : U : the letter V, that yielded the variants U and W.

v. : volume.

v. : vuestro : [Sp] your.

v.a. : vixit annos.

v.p. : vita patris : in his father’s lifetime.

Va. : VA : Virginia.

vacancy : vacuity, empty space, chasm; the state of an unfilled job or post; the state of an unoccupied room.

vacavit sedes : vacated the seat.

vaccary: vacca : cow barn, dairy barn; cow pasture.

vaccination : inoculation for cow-pox; the injection of a vaccine.

vaccine : of or belonging to a cow.

vader : [Du] Fa; father.

vadleto : valet, knave; King’s eldest son.[1]

Vadum Rubrum : Hertford.

vagabond : vagabundus : vagrant, wandering without any settled home.

vagabondry : beggary, knavery.

vaginal fluid : Bartholin secretion.

vaginal intercourse : Cf. intercourse.

vagrancy : a state of wandering; an unsettled condition.

vagrant : wanderer, vagabond, a man unsettled in habitation.

vagus concubitus : promiscuity.[2]

vahina pa’i’a : [Tahiti] a woman who rubs another woman for sexual stimulation, unaided by any penetration.[3]

vail- : val- : to be strong, be worth.

vaimo : [Fi] Wi; wife.

vair : squirrel fur; a combination of grey and white squirrel skins.  Cf. ermine.

Vajrayāna Buddhism : Tibetan Buddhism, a hybrid variety of Buddhism that combines Buddhism doctrines with Hindu mysticism and indigenous Bon rites.

val- : vail- : to be strong, be worth.

vale : be well, adieu, farewell, good-bye; a word that often appears at the end of letters.

valediction : valedico : a farewell.

valentine : sweeheart, chosen on Saint Valentine’s Day.

valet : [ancient] a young gentleman of rank and fam­ily.

valet : [medieval] a man of lower rank.

valet : [present] personal servant, hotel em­ployee, a waiting servant.

valettus : [1400] yeoman, a military attendant below the rank of sergeant; [1600] a freeholder below the rank of gentleman.

valettus regis : King’s yeoman.[4]

valetudinarian : one who is sick, weak, or infirm.

vallare : invest.[5]

valley : vallis : low ground, a hollow between hills.

value : valor : price, worth; rate; a price equal to the worth of some item.

vampire : vampur : [Gm] a demon that delights in sucking human blood and has the power to animate the corpses of the dead.  Legend has it that the body of a vampire exhumed will be florid and full of blood.

van : avant : [Fr] the first line, the front of an army.

vandalism : the rude and barbarous behavior of Vandals, a people descended from the Goths.

vanha : [Fi] old, aged.

vanhin : [Fi] eldest.

vanity : vanitas : inanity, emptiness, uncertainty; fruitless desire or endeavor; petty pride; ostentation, arrogance.

var. : variant, various.

variant : differing slightly in pronunciation or spelling.

variants : semblatives, the variant spellings of the same name.  Variants is a term that applies to different spellings of vocabulary items, place names, and personal names.  Cf. comparative, index entry, narrative.

variety : a suborder of living beings, subordinate to species.  Cf. classification.

varvels : vervelles : [Fr] silver rings fastened around the leg of a hawk and engraved with the owner’s name.  Cf. hawk.

Varvicum : Warwick.

vas : vessel, container; womb; implement with two handles; the penis and two testicles.

vasculum : vas : penis; vessel, container; womb.

vassal : vassus : subject, dependent; servant, slave; one who holds property of a superior lord.

vassalage : vasselage : [Fr] the state of a vassal; servitude, slavery, dependence; tenure at will.

vastation : vastatio : depopulation, waste, devastation.

Vater : [Gm] Fa; father.

vaticide : a murderer of prophets.

vavasour : vavasseur : [Fr] one who himself holds land of a superior lord, but has others holding land under him.

ve. : vert : green.

veal : veel : [Fr] calf, the flesh of a calf slain for the table.

vecchio : [It] aged.

vecino de este real : neighbors of this district.

vectis : [Romance] penis.

vedova : [It] widow.

vedovo : [It] widower.

vehicle : vehiculum : the means by which something is conveyed; that in which something is transported.

veil : vail : velum [Lt] : voile [Fr] : curtain, a cover thrown over something for concealment; an item of female dress, designed to conceal the face and shape of a person.

vel : or; even, even as; at least.

