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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


-al : [Lt suffix] pertaining to.  Cf. genealogical kinship qualification.

al- : ad-.

-al : -alis : -ale : -ial : -eal : pertaining to.

Ala. : AL : Alabama.

alano mahu : [HI slang] you are a mahu; get real; come down to earth.[51]  Cf. mahu.

Alanus : Alan.

alb: a type of surplice with close-fitting sleeves.

Albigensian Crusade : [1203-1226] the Crusade organized to subjugate the Albigensians.

Albigensian heresy : sodomy as homosexual intercourse.[52]

Albredus : Aluredus : Alfred.

album firmam : Cf. ad album firmam.[53]

Album Monasterium : a place; Oswestry, or Blonde Ville, Shropshire.

Alcaeus : Alkaios.

alchemist : Ben Johnson’s The Alchemist contains many vocabulary items pertaining to alchemy.

Alcibiades : Cf. Socrates and Alcibiades.

Alcuin’s Circle : a homoërotic group of clerical friends led by Alcuin at the court of Charlemagne.  Alcuin’s circle included Theodulf of Orléans, Angilbert, Einhard, and others.[54]  Within the group, intimates called one another by pet names, based on the names of characters from classical literature, such as Homer, Alexis, Corydon, Daphnis, and Dodo.  Homer was the nickname of Angilbert, Abbot of Saint-Riquier.

Alef, Bet, Gimmel : àab : [Hb] ABG, the Hebrew letters corresponding to ABC.  The original meanings were ox (alef), house (bet), and camel (gimmel).

Alesia : Aleysia : Alice.

Aletheia : [Gk] Truth, a Greek goddess who stands as the companion of Dike.  Cf. Dike and Aletheia.

Aleut shaman : a handsome boy chosen by his parents or a shaman to be made a transvestite shamen.

Alexander the Great and Boagoas : Ph & Er; the conqueror and his favorite male concubitor.  The annals of Alexander tell us that he slept with many women, and had only two relationships with men.  Boagoas was the man who became the main lover of Alexander.[55]

Alexandria : mother of books.[56]

Alexandrian rule : the Christian dogma that sexual intercourse must aim at procreation in order to be moral.  The rule was promulgated by Clement of Alexandria.[57]

Alexis and Corydon : Ph & Er; a pair of lovers mentioned in Virgil’s Eclogues.[58]

alg- : [Gk] pain.

-algia : [Gk] pain, dolor, cruciatus.

alias : a fictitious name; pseudonym.

alias : alias before a maiden name.  The English often used the abbreviation als in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in such names as Cooke als Boucher (Butcher, Bowcher),[59] Meigs als Love, et cetera, mainly to signify one’s descent from some maternal line that might someday endow the subject with inheritance.  Two surnames united by als sometimes implied germaneness, or consanguinity through one particular pair of spouses, and therefore a genealogist may find the expression helpful in confirming blood relationships to both families.  The need to mention a maternal surname tended to be greater when the maternal kin were better known, or wealthier, or of higher status, than the paternal kinsmen.

alias : alias before adoptive name.  An alias may conceivably indicate illegitimate birth or adoption, but such cases might be alternatively noted with the words natus (nata) or (née), meaning ‘born.’  The use of alias by a natural son can be illustrated in the person of Henry VIII’s illegitimate son Henry Fitzroy.  The conjectural name Henry Tudor alias Fitzroy would be equivalent to Henry Fitzroy Tudor, for both expressions indicate that Henry the younger’s father had been named Tudor, but that he assumed a different surname.   

alias : als. : [Lt] otherwise, at another time, elsewhere, a word used to list an alternative name; assumed name, another name, other name.  An alias was usually added to one’s name to show critical inheritance rights.  If a man expected to inherit considerable property through his mother, then alias preceded his mother’s maiden name.  If the man’s inheritance was to come from his stepfather, then alias preceded his stepfather’s surname.  Cf. a.k.a., alias, alias dictus, also known as, d.b.a., doing business as, dower, fictitious name, natus, née.

alias : before the adoptive name of a stepson.  It is important to remember that a widow’s property and rights normally passed into the hands of her subsequent husband, and therefore an alias preceding the stepfather’s surname can certainly connote the inclusion of titles and properties from the mother’s dower and marriage portion.  Cf. surname change.

alias dictus : otherwise called; also known as (a.k.a.); known by both names, and commonly called by one name or the other.

alias ecclesiasticas : ecclesiastical alias.  Cf. Robert Louis Strange (1925) alias ecclesiasticas Marcian Strange, OSB, between 1947 and 1971.[60]

alias litteras : literary alias.  Cf. Robert Louis Strange (1925) alias litteras M. Robert Strange in 1977.

alibi : elsewhere, the plea of an accused person that he was absent from the scene of a crime.

alien : alienus : denizen, indenizen, foreigner; foreign, estranged; stranger, guest.  Opp. citizen.

alien- : of another.

aliena misericordia : kindness of strangers.

alienation : the transference of property; a change in affection, estrangement.

alieni iuris : a minor, a person in his minority, a person underage or servile and incapable of man­aging his own affairs.  A slave or dependent lacks suffragium et honores, meaning he has no right to contract a legal mar­riage (conubium), is subservient to patriarchal power, and has no power over his own descen­dants.  The will of a person alieni iuris is not in­dependent, but can be expressed only through his chief.  Cf. filius fa­milias.  Opp. sui iurissuæ potestatis.

Alienora : Eleanor.

alienus : foreign; belonging to another; contrary, averse, hostile; insane, distracted.

alimony : alienation money, or support payments made by a husband to his estranged wife.  Cf. palimony, patrimony, matrimony, ceremony.

-alis : -ale : -al : pertaining to.

alius : other, another.

Alkaios: Alcaeus : the male lyrical poet who was contemporary with Sappho.

all- : [Gk] other.

allassein : [Gk] to change one’s sex.  The verb was used is a discussion of the hyena in Physiologus.

allegiance : adherence to a person, religious doctrine, political ideology, or royal lineage.  Allegiance implies some public affirmation, such as the swearing of an oath with one’s hand raised.  The Act of Supremacy (1534) required office holders to swear allegiance to the supreme head of the Church of England, and penalized those who refused.  The Act of Settlement (1701) required office holders to pledge an oath of allegiance to the Protestant Succession of the House of Hanover, thereby renouncing allegiance to the House of Stuart.  The U.S. Constitution (1789) required magistrates and office holders throughout the United States to swear an Oath or Affirmation to support the Constitution, but it specifically barred Americans from applying any religious tests as qualification for public office.[61]  Today, U.S. presidents find it fashionable to accept knighthoods from H.R.H. Queen Elizabeth II, but presidents Reagan and Bush could not constitutionally submit to dubbing until they left office.  U.S. representatives daily recite the Pledge of Allegiance as an ‘accepted practice’ (from 1988), but the Congress cannot require the Pledge by statute, because it is ostensibly a religious test, contrary to both the letter and spirit of the U.S. Constitution.  Cf. fidelity, fealty, loyalty, devotion, piety.

