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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


P : [anthropology] Pa; parent.  Cf. kin types.

P# : [IGI] page number, a field associated with an IGI Film Number (F#).  Cf. Ba, Batch Number.

p. : padre : [Sp] father.

p. : page, per.

p. : par. : parish.

p.a. : per annum.

P.C. : Privy Councillor; patres conscripti.

P.C.C. : Prerogative Court of Canterbury.

P.C.Y. : Prerogative Court of York.

P.E. : Professional Engineer.

P.E.I. : Prince Edward Island.

P.I. : Philippine Islands, which America captured from Spain, lost to Japan, reconquered, and then made independent.

p.p.a. : per power of attorney.

P.R. : parish register.

P.R. : populus Romanus, the Roman people.

P.R. : PR : Puerto Rico.

P.R.O. : Public Record Office, London.

P.T.A. : PTA : Parent-Teacher Association.

Pa : [anthropology] Fa, Mo; parents.

pa : parvula : [Sp contraction] small girl.

Pa. : PA : Pennsylvania.

pabulation : the act of feeding.

pabulum : food, support.

packthread : packethrede : strong twine used to tie up parcels.

pad. : padrino : [Sp] godfather.

padrastro : stepfather.

padre : [It, Sp] father; priest.

padre incógnito : [Sp] father unknown.

padre no conocido : [Sp] unknown father.

padre politico : father-in-law.

padres : [Sp] parents.

padres no conocidos : [Sp] parents unknown.

padrinos : [Sp] godparents.

padrón : [Sp] census.

paed- : ped- : [Gk] child.

pædagogium : pages, handsome young boys acting as servants.[1]

paederasty : pederasty.

PaG : Pennsylvania German.

pagan : countryman.

pagan : paganus : [1400] heathen, country dweller; someone not Christian.  The word has often been associated with Pagan, Burma, a place covered with countless reliquaries or pagodas built by Buddhists; but the similarity between the place name and the term pagan would seem to have been coïncidental.

page : a boy servant; one side of the leaf of a book.

paiderastai : [Gk] men who love boys.[2]

paiderastes : [Gk] pederast, a male lover of boys.

paideros : a purple vegetable dye; a thorn plant with a head shaped as a penis.  Pliny explained that the word derived from pais or paidos meaning ‘boy’ and erotis meaning ‘beloved,’ and that it connoted paiderastes ‘pederast, lover of boys.’[3]

paideros : boy lover; a word synonymous with ‘purple dye.’[4]

paiderostai : [Gk] active same-sex partner.[5]  Cf. drontes.  Opp. paidika.

paideuma : soil soul; culture, which is supposed to exhibit a polarity or duality of cultures chthonial and tellurian, feminine and masculine, or born of roots and born of sprouts.[6]  Cf. chthonial, tellurian.

paidika : [Gk] passive same-sex partner.  Cf. paschontes.  Opp. paiderostai.

paidophilia : pedophilia, ephebophilia.  Cf. pederasty.

paidophthopos : child molestation.[7]

paidophthoreo : [Gk] to corrupt boys.[8]

pai-ming : [206 bc-ad 230 Ch Hàn] generation name; the middle name of a Chinese person.[9]  The Chinese devised systematic middle names or pai-ming around the beginning of the Hàn Dynasty, or 206 bc.  Theoretically, all the members of the same generation who share the same surname (xing) will also share the same pai-ming, because they all stand in the same degree of relationship to the same common ancestor.  Because family associations normally prescribe the generation names, by means of a literary poem, members of the same family can uniformly determine the generation to which each living member belongs.  Two Chinese who share the same surname, but happen to be perfect strangers to one another, may nonetheless refer to one another as ‘cousin’ or ‘uncle,’ simply by comprehending the proper order of the generation names, or pai-ming.  Cf. family name poem.

Painter’s colic : Devonshire colic, dry belly-ache, a form of colic that arises from slow lead poisoning.[10]

pais : [Sp] county.

paisi misgontai : [Gk] homosexual attachments.[11]

päivä : [Fi] day.

palace : palatinus, palatium [Lt] : palais [Fr] : a royal house.  Cf. palatine.

palae- : pale- : [Gk] old.

Palaio- : the compound form of Palestine, as in Palaio-Sinaitic.

Palamedes : son of Nauplius and Ctymene.  Hyginus told us that Palamedes invented 11 letters to supplement the original 7 letters invented by the Fates.[12]  Palamedes was killed at Troy.

palanquin : palkee : [Hd] a covered carriage supported on the shoulders of slaves.

palatinate : palatinatus : [1580] the territory of a palatine; a county that contains the seat of a count palatine, or a chief officer in the court of an emperor or sovereign.

palatine : palatinus : [1500] an earl, count, or landgrave invested with regal rights and prerogatives, as well as certain sovereign powers within his own county; pertaining to the palace of a Roman emperor, or an emperor of the Holy Roman empire.  The style derived from the name of the Palatine Hill in Rome, where the emperors built grand palaces.  English sovereigns sometimes recognized Chester and Lancashire as palatine powers.  Cf. palsgrave.

pale- : palae- : [Gk] old.