velar : formed with the back of the tongue touching or near the soft palate.

veli : [Fi] brother.

velitation : velitatio : dispute, skirmish, a light contest.

veljenpoka : [Fi] fraternal nephew, brother’s son.

veljentytär : [Fi] fraternal niece, brother’s daughter.

vellum : vetulinum : a fine parchment made from the skins of a calf and dressed for the writer.

vellus : the short and nearly transparent hair the normally appears on the face of an adolescent during puberty, and gives the skin a silky texture.[6]

velum : [Lt] veil, awning.

velum : vela : sail of a ship; covering, awning, curtain.

velvet of carnadine : [1592] Two-pile or second-grade velvet of carnadine was valued at 20s per yard around 1592.[7]

ven- : vent- : to come.

venal : venalis : mercenary, prostitute.

Venantodunia : Huntingdonshire.

vendee : buyer, one to whom something is sold.

vender : vendeur : [Fr] seller.

vendible : vendibilis : saleable, marketable.

venefice : veneficium : the practice of poisoning.

venenata : she was poisoned, drugged.

venenate : veneno : to poison, infect with poison.

venenatus : poisoned, drugged, enchanted.

venerable : venerabilis : to be regard with awe and reverence.

Venerable Bede : Cf. Bede.

venereal : venereus : relating to love.

venereal disease : sexually transmitted disease (STD), a disease arising from making love.

venerean : venereal.

venereous : lustful, libidinous.

venerie : love.[8]

veneris res : venereal thing; sexual intercourse.

venery : venerie : [Fr] the pleasures of the bed; the sport of hunting.

vengeance : punishment, penal retribution, avengement.

vengement : avengement, penal retribution.

venial : venia : pardonable; allowed, permitted.

venial sin : a sin that may be pardoned through the absolution of a priest.  Opp. mortal sin.

venio : to have sex with a man.

venison : venaison : [Fr] game, beast of the chase; the flesh of deer.

vent- : ven- : to come.

ventail : ventaille : [Fr] visor, the part of a helmet that lifts up; the vented part of a helmet through which the wearer breathes.

venter : stomach, belly, wound.

ventris arma : penis.

venture : avantare : [Fr] hazard, an undertaking chancing risk and danger.

venturer : one who ventures.

venturing : the act of putting to hazard, running a risk.

Venus : a planet named for the goddess of love; the third of seven planets, which returns to the same position each year.

venus : sexual intercourse.

Venus : the classical goddess, recognized as equivalent to the Germanic goddess Holle, the Sabbat leader.

venus aversa : [1900] a euphemism for anal intercourse.

Venus Urania : the most violent face of the Triple Goddess.

ver- : true.

veranda : open portico, an external passage built by extending a roof from the main structure.

verb- : word, verb.

verba occulta : hidden text.[9]

verbatim : word-for-word; in precisely the same words.

verch : ferch : [We] daughter of; a permutation of merch used as a patronymic byname.  Cf. ferch, filia, nic.  Opp. mab.

verderer : viridarius : an officer of the forest.

veretro femineo : female genitalia.  Cf. muliebre veretrum.

veretrum : penis; female genitalia.

verge : the precinct or compass around the king’s court, a royal jurisdiction directly controlled by the Lord Stewart of the King’s Household and the Coroner of the King’s House.  The royal verge was an imaginary circular area, about 12 miles in circumference, focused on the king.

verge : virga : rod, staff, mace; an emblem of a lord’s authority; something shaped like a rod and carried as an emblem of authority; the mace of a dean.  When a tenant was newly admitted under a lordship, it was customary for him to take hold of the verge while swearing his fealty to the lord.  Cf. fagus, fasces, scepter, virga, wand.

verheiratet : [Gm] married.

vermin : vermis : a noxious animal, especially a small animal such as a mouse or rat; a term of contempt for some lowly person.

verna : home-born slave; slave born into the mas­ter’s house.

vernæ : slaves.  Cf. alumni.

vernal equinox : Cf. equinox.

vernility: servile carriage; the obsequious, submissive, and fawning behavior of a slave.

Verouicum : Verovicum : Warwick.

verpa : the vox propria for penis.  Cf. mentula.

verpus qui pedicat : the penis used to bugger.

vers : [Fr] about, around, circa.

vers- : vert- : to turn.

vert : green; an old Latin or Norman-French word for green; everything that grows in a forest and bears green leaves; whatever growth might conceal a deer.  Modern French heralds use instead the word sinople, which originally meant ‘reddish brown.’

vert- : vers- : to turn.