allegiance : alleg. : the relation of a liegeman to his liegelord; a feudal relation of a vassal to his lord; patriotism, the duty a subject owes to his government or sovereign.

allele : one version of a specific gene; one of two alternative forms of one gene, derived from either the father or mother.  An individual will have a single allele of one gene, inherited from either one parent or the other.  Because alleles often descend to children randomly, coming partly from each parent, the resulting individual has a genetic makeup that is unique onto himself, and different from his parents and his siblings.  Identical and fraternal twins tend to inherit many of the same alleles, and therefore exhibit many similarities in appearance and behavior.

allelobasias : [Gk] the reversal of rôles in sexual intercourse.[62]

alliance : a lineage that seems to have exchanged brides with another family.  To be called an alliance, the lineage must have exchanged spouses with another lineage, at least twice, in both directions.  There were several Strange, Strang, and Stronge houses that appear to have regularly exchanged spouses with outside or exogamous lines, such as Lindsay, Robertson, and Christian.  In Scots-Irish and Scots-American genealogy, alliances are difficult to find, because spousal exchanges have never been the social norm.  However, alliances were indeed typical of Frankish lineages, and may be found throughout the world, particularly in primitive cultures.  We may well imagine that the Scots-Irish might have preferred alliances at certain stages of their history, especially during times of mass migration.

alliance : a tie or relationship between two or more descent groups, created through marriage, or intermarriage, or some complex system of affinity that spans three or more generations.  Alliance is stronger and broader than simple marriage, and may lead to important social, political, and military alliances.  Cf. marriage.

alliance : asymmetric affinal alliance, which includes the types (1) matrilateral cross-cousin marriage, (2) asymmetric prescriptive alliance, (3) Kachin-type marriage, (4) indirect exchange, (5) generalized exchange, (6) circulating connubium, and (7) mother’s brother’s daughter marriage.

alliance : conjugal relationship, relation by marriage, relation by any form of kinship; a league, confederacy.  Opp. kinship.  Cf. nature vs. culture.

alliance : symmetric affinal alliance in eight sections; the alliance system of the Aranda of Australia.  Cf. Aranda of Australia.

alliance : symmetric affinal alliance in four sections.  Examples include the alliance systems of the Cashinahua of southeast Peru, and the Kariera of Australia.  Cf. Kariera of Australia.

alliance : symmetric affinal alliance, which includes the types (1) bilateral cross-cousin marriage, (2) symmetric prescriptive alliance, (3) Davidian, (4) direct exchange, and (5) restricted exchange.

alliance systems, symmetric : eight-section system, four-section system, six-section system, ten-section system, sixteen-section system,[63] Aranda system, Kariera system, Mara system.

alliance terminology : asymmetric affinal alliance terminology, which includes the types (1) three-line prescriptive, and (2) asymmetric prescriptive.

alliance terminology : symmetric affinal alliance terminology, including the types (1) Iroquois or Dakota, (2) bifurcate merging, (3) bifurcate collateral, (4) two-line prescriptive, and (5) symmetric prescriptive.

alliance theory : [1953] a fairly new anthropological theory of kinship, based upon several field studies of the relationships between descent groups, some of which can run through several generations.  Lévi-Strauss was the pioneer of alliance theory.  The anthropologists Fortes and Leach further developed the theory in the 1950s and 1960s.  Cf. moiety.

allié à : [Fr] he allied with, he married, e.g. allié en 1642 à Phelise.[64]

alliés : [Fr] relatives by marriage.  Opp. cognates.

allies : relatives by marriage; persons or families of different descent groups who are tied together by alliance.  Cf. allies.  Opp. cognates.

allocare : to allow.

Allor : allocetr : allocetur : [passive present subjunctive] it is allowed, it would be allowed.[65]

alluminor: once who colors or paints upon paper or parchment.

almoner : almner, someone employed in distributing charity.

alms : money, food, or gifts provided gratuitously to the poor.

alms-folk : benefactors, persons who support others with alms.

alnetum : alder wood.[66]

alopecia : hair loss.

Aloysius : Lewis.

ALPHA (Αα) : the letter A, first letter of the alphabet.

Alpha : Αλφα : the father of Jesus the Christ.  Gwion styled Jesus ‘Son of Alpha’ in his romance Divregwawd Taliesin.[67]  The divine name Alpha is written with merely four letters in Greek, and corresponds to the name Acab in O’Flaherty’s list of letter names.[68]  In his Yr Awdil Vraith ‘Diversified Song,’ Gwion wrote the eucharistic verses, “The wheat rich in grain, / And red flowing wine / Christ’s pure body make, / Son of Alpha.”[69]

alphabet : litterarum nomina et contextus, the name and context of letters.

alphabet : Vide Letters.

alphabet modifications : subscripts, superscripts, suprascripts, infrascripts, and diacritical marks.  Cf. diacritical marks.

alphabetarian : an ABC scholar.

Alphabetary : [1998] The Alphabetary by John R. Mayer.  Cf. alphabetaria.  Opp. Calendary.

alphabetic phonography : modern full writing in alphabetic phonography, that is in Greek, Latin, vocalized Aramaic or Hebrew, or Korean, or some other Greco-Romanized or hybrid system for fully expressing consonants and vowels.  This appears to be the highest evolution of semantic representation, for it evolved in this sequence:  (1) pictography, (2) semasiography, where pictures stand for specific words, (3) logo-syllabic phonography (Egyptian or Chinese), ideography, or logography, and (4) syllabic phonography, (5) and alphabetic phonography.  China and Japan have both retained logographs, even though the characters have evolved into different schemes of simplified characters (Hanzi and toyo Kanji), but both countries increasingly rely upon Romanizations of their languages for commercial and technical purposes.  Although the Egyptian and Chinese scripts both evolved into alphabetic systems, and continue to flourish today, the families of Sumerian cuneiform syllabaries and Hittite or Aegean syllabaries have met with gradual dissolution.

alphabetical : in litteras digestus.

alphabetites : alphabetical; psalms that are headed by letters of the alphabet, and arranged in alphabetical order, as a mnemonic device.

alphabētodes : alphabetical.

alphabetograph : a syllabary modified to be used as a fully vocalized orthography, in the precise manner of an alphabet, such as Old Persian, or Ugaritic, the protoscript of Greek.  Cuneiform was transformed into a small set of alphabetographs, and these later symbols later evolved into separate letters to represent phonemes.  Sanskrit and Arabic can both be used as alphabetographs, and Hebrew script preserves evidence of the transition between vowel marks and vowel letters.

alphabētos : [ad 230, Lt-Gk]  Tertullian’s word for a Greek-style alphabet, which he coined by combining the first two letters of Greek alpha (α) and beta (β).  The Greeks called their letters grammata in classical ages, but gladly abandoned their own term to replace it alphabet in the third century.  Today, the word alphabet denotes a fully vocalized system of phonetic transcription, and it is used to contrast alphabetic writing with syllabaries and logographic script.  Cf. grammata.

alphabetum : alphabet.

als. : alias.

also known as : a.k.a.  Cf. alias, alias dictus.

alt : [Gm] old.