Paleocene epoch : year 65 million bc.

paleography : [1822] the study of ancient writings and inscriptions.

Paleozoic era : a long period of prehistoric time comprising the Lower Paleozoic era and the Upper Paleozoic era.  Cf. year 575 million bc, year 289 million bc.

Pales : the phallic god, the impregnator of the earth who appears in the shape of a donkey.

palimony : [1972] support payments to a mistress or concubine after separation.  The term palimony was coined when actor Lee Marvin first agreed to make support payments to his concubine in 1970, and then ceased those payments in 1972.  Cf. alimony, patrimony, matrimony, ceremony.

palimpsest : [1661] a writing surface such as a tablet or parchment that has been used two or more times by scraping off or erasing previous writings.

pall : cloak, mantle of state; the mantle of an archbishop; a covering thrown over the dead.  In medieval times, nobles prized ermine fur for the making of mantles.  In England, the Royal Pall consists of the Royal Standard, with a white border with ermine spots.

Pall Mall : the broad avenue that connects Buckingham Palace with Trafalgar Square, used for state funeral processions, as well as for the commencement of any royal progress.

Pallas Athena : PallaV Aqena : [Gk] Athene the goddess of wisdom and war.  Her surname Pallas means ‘virgin.’  The Romans identified her as Minerva.  137

Pallas Promachos : the Vanguard Goddess, who wears the red leather of a Libyan amazon.

pallbearer : an honorary bearer at a funeral ceremony; one who holds up the pall, but does not bear the weight of the corpse.  In American English, pallbearer has come to mean a bearer or underbearer, one of six ablebodied men who carry the corpse.  The expression ‘honorary pallbearer’ is now used for the original meaning of pallbearer.

pallets : the armor plates that protect the armpits.  They replaced the mail gusset.[13]

palsgrave : paltsgraff [Gm] : a count or earl who oversees a prince’s palace.  Cf. landgrave, margrave, palatine.

palsy : paralysis of a body part.

palus : stake, the phallus of Priapus.

palus ab inguine :

pan- : [Gk] all, omni.

pan- : pant- : [Gk] all, every.

pandemic : an ubiquitous epidemic of enormous proportions.  Cf. influenza epidemic of 1918.

Pander : Pandarus : pimp, a procurer, a male bawd; the pimp in Troilus and Cressida.

pander : to play the part of an agent for the ill designs of another.

Pang : [Ch] a Chinese surname.  Jacobus Pantoja adopted the surname, and called himself Pang Ti Wo.[14]

pángshuāi : p’ang shai : [Ch] horizontal decrease.

pannage : the right of feeding swine.[15]

panoply : [1632] a full suit of armor.

pant- : pan- : [Gk] all, every.

Pantariste : [1000 bc] the amazon lover of Thraso, and the sister of Queen Hippolyta.  When she aimed her spear at a stag in the forest, Pantariste accidentally killed her sister Hippolyta.  She was sorely ashamed of this act, and she was roundly held in contempt by the amazons of Thermidon, so Pantariste determined to take twelve of her warrior maids to Troy, to assist Priam, who had just recently lost his son Hector to the wrath of Achilles.

Pantariste and Thraso : An & He.  During the battle between Hercules and the amazons under Queen Hippolyte, three Greek captains left their ships to lend Hercules assistance.  Pantariste saw that one of the captains was Tiamides, and she vengefully attacked him, for having killed her lover Thraso.  Pantariste beheaded Tiamides with one swing of her battleax.[16]  Cf. Achilles and Patroclus.

Pantariste’s warrior maids : An & He; the twelve amazons Clonie, Polemusa, Thermodosa, Harmothoë, Derione, Evandre, Antandre, Bremusa, Hippothoë, Harmothoë, Alcibie, Derimacheia, and Antibrote.

panteón : [Sp] cemetery.

pap : papilla : nipple; a dug when sucked; the pulp of fruit; food for infants, bread boiled in water.

papa : a fond name for father.

papacy : papauté : [Fr] popedom, the office and dignity of the bishops of Rome.

papal arms : Cf. arms.

papalin : papist, one devoted to the pope.

paper : 2nd year of marriage; symbol of the second wedding anniversary.

papist : papista : one who adheres to the Roman church and the communion of the pope.  The word flourished in Stuart and Commonwealth times.

para : [Gk] beyond, more than, in excess of.  Cf. kata.