Vertesszöllös man : the fossil remains of a European Homo sapiens, dated in the Middle Quaternary period.  Cf. Hominidae.

Vervicum : Warwick.

vespers : early evening, the sixth canonical hour; the sixth of seven daily services of Christian prayer.  Cf. canonical hours.

vespers : vesperus : the evening service of a Roman Catholic church.

vespertine : vespertinus : happening in the evening, pertaining to the evening.

vessel : vas [Lt] : vaisselle [Fr] : a vehicle which carries men and goods over the water; anything which holds liquids or other things.

vessels, medium : ketch.

vessels, small : pinnace.

vest- : garment.

Vesta : [Lt] Hestia [Gk], goddess of the hearth.

vestalis maxima : oldest and senior virgin; Vestal virgin; virgo maxima.

Vestals : the six vestal virgins who served as handmaidens and priestesses for Vesta, the keeper of the eternal flame of Troy, which Æneas had brought to Rome.  The Vestals owned plenty of property, and therefore they gave land for the founding of Rome.  Cf. eternal flame, vesta.

vestibule : vestibulum : the porch or entrance of a house; the place where clothes are doned or removed before passing outside or inside a building.

vestment : vestimentum : garment, a part of dress.

vestry : vestiarium : a room attached to the church where the clerk stores the sacerdotal garments and consecrated items; a parochial assembly that convenes in the vestry.  In Virginia Colony, the vestry assembly served the function of a local government.

veteran : veteranus : an old soldier, a man who has long practiced some craft.

veterinarian : veterinarius : one skilled in curing the diseases and disorders of cattle.

Vetter : [Gm] PaSbCh; cousin.

vetula : a little old woman.

vetulus : a little old man.

vetus : vetulus : old age, 77 years to death.

Vetus Testamentum : [Lt] Old Testament.

veuf : [Fr] widower.

veuve : [Fr] widow; femme.[10]

veuves : [Fr] Er; widows; femmes; gay argot for passive-feminine types who enjoy being buggered.  The name derived from Place des Veuves, a popular cruising spot in Paris.[11]

vexo : harass, annoy, disturb.

vi- : way, road.

viage : voyage.

viand : viande [Fr] : vivanda [It] : food, dressed meat.

viaticum : provision for a journey, the last rites wherein an officiant prepares a dying person for his departure.

viator : traveler; a messenger or runner in the service of a magistrate.

vicar : vicarius : substitute, the incumbent of a benefice either appropriated or impropriated; clergyman; a person acting in place of the rector as priest of a parish.

vicarage : vicaria : the benefice of a vicar; the residence of a vicar.

vicaria : vicarage.

vicarius : surrogate, substitute, one who takes an­other’s place.

vice : qui vicem gerit, he who performs the office of a superior; second in command.

vice : vitium : fault, offence, depravity of manners; action without virtue.

vice anglais : le vice anglais : [1850 Fr] the English vice, prostitution.[12]  The liberty of the City of London seems to have encouraged sexual freedom, even in Victorian times, for the continentals often commented upon the English obsession with extra-marital sex.  Cf. prostitution in London.

viceadmiral : the second commander of a fleet.

viceagent : one who acts in place of another.

vicechancellor : vicecancellarius : the second magistrate in a university.

vicecomes : [1000] viscount, a hereditary title of the Holy Roman Empire.  The order of viscounts on the continent was established in the tenth century.

vicecomiti ejusdem comitatus : viscounts of the same county.[13]

vice-comitissa : [OE law] viscountess.

vicegerent : vicem gerens : lieutenant, one entrusted with the power of a superior; the deputy of a superior.

viceroy : viceroi : [Fr] one who governs with regal authority in place of the king.

viceroyalty : the dignity of a viceroy.

vicinage : vicinia [Lt] : voisinage [Fr] : neighborhood, vicinity, places adjoining one’s own.

vicissitude : vicissitudo : change, revolution; the cyclical return of the same things in the same succession.

vico : vicario : [Sp contraction] vicar.

vicomte : [Fr]  viscount; a rank next below earl; an old title for sheriff.

vicomtess : [Fr] viscountess.

vicontiel rents : the farms a sheriff rents from the king, from which the sheriff is freely allowed to profit.