Alta. : Alberta.

altar : the sacramental table in a church.  We know that people in the middle ages also used a portable altar,[70] probably a diptych or triptych.

altarage : altaragium : an emolument provided through oblations.

alter : [anthropology] referent, the other person relative to the ego.

alter ego : preconsciousness; personal unconsciousness; the shadow of the solar ego.  The alter ego evolves by transforming its aggressive paternal ego-ideal into a wise and placid non-paternal ego-ideal, and by changing its promiscuous maternal woman-ideal into a chaste and non-incestuous woman-ideal.[71]  Cf. ego.

alterage : the nourishing or fosterment of a child.

Altercatio Ganimedis et Helene : Debate beween Ganymede and Helen.  This is a long poem preserved wholly and in part at many libraries in Europe.[72]

alternating descent : a society in which descent proceeds from male to female in one generation, and then from female to male in the next.

alternitatis : inversion, the sex-rôle inversion of sodomy.[73]

Altersklassen und Männerbünde : age groups and male associations, the title of a work by Heinrich Schurtz.  Cf. agism, patrism.

alti- : high.

alto- : high.

alumna : foster daughter.

alumni : adoptees, foster children, servile chil­dren, slaves.  In Roman times about one-third of the alumni were slaves, and the rest were adopted or manumitted, or made into gladiators.

alumnus : [ad 300] threptus, foundling, foster son, foster child, nursling.[74]

aluta : soft leather; penis.

Al-Uzza : [Ar] the Arabic great mother, who was venerated and guarded by the priestesses of Mecca, at the Ka’abah, prior to the inception of Islam.  She was represented by a black stone, standing as the Moon Egg.  Cf. Great Mother.

alyha : [Mojave] : shaman.  The Mojave natives employed a special song cycle to celebrate the initiation of a male shaman, and gave the alyha a highly elaborate rôle in cosmological observance.[75]  Cf. hwame.

alzabo recipe : the cure for sodomy that was published by Albertus Magnus.  He prescribed that fur should be clipped from the neck of the Arabian animal called alzabo (hyena), that the fur should be burned with pitch, and then ground into a fine powder.  Magnus explained that the application of this alzabo power to the anus of a sodomite would cure him of homosexuality.[76]

Alzheimer’s disease : [1912] a degenerative disease of the central nervous system often characterized by premature mental deterioration and senility.  Spouses tend to view senility as a natural aspect of aging, so many instances of Alzheimer’s disease are never reported, or diagnosed too late.  Recent discoveries have demonstrated that Alzheimer’s has certain genetic components, and that the condition may sometimes be lessened through the prolonged use of anti-inflammatory drugs.  Cf. dementia.

Am : American; American English.

am- : to love.

Amabilia : Mabel.

amans : lover.

amanuensis : scribe, a secretary who copies and writes under the direction of another.

amare : to love.

amare amplecti : to love dearly.

amare ex animo : to love passionately.

amare prosequi : to love dearly.

amare toto pectore : to love passionately.

amastos : a-mazo, without a breast, Amazon; a-maza, no barley bread.

amatinus : child of one’s paternal aunt.

amator : male lover.  Cf. philetor.

amatorculist: amatorculus : a little and insignificant lover.

amatory : amatorius : relating to love.

amatrix : female lover.

amavit autem Roboam Maacha filiam Absalom super omnes uxores suas et concubinas, name uxores decem et octo duxerat concubinasque sexaginta, et genuit viginti octo filios et sexaginta filias : And Rehoboam loved Maachah the daughter of Absalom above all his wives and his concubines:  (for he took eighteen wives, and threescore concubines; and begat twenty and eight sons, and threescore daughters.)[77]

Amazon: [Gk] virago; a warlike woman; literally without one breast;[78] a member of the Scythian tribe of female warriors based in the Caucasus that often threatened the ancient Greeks.  Legend has it that the Amazons customarily removed their right breasts by mastectomy to facilitate their use of the bow.[79]  Archeologists have lately discovered the graves of military horsewomen in the Caucasian regions, seeming to confirm this story.

amazon : motherlord; a word assigned some Phoenician ethymology.[80]

amazon army of Bohemian girls : Cf. Libussa and Valeska.

amazon army of Galla : [1964] a female tribe of 5,000, having a female chief and female warriors, which served Dr. Hastings Banda, founder of Malawi or Nyasaland.  The army of Galla guarded the borders at Tanganyika in 1964.[81]

amazon army of Monomotapa : the army of an old kingdom in southeastern Africa.[82]  The Monomotapa army controlled a province along the River Zambezi, and enjoyed veto power in the election of kings.

amazon army of Mysia : an army of horsewomen headed by a queen, which was mentioned by Rameses II.[83]

Amazon army of Oreithyia : the army that crossed the frozen Bosporus straits to avenge the invasion of Themiscyra by Hercules and Theseus.  Oreithyia laid siege to Athens for four months.  She occupied Areopagus, and trapped the Athenians on the Acropolis.  The conflict remained a standoff for several weeks, until Theseus heard a favorable oracle, and mounted a counteroffensive in the month of Boedromion.  Oreithyia was forced to withdraw, and she died of shame in Thrace.

Amazon army of Penthesilea : an elite corps of Amazons that joined Priam at Troy.  Priam himself had previously fought the Amazons, but Penthesilea ignored their former conflict with the Trojans, in order to fight the Greeks who had repelled and defeated Oreithyia.

amazon army of the Sultan of Zanzibar : a large female army in Africa.[84]

Amazon diet : Amazon children often suckled the breasts of their totem mothers, called the mares, who were their grandmothers.  Amazon adults purportedly imbibed the same mare’s milk, supplementing it with honey, the blood of slaughtered animals, animal flesh, and the marrow of reeds collected before the settlement of dew.

Amazon foundresses and godmothers : the patron saints of many cities.  The foundresses were Amazon archtypes at Amastris, Clete, Cyme, Gryne, Magnesia, Mytilene, Pitania, Smyrna, and Sinope.[85]

Amazon queens : Hippolyte, Oreithyia, Eurypyle.

Amazon tribes : Gorgons, Myrine, Bedja, Libussa and Valeska, Sarmatians, Sigyns.

amazon trinity : the Celtic warriors Scáthach, Aife, and Medb.

amazoneia : the local monuments on Greek isles and the coast of Anatolia, or Turkey, commemorating the long occupation of the Myrinian amazons, who had immigrated there from northern Africa.

amazonhood : the pawning of men by women, legal hetaerism.[86]

amazon-killers : Bellerophon, Theseus, and Hercules.[87]

amazons : [3000 bc] the oldest distinct group of warrior females, who resided in ancient Lybia, a place now equated with the Berber regions of Morocco, in northern Africa, to the west of modern Lybia.  Cf. Pantariste’s warrior maids.