para- : [Gk] close, juxta; beyond.  In the Pauline epistles, the word or prefix para- appeared 24 times, and the contexts tell us that the correct translation should be ‘beyond.’[17]

para physein : [Gk] beyond the physical.  The Vulgate shows the Latin mistranslation contra naturem ‘against nature,’ but no other use in the Pauline epistles equates para with contra.  If the writers of Greek Bible had intended to say ‘against,’ they would have used the word kata [Gk], the preposition that corresponds to contra.[18]  Cf. kata, para.

parakoitai : [Gk] passive male prostitute.  Opp. arsenokoitai.

parallel aunt : MoSi; matertera; maternal aunt.

parallel cousin : // : PaSbCh, FaBrCh, MoSiCh; the child of a parallel uncle or aunt; a collateral relative connected to the ego through parents of the same sex.  In a kinship diagram, parallel cousins are placed closer to the ego, whereas cross cousins are placed on the outer sides of the diagram.  Cf. cross cousin.

parallel cousin marriage : a rare marriage type that is practiced among Moslems.[19]

parallel descent : Fa > So + Mo > Da; lines of descent wherein recruitment is sex-specific.

parallel kin : Sb(ss)Ch, FaBrCh, MoSiCh; kin traced to the ego through same-sex (ss) links, such as father’s brother (FaBr) and mother’s sister (MoSi).  In an anthropological diagram, it is customary to place parallel cousins in inner groups, nearest to the ego.  We normally think of parallel kinship as arising from lateral same-sex links in the same generation.  However, some societies tend to stress lineal ties, instead of the lateral links, and therefore identify vertical links as parallel, such that FaFa and MoMo might be called ‘parallel’ grandparents.  Vertical classifications are more difficult to analyze, especially across remote generations, because they change the basic rules for our traditional notions of cross-parallel dichotomy.[20]  Cf. classificatory kinship terminologies.

parallel reference : a term related to the headword of an index entry, and therefore listed among the comparatives (Cf.) or opposites (Opp.).  Cf. cross reference, index entry, reference.

parallel uncle : FaBr; patruus; paternal uncle.

parallel uncle and aunt : FaBr & MoSi; one’s uncle and aunt related through the same sexes, or relative to the paternal and maternal categories, respectively.  A kinship system in which parallel uncles and aunts are equated with the ego’s father and mother is called a bifurcate merging system of kinship.  Cf. cross uncle and aunt.

paralysis : parisis, a disability in bodily motion, a condition sometimes indicative of polio, stroke, or syphilis.

paramour : par amour : [Fr] Cc, Ct; an illicit lover, wooer, mistress.  Cf. friend.

paranoia : irrational fear; excessive fear of the strange or unfamiliar.  Cf. bigotry, sectarian, rhetoric.

parasite : parasitus : one who frequents rich tables and earns his welcome through flattery.

parastates : parastatēs : [Gk masculine] Er; younger lover; comrade, one who stands beside.[21]  Cf. aïtas, erōmenos.  Opp. eíspnēlas, philētōr.

parcere : to husband.

pard : pardale : pardus : leopard, a spotted beast.

parens : Pa, Fa, Mo; parent; father, mother.  Cf. mater, pater.

parentheses : rounded brackets.  Cf. brackets.

parent genetic : genitor, genetrix; a biological parent who contributes an egg or seed to the birth of a child, but who might not rear the child herself or himself.  Opp. mater, parent social, pater.

parent social : mater, pater; a parent who actually rears a child and might not be the child’s biological parent.  In surrogacy, the social parent is the commissioning parent, as opposed to the egg donor or sperm donor.  Opp. genitor, genetrix, parent genetic.

parent’s father : [Ir] PaFa; grandfather.

parent’s mother : [Ir] PaMo; grandmother.

parent-child : Pa & Ch; a reciprocal relationship, often described from the viewpoint of the child, as ascending filiation.

parenté : [Fr] kinship.

parentela : family in which an heir is sought.  When an heir is not found, the right re­sorts to another parentela.[22]  Cf. propositus.

parentes : parents.

parentesco : [Sp] relationship.

parentesco espiritual : [Sp] spiritual relationship.

parentis : parental, pertaining to a parent.

parentum : relatives.

parere ortus : to give rise to.  Cf. efficere ortus.