vicontiel writ : a writ triable in a county court, before a sheriff.

vict- : vinc- : to conquer.

victim : victima : sacrifice, a being slain for sacrifice; something or someone destroyed.

victimhood : the pretense of self sacrifice; unjustly posturing as an indignant victim.  Political hyperbole and media hype have elevated victimhood to new heights, as a topic intended for exploitation, exaggeration, and manipulation.  Mature individuals generally abhor the notion they somehow have been victimized, and wish to hide their private calamities.  Conversely, politicians and networks routinely use human adversity to make publicity and solicit sympathy for special causes.  The ploy most lame and pitiful of all must surely be the sight of some white male whining of his lost advantage, and bemoaning his reversal of fortune, all on account of so-called “reverse discrimination” favoring black males.  The word victimhood connotes a plaintive, albeit bogus, pretense of adversity, and often lacks the legitimacy of movements for social justice initiated by blacks, women, and other minorities.  Nonetheless, victimhood remains a powerful tool for propaganda, whatever the foundation might be, for the Nazi party in Germany was composed mainly of perpetual whiners, who made scapegoats of all who differed from the Aryan race devoted to Führerhood.  Cf. reverse discrimination, whining white-male syndrome.

viculus : hamlet, little village.

vicus : hamlet, village; a ward or district of a city.

vid- : vis- : to see.

vid. : vidua.

vide : [1565 Lt] see; a word directing the reader’s attention to another item; the standard form of a cross-reference for the reader; the imperative form of the Latin verb video, videre ‘to see.’  Variants, translations, and equivalents of the verb vide commonly appear in many languages, and are sometimes incorporated into abbreviations.  The command vide exhorts the reader to refer to another place or chapter in the same work, either for explication or comparison, and serves as a mechanical equivalent to a hyperlink.  Words and expressions similar to vide tend to indicate the direction (up or down) or page number of the cross-reference, or the nature of the comparison (synonym or antonym).  Cf. i.e., opp., q.v., confer, contra, hyperlink, id est, index entry, quod vide, quæ vide, vide ante, vide infra, vide post, vide supra, vide tabulam, vide tabulas.

vide ante : see the preceding; see what came before.

vide infra : see below.

vide post : see the following; see what is written hereafter.

vide supra : see above.

vide tabulam : see the table.

vide tabulas : see the tables.

videlicet : viz. : to wit; that is; permit it to read; namely; that is to say.  The final -z represents a simple suspension of -delicet, and happens to be the medieval notation for for ‘and’ which originally looked like a seven (7) and was equivalent to our modern ampersand (&).

video : to see.

vidius : living, vigorous; true to life.

vidnere : [Dn] witnesses.

vidua : woman without a man, widow, di­vorcée.[14]

viduæ : women without men, widows, divorcées.  Cf. non nupti.[15]

vidual : viduus : belonging to the state of a widow.

viduata : widowed.

viduity : widowhood.

viduus : widower, deprived of something, separated from something.

viejo : [Sp] aged.

Viernes : [Sp] Friday.

Vigornia : Worcester.

vilicus : villicus : steward; bailiff; the overseer of an estate.

village : a small group of houses in the country; a living smaller than a town but larger than a hamlet.

villain : villanus : servant, one who holds land by some base tenure.

villanage : base servitude, infamy, the state of a villain.

ville : [Fr] city, town.

villein : serf.

villeinage : [1400] tenure of land by bond ser­vice.[16]

villie : [Dn] will.

Vilugiana Provincia : Wiltshire.

vinc- : vict- : to conquer.

vine : vinea : the creeping plant that grows grapes.

viniculum matrimonii : bond of marriage.

vinolency : vinolentia : drunkenness.

vinolentum : alcoholism, a ground for divorce.

vintenarii : a mounted archer in a company of fifteen?[17]  Cf. quindenarii?

vintner : merchant of wine.

viol : viola [It] : violle [Fr] : violin, a string instrument.

violavit : he did violence to.[18]

vir : man; single man, individual, husband, grown man, opposite of puer.

vir- : poison.

vir et uxor : man and wife; baron et feme [Fr].

vir optime : sir, the best type of man, a man be­longing to an order of priesthood or knighthood, or to some rank or peerage even higher in dig­nity.

vir virum legit : each man singles out his opponent.

viraginian : of or belonging to impudent women.