Amazons of Scythia: the Thermodontines, who extended their kingdom from the Sarmatian plains to the Aegean Sea.  The Amazons conquered the Caucasus, and the southeastern coast of the Black Sea, where they placed their captial Themiscyra, between the Rivers Thermodon and Iris.  Cf. Airorpatai, antianeirai, emetchi, Rus.

amazosas : [Gk] opposed to man.

ambassador : an official envoy or representative dispatched by one sovereign power to another.

ambassadress : the lady of an ambassador.

ambi- : both.

ambidextrous : able to use either hand or both hands with equal dexterity; double dealing.[88]

ambierotic : ambisextrous, ambisexual; capable of sexual love with either sex.  Cf. bisexual.

ambiguous genitalia : seemingly confused sex organs.  One birth per 2,000 births results in ambiguous genitalia, and the problem is usually resolved by surgical sex assignment.

ambilateral descent : ambilineal descent; bilateral descent.

ambilineal descent : Fa/Mo > Ch; bilateral descent; ramage; a line of descent traced through both males and females without regard for the rule of unilineal descent; a system wherein neither descent nor inheritance is fixed in one sex.  Cf. ramage, Washo.

ambilocal residence : living at the home or village of either spouse, especially in the absence of any particular rule of residence.  Ambilocal implies that the couple may sometimes change their residence.  The word utrolocal has a more restrictive meaning.  Cf. residence rules, utrolocal.

ambisextrous : [Am slang] ambierotic.

ambisexual : ambierotic.  Cf. bisexual.

ambisexual appellations : Cf. religious namesakes.

Ambo shaman : omasenge.  The Ambo reside in southwest Africa.[89]

Ambrosius : Ambrose.

AmEn : American English.

amercement : punishment, loss, a pecuniary punishment imposed on an offender.

American kinship terms : the Anglo-Saxon kinship terms as adopted and sometimes modified to suit the various kinship systems extant in America.  Traditional Anglo-American kin terms normally denote the sex, generation, and lineage of a kinsman, but not his relative age.  The Sino-Americans, Filipino-Americans, and others tend to add elder and younger to denote relative age.  Arab-Americans tend to use cousin as a vocative term of direct address.  The two major classes of American kinship are the descriptive Eskimo system and the generational Hawaiian system.  Federal and state laws have prohibited several native, immigratory, and biblical kinship systems, such as polygamy.  Cf. Filipino kinship terms.

American shaman feasts : [1800] The natives Sioux, Sac, and Fox lived on the plains, and held once per year, or several times per year, a special feast to celebrate the I-coo-coo-a, a man dressed in female dress “as he has been all his life.”[90]

American shaman transvestites : Of 99 tribes studied by Jacobs, she found that 21 tribes had terms for male shamans, and that 12 of the 21 tribes regarded the homosexual transvestites as medicine men.  Four tribes, namely the Cheyenne, Crow, Dakota, and Illinois held the berdaches in very high regard, for they served as the priests for high spiritual ceremonies.  Three tribes reported that the berdaches had special functions at funerals, and the Winnebago explained that their berdache acted as an oracle.[91]

American shamans : the male and female magicians noted for healing powers, transgeneralism, and transvestism.  Of 99 tribes studied by Jacobs, she found that 88 tribes reported transvestism and homosexualism, 21 tribes had terms for berdaches or male shamans, and 20 tribes had terms for female shamans or lesbians.[92]  Cf. Absaroke (Crow), Acoma, Aleut, Apache, Aztec, Cheyenne, Chukchi, Chilula, Chippewa, Choctaw, Cocopa, Creek, Crow (Absaroke), Fox, Illinois, Iowa, Inuit, Kalekau, Kamchadale, Kamia, Kansas, Kaska, Klamath, Kodiak, Konyagas, Lakota, Maricopa, Maya, Menomini, Mojave, Naskapi, Navajo, Paiute, Pima, Pawnee, Pomo, Ponca, Oglala, Omaha, Osage, Quinault, Sac, Seminole, Shasta, Shoshoni, Sioux, Tabatulabal, Tlingit, Winnebago, Yuki, Yuma, Yurok, Zuni.

American shamans male : berdaches, the transvestite men who generally assumed female rôles, performed ceremonies, and were often buried separately.[93]  Cf. choupan [Chukchi], das [Pomo and Kalekau], murfidai [Kalekau]; alyha, hwame [Mojave]; nadle [Navajo]; siange [Winnebago]; winkte [Oglala], mingu-ga [Omaha and Ponca], ko’thlama, koyemshi [Zuni], wergern [Yurok], mujerado [Acoma Pueblo], a-go-kwa [Chippewa], adi-wa-lona, koskalaka [Lakota], choupan [Inuit], achnutschik [Konyagas], koe’kcuc [Kamchadle], ke’yev [Kodiak], bo-te [Absaroke], joya [Sp], twlinna ek, sawa linaa [Klamath], elxa, kwe rhame [Yuma], war’hameh [Cocopa], warharmi [Kamia].

American sororates shamanic : Laguna sororates.  Cf. Keres, Quirites.

American TV-Announcer English : ATVAE.

AmFr : American French.

Amia : Amy.

amica : girlfriend, girl lover.

amice : a square of white linen, folded diagonally, and worn by a celebrant priest, either on his head, or around his neck and shoulders.[94]

amici : friends.

amicus : friend, protector,[95] counsellor, ally, patron; boyfriend, boy lover.

AmInd : American Indian, Amerind.

amino acid : an organic compound essential to peptides and proteins; a building-block of earthly life.

Amis and Amile : [1200] Amis and Amiloun, Ami et Amile, two seemingly heterosexual characters in medieval legends.  The two knights loved one another, and even resembled one another so closely that one could take the other’s place without detection.  The plot of each story was usually based upon a forced separation of the pair, and normally ended with a joyous reunion.  The stories were quite similar to the same-sex romances of Greek and Arabic literature.[96]  In one story, Gabriel appears to Amis and tells him that he could be cured of leprosy if his friend Amile were to slay his own children and wash Amis’ body with their blood.  When Amile complied with the angel’s instruction, his friend Amis recovered his health, and Amile’s children were miraculously restored to life.[97]

amissus : forfeited.  Cf. peerage.

amita : FaSi; soror patris, paternal aunt, father’s sister.  Opp. matertera.

amita magna : FaFaSi; soror avis, paternal grandaunt,grandfather’s sister, Großtante.

amita major : FaFaFaSi; paternal great-grandaunt.

amita maxima : FaFaFaSi; paternal great-grandaunt, Schwester des Großvaters; great-great-grandaunt, Schwester des Urugroßvaters.

amitaclan : a theoretical clan supposed to be the patrilineal and female correlative to the avuncuclan; a clan organized around patrilineal descent in which unmarried females reside with a paternal aunt, and bring their husbands to the home of that aunt (FaSi).  No actual example of such a clan has ever been found to exist.[98]  Opp. avuncuclan.

amital : pertaining to a paternal aunt.  Cf. avuncular, materteral.  Opp. patruel.

amitalocal residence : a theoretical norm whereby wives invite their husbands to the residence of the bride’s father’s sister; living temporarily or permanently in the home or village of a paternal aunt.  Cf. patrilineal family, residence rules.  Opp. avunculocal residence, matrilineal family.

amitary succession : succession by one’s paternal aunt or aunts.

amiticide : the murder or murderer of a paternal aunt; Helen was slain by her nephew.