Virago : female warrior, a woman having the qualities of a man.  The word was used to express distain for a turbulent and impudent woman.

virga : rod, branch; penis; mentula.  Cf. divination by rods.

virgate : virgata : an old English unit of land of uncertain size.  Some say it was large enough to equal to one-quarter (1/4) of a hide or carucate, so it would have ranged in size from 15 to 30 acres.  Others maintain that a virgate was a small parcel, amounting to merely one-quarter (1/4) of an acre.

virgate : virgata : yardland.  This meaning probably corresponds to the smaller virgate of one-quarter of an acre, for it signifies a grassy yard near a house.

virge : verge : a wand, rod, staff.

Virgil : the poet who wrote of many same-sex loves in his Eclogues.[19]

virgin : virgo [Lt] : vierge [Fr] : maid, maiden, a woman unacquainted with men; a sign of the zodiac that commences in August.

virgin of herring : virgyn of haringe, purchased for 3s at Hunstanton during the week of 1547/3/26.[20]

virginalis : maiden, nun.

virgineus : [poetic] maiden.

virginity : virginitas : maidenhead; unfamiliarity with men.

Virgo : c : the Virgin, the sixth sign of the zodiac.

virgo : virgin, maid, young married woman, girl of marriageable age.  Cf. mulier innupta, vidua.

virgo maxima : oldest and senior virgin; Vestal virgin; vestalis maxima.

Virgo the Virgin : 24 August to 23 September.

virgula : the diminutive of virga.

virgule : / : backslash.

viri : vir : man.

virile : virilis : belonging to man; not puerile; not feminine.

virilia : manhood; a euphemism for penis.

virilis sexus : male sex, masculine.

virilitas : manhood; a euphemism for penis.

virilocal marriage : a marriage wherein the couple resides with or near the husband’s relatives.  This phrase has a broader definition than patrilocal marriage.  Cf. uxorilocal mar­riage, neolocal marriage, patrilocal marriage.

virilocal residence : a person or household residing at the natal home or village of the husband.  The alternative words patrilocal and patrivirilocal are not satisfactory, because they restrict the meaning to ‘father.’  Cf. residence rules.

Virtues : the fifth highest choir of angles, among nine.

virus : a group of minute organisms that cannot exist outside the body of a host.  A virus reproduces itself by integrating its own genetic material into a host cell, and then causing the cell’s biology to reproduce new viral particles.  The genetic material of a virus may be either DNA or RNA.  Cf. oncovirus, lentivirus.

vis : force, abuse, duress, a ground for divorce.

vis- : vid- : to see.

Vis. : Visc. : Visct. : Viscount, Viscountess.

visage : face, look, countenance.

vis-à-vis : [Fr] a carriage that holds only two persons who sit face-to-face.  The seats of this conveyance differ from those of a coach, which are side-by-side.

vis-à-vis : [Fr] visage to visage, face to face.

viscerotonia : pleasure by detensioning.  Cf. three components of love.

viscount : [formal address] The Right Honorable Lord Viscount —— ; [polite address] The Lord Viscount; [salutation] My Lord; [reference] Your Lordship.

viscount : vis. : vicecomes : [1700] a peerage ranked below an earl and above a baron.  When understood in its literal meaning, the position of viscount would roughly equate to that of sheriff.  Although the title viscount was used in England as early as 1440, it did not gain in popularity until the seventeenth century.  Cf. vicecomes.

viscount’s daughter, married : [address] The Honorable Mrs. ——; the form of address for a married daughter; [salutation] Madam.  Cf. baron’s daughter.

viscount’s daughter, unmarried : [address] The Honorable Mary ——; the form of address for an unmarried daughter; [salutation] Madam.  Cf. baron’s daughter.

viscount’s son : [address] The Honorable John ——; [salutation] Sir.  Cf. baron’s son.

viscount’s son’s wife : [address] The Honorable Mrs. ——; [salutation] Madam.  Cf. baron’s son’s wife.

viscountcy : the peerage of a viscount.

viscountess : [formal address] the Right Honorable the Viscountess —— ; [polite address] The Viscountess; [salutation] Madam; [reference] Your Ladyship.

viscountess : the lady of a viscount; a peeress of the fourth order.

viscounty : the holdings of a viscount.

visit : visite : [Fr] the act of going to see another.

visitation : a periodic inquiry conducted by an officer-at-arms who travels in a circuit to all the residences of armigerous families within his heraldic jurisdiction, for the purpose of verifying their statuses, and collecting first-hand accounts of their principal lines of descent.  The pedigrees that survive from such visitations are important resources for the genealogist, because they were based on the personal recollections of specific family representatives living in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.  The visitation records were often supported with dates and details copied directly from monumental inscriptions (M.I.), family muniments, and other contemporary sources, so they sometimes preserve data that have been lost to destruction or conflagration.

visitation : visito : the act of visiting; a judicial visit or perambulation; a communication of divine love.

visitational marriage : visiting marriage; duolocal residence; the marriage practiced by the Algonquin, Delawares, Iroquois, Mohican, Ojibway, Sioux, as well as the Caribs, the Hottentots, the Bororos of Brazil, and the Malays of Borneo.[21]  The custom of maintaining duolocal residence in marriage was common in Sparta.[22]  Cf. duolocal residence, Sparta, visiting marriage.

visiting marriage : visitational marriage; duolocal residence.[23]  Cf. Sparta.

visitor : visiteur : [Fr] circuit judge, an occasional judge, one who regulates the disorders of society.

visual disorders : cataracts, dyslexia, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa.

vita cælebs : single life.

vita communis : life, way of living, lifestyle.

vita fratris : vitâ fratris : v.f. : during his brother’s lifetime.

vita matris : vitâ matris : v.m. : during his mother’s lifetime.

vita mea : my life, a term of endearment.

vita patris : vitâ patris : v.p. : during the life of his father.

vita rustica : country life.

vita terræ : life of the single mother.

vital statistics : essential data pertaining to the key events in people’s lives; an expression denoting the registers of birth, marriage, and death records collected by some ecclesiastical or civil authority.  The records are called statistics because they have come to be used as the bases for various statistical extrapolations performed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

vitiavit : he ruined.[24]

vitricus : MoHu; stepfather.  Cf. novercus.

viuda : [Sp] widow.

viudo : [Sp] widower.

viv- : to live.

vivary : vivarium : zoo, park, warren, fish pond or piscary; an earthy or watery site where living creatures are kept.

vivat rex : long live the king.

vivilis veretri : penis.

vivilocal marriage : patrilocal marriage, a marriage wherein the wife moves to her husband’s house.

viviparous : bringing forth live young.  Opp. oviparous.

vivisepultur : to bury alive.

vivus : living, alive.

vixen : a fox cub; a quarrelsome person.

vixerunt : they lived.[25]

vixit annos —— : v.a. : he lived —— years.

vixit annos xxx : he lived thirty years.[26]

vixor : uxor.

viz. : videlicet : to wit, that is.

vizard : visor : a mask used for disguise.

vizier : wazir : the prime minister of the Turkish empire.

VL : Vulgar Latin.

vnces : [1519/10/16-22] ounces.

vo : vecino : [Sp contraction] resident.

voc- : vok- : voice; to call.

vocabulary : vocabularium : lexicon, dictionary, word book.

vocative : a term of address.

voilet-haired : Sappho.

voiture : [Fr] carriage, transportation by carriage.

vok- : voc- : voice; to call.

vol- : to wish.

vol. : volumen : [Sp] volume.

volcano : [ad 79]  Vesuvius erupted in ad 79, and buried Pompei and Herculaneum.

Völkerkunde : [Gm] ethnology.  Cf. Naturkunde.

volteada : [Sp] the female form of volteado.

volteado : [Sp] knocked over; homosexual.

volume: volumen : something rolled, something convolved; scroll, a lengthy writing rolled upon a staff; the ancient form of a book.

volumus : we will, it is our will; the first word of a clause in royal writs of protection or let­ters of patent.[27]

volut- : volv- : to roll.

volutor : to have a roll, to tumble.

volv- : volut- : to roll.

volva : the membrane that surrounds the fetus.

vom anderen ufer : [Gm] from the other side; a euphemistic phrase used to denote the homosexual.  Cf. heaven, technoërotic, Uranus.

vomer : ploughshare, penis.

vomica : abcess, ulcer, boil, plague.

voorvader : [Du] ancestor, forefather.

vor- : to devour.

Vorfahre : [Gm] ancestor, forefather.