amitin : [NL] FaSiSo, paternal cross first cousin male.

amitina : FaSiDa; female first cousin; daughter of one’s paternal aunt; daughter of a fa­ther’s sister or mother’s brother.

amitina : SiDa; niece, sister’s daughter; child of a sister.

amitinal: pertaining to a sororal nephew or niece.

amitine : [NL] FaSiDa, paternal cross first cousin female.

amitine: niece.

amitini : PaSb(os)Ch, FaSiCh, MoBrCh; multilineal cousinage, cross cousins; children of one’s paternal aunts; cross first cousins, paternal and maternal; consobrini et patrueles.  Multilineal cousi­nage occurs when a pair of sib­lings of opposite sexes have children.  Hereditary rights and re­sponsibilities are most sharply and radically di­vergent between opposite sexes, because patrilin­eal surnames and titles de­scend through broth­erhoods, whereas matrilineal dowries are more widely distributed, through the affined, adop­tive, and fictive families that arise through the acts of loving, maternal instinct.  Cf. cross kin.

amitinus : BrSo, BrDa, SiSo, SiDa; nephew, niece, child of a brother or sis­ter.  Cf. amitinal, amitine.

amitinus : FaSiSo, MoBrSo; cross cousin; male cross first cousin; son of one’s paternal aunt; son of a father’s sister or mother’s brother; one who shares the same grandfather with the ego, but who has a different father or mother.

amity: friendship.

amnicolist : amnicola : habitation near a river.

amniocentesis : a method of prenatal diagnosis; the withdrawal of a small around of fluid from the amniotic sac for an examination of the cells shed by the fetus.

amnios : amnion : [Gk] the innermost membrane that covers the fetus in a womb.

amo : to love passionately.

amonestacion que preserva el ritual Roman : [Sp] bann that preserves the Roman ritual.

amonestaciones : [Sp] banns of marriage.  Cf. leidas.

amonestó en tres dias festivos : [Sp] I published banns on three holy days.

amor : love.

amor courtois : courtly love, the service of women.  Cf. amor purus.

amor purus : Cf. amor courtois.

amoret : amoretto [It], lover.

amorist : inamorato, gallant.

amorosa : [It] a wanton woman.

amoroso : [It] a man enamored.

AmSp : American Spanish.

amt : [Dn, Nw] county.

Amy Lowell : Cf. Lowell and Russell.

an- : ad-.

-an : -ane.

An : antianeira, the dominant or older female lover; a primary kin term for a gynecophilic spouse in same-sex mateship.  Opp. hetaera (He).

-an : -anus : -ana : -anum : pertaining to.

an : on.  The expression an-heghe stands for ‘on high.’

An refert, ubi et in qua arrigas? : Can it matter where or in whom you put it?  So wrote Antony to Augustus.[99]

an. : annus, anno, year.

An. Do. : anno Domini.

-ana : -anus : -anum : -an : -ane : pertaining to.

Anabaptism : the Christian faith in the efficacy of re-baptism, or born-again, adult baptism.

Anabaptist : [1565] Mennonite; one who re-baptizes; Baptist [1609].  Cf. Baptist.

Anabilia : Annabel.

anabolic steroid : a hormone such as testosterone or oxandrolone that promotes the synthesis of proteins and the formation of muscle mass.  Cf. androgenic steroid.

anacephalæosis : [Gk] recapitulation, summary of the headings in a discourse or presentation.

anagnorisis : recovery of abandoned children by parents.[100]

Anaitis of Ninevah : the mother of life and death, who consumes her own son, enveloping him in her internal fires.  Cf. Mater Dolorosa, puericide.

anal intercourse : a sexual act known in the nineteenth century by the euphemisms præpostera venus, venus aversa, contra naturam, posterior Venus, and the unnameable way.

anal intercourse : Cf. intercourse.

analingus : a spelling one might expect for annullingus.

analysis : Cf. kinship analysis.

anarchy : [Gk] want of government, a state in which every man is unaccountable to others.

anc. : ancestor.

-ance : -ancy : -ence : -ency : quality of —ing.

ancestor : antecessor : one from whom a person descends; a blood antecedent from whom the subject has derived some inherited property or heritage.

ancestor veneration : a feature of patrism, which stresses unilineal descent from men, and which endorses the concept of a personal God.  Cf. God.  Opp. contemporary respect, Goddess.

ancestor veneration : the solemn remembrance and reverence of lineal ancestors, a ritualization of historical kinship that is essential for the maintenance of large kinship systems.[101]  Cf. master and mistress worship.

ancestor worship : perhaps a misnomer for ancestor veneration.  Confucian kinship systems in China, Japan, and elsewhere do not equate ancestors with gods, but rather incorporate ancestors into the kinship system as the remembered links between living kinsmen.

ancestors : ancêtres [Fr].

ancestral family : lineal and collateral relations which comprise the family of ori­entation, or the patriarchal kinship group.  Members of the an­cestral family may be named with kinship terms.

ancestress : a female ancestor.

ancestry : lineage, a series of progenitors; the honor of descent; the lineal antecedents who comprise one’s natal, affined, and adoptive relations.

anchoress : a female recluse.

anchoret : [ME] ancre, anchorite.

anchorite : anachorite: anachorete : anachoreta : hermit, a reclusive monk; one who has withdrawn from the world.

anchylosis : stiff joint.

anciano : [Sp] aged.

ancien régime : [Fr 1789] the ancient regime, or aristocratic French society prior to the French Revolution.

ancient district : [Sc] an old political division larger than a county, such as Galloway, which included the southern-most parish of Ayrshire, as well and the countries Wigton and Kirkudbright.  Angus included Forfarshire and a portion of Perthshire.[102]  Cf. region.

Ancient Planter : one who arrived in Virginia prior to 1616, and who survived the hardships at Jamestown.  Most of the earliest settlers died, between settlement in 1607 and the resupply of 1610.  The Charter of Orders (1618’9) provided Ancient Planters with large land grants.

ancilla : female slave, handmaid, serving maid, subordinate.  Cf. serva.

ancilla nutriens : nurse maid.

ancilla propria : bondwoman.

ancre : anchorite.

andr- : [Gk] man, male.

Andreas : Andrew.

andric factor : the biological or glandular tendency to masculinity.  When two similar individual are compared to one another, the andric factor is may be characterized by less breast development, coarser skin, wider distribution of body hair, broader shoulders, and smaller pelvis.[103]  Opp. gynic factor.

androgenic steroid : a masculinizing steroid; a hormone such as testosterone or oxandrolone that stimulates reproductive organs and promotes the formation of the secondary sex characteristics of a male.  Cf. anabolic steroid.

androgyne : [Gk] hermaphrodite, intersexual, androgynus.

androgynos : [Gk] effeminate.[104]

androgynous : having hermaphroditic features; exhibiting the features or behaviors of both sexes; having features and characteristics of both sexes.

androgynous unions : tas asymphyeis androgynous koinonias.

android : [1727, Lt & Gk] an automation having a human form.

androphila : Ph & Er; male homosexual desire between an older lover (erastes, philetor) and younger lover (eromenos).  Cf. gerontophilia, ephebophilia, paidophilia.

androphile : Ph, Er; a male lover of men; one who loves men.  Opp. gynaecerastes, philogynaikes.

-ane : -an : -anus : -ana : -anum : -ian : pertaining to.

anelace : a heavy double-edged knife with a broad blade and sharp point.

anetavle : [Dn] pedigree, Ahnentafel [Gm].

ANF. : a French abbreviation, meaning unknown.[105]

angakok : a gay initiate in the far north, who acts as a medium.[106]

angel : [1603] a gold coin worth 10 shillings.

angel- : [Gk] messenger, message.

angel : a disembodied soul transformed into a heavenly being; a deceased human purportedly surviving in heaven, and endowed with superhuman powers, such as waftage by wings.  Jesus the Christ and Saint Paul both declared that angels have no need of the institution of marriage.

angels : the ninth choir of angles, among nine.

angels, nine choirs of : the nine orders of angels, which are named, in descending fashion, seraphim, cherubim, thrones, dominations or dominions, virtues, powers, principalities, archangels, angels.

anghyfreithlon : [We] illegitimate.

angi- : [Gk] vessel.

Angilbert : alias Homer, Abbot of Saint-Riquier, and a member of Alcuin’s Circle.  Cf. Alcuin’s Circle.

Angl. : [We] Anglesey.

Angl. : Anglican.

Anglican : a member of the Church of England.

Anicetis Civitas : in Dorsetshire.

anidrosis : too little perspiration.

anim- : mind, feeling, life.

anima : ego’s private thoughts, the maternal and matristic woman-ideal.  Cf. ego.  Opp. persona.

anima : soul.

animal metaphors for men : cuckold, juvencus, young bullock; maritus olens, he-goat; horns; nag.  Adulterers were compared to horses.[107]  Cf. juvencus.

animal metaphors for women : a number of words and expressions that liken a woman to a domesticated animal, usually a yoked cow or bridled horse.  Artemidorus stated that the horse symbolized a woman.[108]  Whores were compared to dogs.[109]  Cf. bride, hackney, harridan, iuvenca, uxor.

animals : farm animals; domestic animals raised by husbandmen, mainly the four categories of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, quæ vide.  The residents of Hunstanton chiefly raised these four types of animals, and their numbers have been used to identify the various occupations of the inhabitants in Tudor times.

animus furandi : intent to steal.[110]

anisogamy : marriage involving some inequality of status between the spouses or their alliance groups.  Cf. hypergamy, hypogamy.  Opp. isogamy.

anmhriod : [We] unmarried.

ann- : annu- : enni- : year.

Anna : Anne.

annales : annals, year books.

annales funesti : death register.

Anne of England : Anne, Queen of England (1702-1714), who consorted with Sarah Jennings, First Lady of the Bedchamber.  Her husband George had syphillis, and therefore her 18 children all died shortly after birth.[111]

année : [Fr] year.

anni : years.

anniversary : anniversarius : a day celebrated each year; yearly, annually.

anno : an. : year, in the year.

anno 3 mens 2 diebus 3 : 3rd year, 2nd month, 3rd day.

anno a nativitate domini : the year the lord was born.

anno ab incarnatione : year after the incarnation.

anno æræ communis : in the year of common reckoning, im Jahre der allegemeinen Zeitrechung [Gm]; year of the Common Era (c.e.).

anno æræ vulgaris : in the year of the common era.

anno ætatis suæ 32 : in his thirty-second year.

Anno Domini : ad : [ad 525] Year of Our Lord, the continuous reckoning of the Christian Era, which the monk Dionysius Exiguus reckoned as commencing on 753 auc.  The Christ’s birth occurred in 1 bc, but the first year of the Christ commenced seven days later, on 1 January ad 1.  Therefore, the year 1 ad equals auc 754.  Scholars have since learned that the birth of Jesus the Christ must have occurred earlier, say in 7 bc, 6 bc, or 4 bc.

anno domini : ad : a.d. : An. Do. : Anno. Dom. : the year of our lord.

Anno Extranei : AE : year of the Strange, the year le Strange.  This reckoning represents the continuous documentary chronicle of the family le Strange, mainly focusing upon Hunstanton Manor in Norfolk, England, and other families named Strange, le Strange, L’Estrange, Stronge, Strang, Strong, et cetera.  Cf. GR, Gregorian Retrospection, Julian Period.

anno Hebraico : A.H. : [3760 bc] in the Hebrew year; the year ad plus 3,760 years.

anno Hegirae : [ad 622] in the Moslem year.

Anno Iuliani : AI : [1583] year ad 1 +4713; a Julian Period (JP) year, one specific year in an exceptionally long cycle of year-dates, including the traditional Julian Calendar (JC), and its derivative the Gregorian Calendar (GC).  The Gregorian Calendar was adopted by various countries at different times in history, and ethnic and ecclesiastical variations of the New Year have caused much confusion in historiography, and therefore it was felt that historians and scientists alike would benefit from having a single standard of serial year-dates, covering a wide expanse of time.  The Gregorian Calendar has two aspects, namely the ecclesiastical and civil Gregorian Calendar (GC), as it was actually instituted and employed in history, as well as the Gregorian Retrospection (GR).[112]  When historians try to imagine a thread of absolute time, they normally think in Gregorian Retrospective (GR), with days commencing at midnight.  If more precision is needed, for programming and the like, a historian needs to resort to the year-dates of the Julian Period (JP), wherein days commence at noon instead of midnight.  Modern computer programmers use shortened series of Julian-Period style sequential numbers to express years, months, dates, days, hhours, minutes, and seconds.  The objective in programming is to express all of these time elements with the shortest number of digits or bytes.  However, this programming practice of truncating Julian-Period style sequences eventually caused the Year 2000 Problem.  Cf. George Washington’s birthday, Gregorian Calendar, Julian Calendar, Year 2000 Problem.[113]

anno Regina Reginæ : A.R.R. : in the year of the queen’s reign.

anno Regina Regis : A.R.R. : in the year of the king’s reign.

anno regni : a.r. : [1952 Eliz II] in the year of the reign; in the regnal year.

annointment: to rub over the skin an unctuous substance, the act of annointing.

annos vixit : a.v. : he lived —— years.

annosus : old, aged.

annu- : ann- : enni- : year.

annuity to mother: [1530] Sir Thomas le Strange paid an annuity of £14 10s per annum to his mother Anne le Strange, widow of Sir Robert le Strange (obiit 1512).[114]

annullingus : [NL] rimming, stimulation of the anus with one’s tongue and lips; penetration of the anus with the tongue.  This is especially dangerous practice, for it facilitates the transmission of hepititis.  One should avoid spelling this as analingus, because such would be an English backformation from the adjectival anal, and therefore would not make a valid combination form of the root word anus.  Cf. cunnilingus.

annulment : grounds of annulment; a reason to negate one’s marriage.  Cf. grounds of non-consummation.

annulment : the negation or repudiation of a marriage; a procedure for invalidating a marriage and obliterating the marriage record, making it as if the marriage had never occurred; a Romanist refutation and revision of historical fact.  The annulment was once the only dissolution of marriage allowed by any Christian church, and it remains the only procedure available to Roman Catholics.  The annulment process was made more stringent in 1993, a year in which the papacy permitted 70,000 annulments worldwide, including more than 54,000 annulments in the United States alone.  Prior to the nineteenth century, there were practically no civil unions whatsoever, so an annulment inevitably made bastards of the children of an annulled marriage.  Today, civil authorities provide separate marital recognition and legitimacy, and therefore the Roman church does not bother to formally illegitimize the children:  it simply ignores the inconsistency.  Roman ecclesiastics now explain that their annulments have “no civil effect,” but offer no explanation as to how such a selective negation of historical incidents can possibly accommodate legitimate children.  Catholic avoidance of the question is highly peculiar, because the church itself invented and promulgated the concept of legitimacy in the first place.  An annulment is automatically appealed, so it is subject to the scrutiny of two sets of ecclesiastical judges.  Cf. divorce.