-vorous : eating.

vote : votum : suffrage; voice given and numbered; the united voice of persons in public assembly or prayer.

vouch : voucher [Fr] to attest, obtest, witness; to warrant, declare; to maintain by repeated affirmations.

voucher : testimony; one who gives witness to anything.

vous : [Fr] the courtesy form of the second person, traditionally used by children when addressing their parents.  The parents use the family tu when addressing their children.

vow : votum [Lt] : vau [Fr] : a solemn promise; a promise of love or matrimony; an act of devotion by consecrating to some purpose a part of one’s life or a share of one’s possessions; a promise made to God.

vowfellow : one bound by a common vow.

Vox populi vox Dei : The voice of the people is the voice of God.[28]

voyage, England to Jamestown : [1610] Lord de la Warr took 9 or 10 weeks to sail to Virginia, for he left England on 1 April 1610, arrived at the coast on 5 June, and landed at Jamestown on 10 June.

voyage, England to Jamestown : [1614] The average transit time from England to Virginia was 9 weeks, but one ship managed to make the crossing in merely 6 weeks in 1614.

voyage, Liverpool to New York : [1877] a steamship trip from the Great Landing on the River Mersey at Liverpool, England, to Queenstown, Ireland, and finally to Castle Garden in Battery Park in New York.  Such a voyage lasted 9 or 10 ten days, and passengers were generally segregated into two large classes, namely the saloon passengers who could walk the upper deck, and the steerage passengers who were confined to the steerage deck, below.  Most passengers sailing from Liverpool were English, Scottish, and Irish, but there were always minorities of Russians, Poles, Germans, and Italians, who used Liverpool as a convenient point of departure for America.

voyage, Spain to Caribbean Sea : [1492] Columbus sailed to the New World in 10 weeks, from 3 August 1492 to 12 October.

voyage, to and from Virginia : [1610] a single, roundtrip, outbound to Virginia and inbound to England, required a minimum of 18 weeks, and averaged about 20 weeks in overall length.  One ship would need some 4-1/2 months, or even 5 or 6 months, to make one circuit, and therefore ocean-going vessels were used for trans-Atlantic crossings at most just twice per year.  It was customary for the English to sail south to the Canary Current, and then catch the Southeast trade winds and the North Equitorial Current for speedy passage across the Atlantic.  The months June through September were optimal times, for they preceded the hurricane season.  Return trips often followed northern routes, and therefore could be scheduled in the winter months.

vrouw : [Du] wife.

Vt. : VT : Vermont.

Vte : Vicomte : [Fr] Viscount.

Vtse : Vicomtesse : [Fr] Viscountess.

vulg- : common.

vulgar : vulgaris [Lt] : vulgaire [Fr] : plebeian, suitable to common people; national, vernacular; mean, low, of common rate.

vulgarity : meanness, the state of the lowest people.

vulgate : vulgatus : belonging to the standard Latin versions of the Old and New Testaments.

vulnus : wound, injury.[29]

vulva : [Empire] womb; Pliny’s term for an animal’s matrix.  Cf. uterus.

vulva : the external parts of the female genital organs.

vulvae : plural of vulva.

vuosi : [Fi] year.

VWIWV : five symbols representing the direct line of descent (I), complemented by paternal and maternal parallel cousins (WW =// =\\), and by maternal and paternal cross cousins (VV =XX).  In anthropological kinship diagrams, the cross cousins (V =X) are always shown on the outside, farthest from the ego.

vx. : uxor.

vxor : uxor.



[1] HL:  86.

[2] Boswell 1980:  319.

[3] Grahn 1990:  107.

[4] HL:  305.

[5] HL:  116.

[6] Eglinton 1964:  489.

[7] Henslowe.

[8] Grahn 1990:  168.

[9] ALBE.

[10] Eglinton 1964:  489.

[11] Eglinton 1964:  472.

[12] Hunt 1956:  337.

[13] HL:  219.

[14] Ariès & Duby:  1.75.

[15] I Corinthians, 7.8.

[16] Plucknett 1956:  96.

[17] HL:  314.

[18] Varro, 6.80.248-249.

[19] Boswell 1980:  189.

[20] Gurney, 561.2.

[21] Diner 1965:  49.

[22] Diner 1965:  145.

[23] Hunt 1956:  349.

[24] Varro, 6.80.248-249.

[25] Leland, 2.4.10.

[26] Leland, 1.141.

[27] HL:  301.

[28] Boswell 1980:  38.

[29] FLUV.

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