Annunciation Year : [25 March 1150-1751 En OS/NS JC] English years that reckoned the New Year to be 25 March each year, instead of 1 January, from the latter part of the twenth century until Lord Hardwick’s Act (1751).  English, Scots, and all subjects of the British Crown uniformly recognized 1 January as the New Year from 1 January 1752 GC Gregorian.  Cf. Lady Day.

annus : a. : an. year, season, age; annual yield, a year’s produce.  Cf. anno.

annus horribilis : horrible year.  Elizabeth II described 1992 as an annus horribilis, because that was the year that her two eldest sons separated from the Princess of Wales and Duchess of York.  Opp. annus mirabilis.

annus mirabilis : miraculous year.  Opp. annus horribilis.

annuum salarium : annual salary.

ano. : another; anno.

Ano. Dom. : anno Domini.

anogenital : the bodily area that includes the genitals, perineum, and anus.

anonyma : unnamed daughter, stillborn daughter.

anonymus : anonymous; unnamed son, stillborn son.

anorexia : anorexy : loathing of food; the lack or loss of an appetite for food.

ansæ : testicles.

-ant : -ent : -ient : a present participial ending.

antavla : [Sw] pedigree, anetavle [Dn].  Cf. Ahnentafel.

ante : before.

ante Christum natum : before the birth of Christ.  Cf. bc.

ante diem : a.d. : before the day.

ante hac : earlier, before this, before this time.

ante meridien : antemeridian : a.m. : before noon.

antea : before that, previously, formerly, pro- [Gk].  Cf. postea.

antecedens : antecedent, predecessor.

antecessor : predecessor.

antecessor in matrimonio : predecessor in marriage.

antecessor in thoro : predecessor in bed, predecessor in marriage.

antedate : to date earlier than the real time, to take before the proper time; anticipation.  Opp. postdate.

antemeridianus : a.m. : before noon.

antenato : [It] ancestor.

antenatus : WiSo; stepson, a son born by another before one’s marriage.

antenuptial contract : prenuptial contract.

antepasados : [Sp] ancestors.

anterastes : [Gk] a hostile rival of the erastes in the love of an eromenos.

antesuscepto : before having a child, during preg­nancy, while pregnant, before bearing a child.  Cf. miscarriage.

anth- : [Gk] flower.

Anther : the apex of a stamen.  Cf. flower.

anthrax : [1876] a carbuncle or boil larger and more painful than a boil; sheep shearer’s disease.  This bacterial infection thrives in warm-blooded animals, notably cows and sheep, and sometimes passes to humans through the handling of wool or animal hair.

anthrop- : [Gk] human being, man.

anthropophagy : anthropophagi : [Gk] cannibalism.

anti- : [Gk] against, contra, adversus.

antianeira and hetaera : [Gk] An & He; two primary terms that may be used to signify lesbian spouses, abbreviated An and He.  Cf. philetor and eromenos, spouses (Sp).

antianeirai : An; man-hating, mannish; the term Homer used for Amazons.

antimatter : [1950] matter composed of the counterparts of ordinary matter, namely antiprotons, positrons, and antineutrons, instead of protons, electrons, and neutrons.  Matter remains tangible and corporeal in the presence of antimatter, but changes into energy when matter and antimatter converge or unite.

antimatter : [1950] matter composed of the counterparts to ordinary matter, such as antiprotons, positrons, and antineutrons, instead of protons, electrons, and neutrons.  Cf. matter.

antimoralist : an enemy of morality.

Antinoüs : [ad 110-130] Er; a languid and beautiful youth born in Asia Minor about 110.  Emperor Hadrian  (regnavit 117-138) fell in love with Antinoüs, and made him his companion and lover.  According to official reports, Antinoüs accidentally fell into the River Nile and drowned in 130.  However, this incident occurred in the midst of an imperial progress by barge, and therefore some have alleged that Hadrian ordered him drowned, perhaps for infidelity.  Thereafter, Hadrian deified Antinoüs, and named the Egyptian city Antinoöpolis after him.  He commissioned the scultping of many statues of Antinoüs, which were placed throughout the empire, and which became the foci for the Cult of Antinoüs.  The statues were sexually provocative, and therefore introduced to Roman art a new, sensual style of sculpture known as the ‘unheroic.’

Antiope : the Amazon abducted by Theseus, but later killed by one of her sister Amazons at the Itonic Gate in Athens.  Cf. Hippolyte, Oreithyia.

antipuritan : exhibiting opposition to Puritanism.

antiquary : antiquarius : a student of antiquity, a collector of ancient things.

anti-semitism : [1173-1945] Cf. Saint William of Norwich.

anti-trinitarian : Unitarian.

Antona Borealis : Northampton.

Antonius : Anthony.

antrum : anus.

Antwerp : Antwerpen.

-anum : -anus : -ana : -an : -ane : pertaining to.

-anus : -ana : -anum : -an : -ane : pertaining to.

anus : anus, ring.

anus : old woman.

Ao Dom : Anno Domini, year of our Lord.

ao. : age of onset, the age at which a disease or disorder was diagnosed.  Such an annotation is typical of a medical pedigree.

ap : [We] son of; a Welsh name element derived from mab.  Cf. ab, mab.

ap- : ad-.

Apaunaris Civitas : in Devonshire.

Aphrodite & Eros : [Gk] Venus & Cupid [Lt] : goddess of beauty and love & god of lusty love.  The Grecian pair that represent Love correspond to Hathor [Eg]; Nanna or Ishtar or Tammuz [Ba]; Kama & Krishna [Sk]; Freya or Frigg [Ns]; Branwen [Ce]; Tlazolteotl [Az].  The Mayans had no equivalent god or goddess.

aphrodite androgynos : bisexual love, androgynous love, the love in which the subject alternates between heterosexual and homosexual acts and relationships.  Cf. aphrodite pandemos, aphrodite hermaphrodite.

aphrodite ouranios : literally heavenly love; homosexual love, a term in Plato’s Republic.  Cf. aphrodite pandemos, aphrodite hermaphrodite.

Aphrodite Pandemos : Cf. Solon.

aphrodite pandemos : literally common love, vulgar love; heterosexual love, a term from Plato’s Republic.  Cf. aphrodite pandemos, aphrodite hermaphrodite.

Aphrodite Urania : [Gk] Heavenly Love, the goddess of love; Sappho’s god; the patron goddess of homosexuals.  The metaphor of ‘heaven’ was recorded and explained by Plato, in the Symposium, and presumably derived from Plato’s master Socrates.  Jesus the Christ used the identical metaphor in Matthew, in his famous speech to his disciples about the mystical and heavenly significance of eunuchs.  The Christ and Saint Paul both affirmed that the institution of heterosexual marriage has no place in heaven, for it constitutes instead a strictly earthly and secular institution for the rearing of humans vulgar (pandemos).  Since the time of Plato, earth has served as the home of everthing physicoërotic, whereas heaven has been home to everything technoërotic.  Cf. aphrodite androgynos, aphrodite pandemos, Uranus.

Aphrodite’s dark aspect : Persephone.

Aphroditic prototypes : Agdistis, Ana Perennia, Anaitis, Astarte, Bellona, Bona Dea, Bu Anu, Cailleach Bhiarach, Cybele, Demeter, Fir Dea, Harmonia, Ishtar, Ma Mata, Neith, Rhea, Shing Moo, Unakuagsak, Tetevinan.[115]

apical ancestor : propositus.

Apollo : [Gk & Lt] god of prophecy, music, and medicine.  As the symbol of Sunlight, Apollo had no corresponding deity in the pantheon of Rome, and thus continued to be known by his Greek style Apollo.  Apollo corresponds to Amon-Re or Horus [Eg]; Babbar or Shamash [Ba]; Surya, Mitra, Savitar [Sk]; Balder [Ns]; Lug [Ce]; Hun-Ahpu or Itzamna [Ma]; Tezcatipoca [Az].

Apollo and Hyacinth : Cf. Hyacinth.

apoplexia : apoplexy, stroke.  Cf. ictus.

apoplexy : stroke.

app. : apprentice; approximate, approximately; appellate.

App. Div. : Appellate Division.

appanage : appanagium : lands that princes set aside for the maintenance of their younger children.[116]

apparels : small, rectangular pieces of embroidery used to decorate the alb and amice.[117]

apparent : fictus.

appellate court : app. : court of appeals.

appellation : appellatio : naming, appellation; the addressing of a person; name, that by which anything is called; appeal.

appellative : title, distinction.

appeno- : [Gk Attic] male.  Cf. arseno-.

appenomixia : [Gk Attic] homosexuality.

appenomixia : Cf. homosexuality.

appenomixias : [Gk Attic] physical relations between males.[118]

appointment : constitutum, agreement to meet; a time reserved for a prearranged meeting with someone.  Cf. calendar subdivision, pensum, task.

appointment : munus, magistratus, an office held by nomination.

appr. : appraisement.

apprd. : appeared; apprised.

apprentice : [1292] learner, law student; a student attached to a practic­ing lawyer whom he assists in re­turn for instruction.

apprentice : [by 1379 & 1381] legal assistant, be­longing to the apprentices, a wealthy class of the legal professionals.[119]

apprentice : app. : [1600] craft apprentice, student artisan, a youngster bound by indentures or legal agreement to serve an experienced adult for a fixed time, for the purpose of learning an art or trade.  Apprenticeship normally commenced at 15 years, or five years before the youth’s majority.

apprentice knight : esquire, squire.

apprs. : apprisers.

April : /4/ : [ad 8] a month of 30 days; the fourth month of the Gregorian Calendar, and fourth month of the Scottish NS Julian Calendar, but the second month of the English OS Julian Calendar.  Cf. Abril [Sp], March, May.

apud : at; by, near, with; in, among; before; in the time of.

aqu- : aqua- : water.

aqua- : aqu- : water.

aqua : water.

Aquarius : h : the Water Carrier.

Aquarius the Water Carrier : 20 January to 19 February.

aqui- : water, hydro- [Gk].

aquis submersus : aqua submersus : drowned in water.

aquis suffocatus : aqua suffocatus : drowned in water.

[51] Grahn 1990:  127.

[52] Boswell 1980:  283.

[53] HL:  50.

[54] Boswell 1980:  189.

[55] Boswell 1980:  42.

[56] Brewer, Phrase and Fable.

[57] Boswell 1980:  140.

[58] Boswell 1980:  189.

[59] Martha F. Strong 1997/10/10.

[60] Book V, VALE 6:42457,2.

[61] “Article VI,” U.S. Constitution, 6.3.

[62] Boswell 1980:  358.

[63] Parkin 1997:  100.

[64] LIMO.

[65] Martin 1910.  Gurney 1833:  454.9.

[66] HL:  325.

[67] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  118-119.

[68] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  118-119.

[69] Red Book of HergestPeniardd MSS.  Graves 1948, eidtion 1966:  153, 159.

[70] HL:  340.

[71] Fabricius 1989:  227.

[72] Boswell 1980:  255.

[73] John Chrysostom.  Boswell 1980:  376.

[74] Boswell 1988:  74.

[75] Mike Wilken.  Grahn 1990:  59.

[76] Boswell 1980:  316-317.

[77] II Chronicles, 11.21.  II Paralipomenon, 11.21.

[78] Herodotus.

[79] Johnson.

[80] Donald Sobol.  Grahn 1990:  171.

[81] Diner 1965:  228.

[82] Diner 1965:  228.

[83] Rameses II.  Diner 1965:  235.

[84] Diner 1965:  228.

[85] Diner 1965:  125.

[86] Diner 1965:  279.

[87] Grahn 1990:  174.

[88] Sir Roger L’Estrange, quoted by Johnson.

[89] Evans.  Grahn 1990:  119.

[90] Grahn 1990:  66.

[91] Grahn 1990:  55.

[92] Sue-Ellen Jacobs.  Grahn 1990:  54-55.

[93] Katz.  Grahn 1990:  55.

[94] Davis 1924:  615.

[95] Ariès & Duby:  1.105.

[96] Boswell 1980:  239.

[97] Boswell 1980:  240.

[98] Schusky 1972:  89.

[99] Boswell 1980:  62.

[100] Boswell 1988:  99 et seq.

[101] Schusky 1972:  72.

[102] George B. Everton, Sr., The How Book for Genealogists, seventh edition, Logan, UT:  1971.

[103] W.H. Sheldon.  Eglinton 1964:  478.

[104] Boswell 1980:  339.

[105] LIMO.  Le nobiliare de France, 1976.

[106] Grahn 1990:  37.

[107] Jeremiah, 5.8.  Boswell 1980:  154.

[108] Adams 1982:  166.

[109] Deuteronomy, 23.18.  Boswell 1980:  154.

[110] Plucknett 1956:  447.

[111] Kathy Kendall.  Grahn 1990:  141.

[112] JRM.  Editor’s term.

[113] JRM.  Editor’s term.

[114] 1530/7.

[115] Diner 1965:  13.

[116] Bacon, quoted by Johnson.

[117] Davis 1924:  615.

[118] Boswell 1980:  357.

[119] Plucknett 1956:  217-218, 224-225.


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