Paris of Sens : the Trojan prince who abduced Helen, queen of Menelaus.[23]

parish : [Ir] a civil parish forming a subdivision of a county in Ireland.  A parish normally had a settlement called a townland.  Cf. townland.

parish : [Ir] an ecclesiastical parish forming part of a barony and diocese in Ireland.  Such a parish would have formed Poor Law Unions from 1838.  Cf. Poor Law Union.  Opp. civil parish.

parish : parochia : [ad 636] the charge of a secular priest.  Honorius, Archbishop of Canterbury, divided England into parishes in 636.  Several parishes form a deanery.

parish : the Louisianan equivalent of a county.

parish register : a large chronological table recording the vital events in a parish, mainly births, baptisms, marriages, deaths, and burials.  The Anglican church required that the parish register be kept in a lockbox, and that the records be annually transcribed for submission to the bishopric.  Cf. catalogus.

parishioners of the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury : speciales domestici parochiani Arch Cant.  This literary phrase is used to denote the unbreakable relationship of the Archbishop of Canterbury with the Sovereign and his or her Consort.

parisis : paralysis.

parliament : parliamentum : the assembly of the king and the three estates, namely the Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and Commoners.

Parmenides and Zenon : Ph & Er; the lovers who were respectively 65 years of age and 40 years when they met.[24]

parmenter : a maker of shortcoats and vestments who specializes in furs, and finely dressed, embroidered skins.

paroch : a clergyman in charge of a parish.

parochia : parish.

parochial: pertaining to a parish.

parochie : [Gm, Du] parish.

paroisse : [Fr] parish.

parricidal : parricida : relating to parricide, comitting parricide.

parricide : parricida : one who destroys his father; the murder of a father.  Parricides include Saint Barbara, who killed her father, as well as Zarina of Scythia, who killed her husband.

parricidium : murder of a parent.  The word was also used to signify the murder of anyone.  Cf. quaestores parricidii.

párroco : [Sp] parson.

parroquia : [Sp] parish.

pars genitalis : genital part.

pars obscena : obscene part.

pars pessima nostri : sexual organ; a phrase used 69 times by Ovid.

pars pudenda : pudendal part.

part- : part.

partes genitales : genital parts.

parthenogenesis : Cf. spiritogenesis.

parthenogenesis : deific issue, absent any opposite-sex mating; a mother’s generation of a child without the agency of any man, or any male seed; a father’s generation of a child without the agency of any woman, or womb.  Parthenogenetic, maternal generation differs from immaculate conception in that the mother gives birth by herself, without impregnation by the holy spirit, or an elephant’s trunk, or any other symbol of male seeding.  The Latins held that Minerva (Pallas Athena) sprang directly from the brain of Juppiter (Zeus), and therefore had no mother.  Opp. fatherless son of a virgin, Holy Spirit, immaculate conception, matriarchy, spiritogenesis.

particeps : participant, sharer, accomplice; domestic partner.

particle : [1964] a subatomic particle.  Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig of the California Institute of Technology discovered that atoms are composed of point particles, namely quarks, neutrinos, and electrons.  The theory evolved into the Standard Model, which postulates that a set of 12 particles form all matter.  Six quarks (up, charm, top, down, strange, bottom) form triplet unions of quarks, bound together by strong interactions, and constitute the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.  Six leptons (electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino, electron, muon, tau) are not subject to strong interactions, and unions of leptons form the electrons and neutrinos.  Cf. antimatter, matter.

particula : penis.

partner : sharer, partaker, associate.

partner : to join with a spouse in partnership.  The verb partner implies a business interest, as well as an equitable union.  Cf. consort, marry, mate.

partners equal : friend-friend.

partners unequal : patron-client.

partnership : joint interest or property; the union of two or more in the same trade.  Cf. jointure.

partridge : partrych : a game of warren.  Cf. game.

partum edere : to produce offspring.

partus : young, offspring, childbirth, birth, bringing forth, beginnings.

party : partié : [Fr] faction, a number of persons confederated by the similarity of their ideas or their common opposition to an alternate view.

parva : little.  Opp. magna.

parvenu : in the Roman republic the first man in a family to hold consulship, thereby ennobling himself and his family.

párvulo : [Sp] child.

pasado : [Sp] past.

Paschal taper: Easter Candle.  Cf. Easter Candle.

paschontes : paskontes : [Gk] passive same-sex partner.  Opp. drontes.

pass- : pati- : to endure, suffer.

pass- : pati-.

pass : to transfer a peerage to another holder with a different surname, normally through devolution.  Cf. destination.

passagium carectarum : a toll on carts passing through the vill.[25]

passant gardant : the stance of a beast walking across the view, with its head turned to show its face to the spectator.

passed : the transfer of a peerage to a holder of a different surname, perhaps through marriage, or hereditary succession.

passenger list : a list of passengers used to identify emigrants or immigrants, either free or bonded in servitude.  Extant passenger lists have been compiled and published in many sources, and particularly extensive collections are usually based upon a particular country or region of origin and time period.  An important composite list of passengers is the Passenger and Immigration Lists Index (PILI, 1981-1985), which names millions of immigrants to America from 1600 to 1900.  U.S. law required the filing of passenger lists from 1820, and therefore most of the extant lists are dated 1820-1957.  Cf. Port of New York.

passim : everywhere; mentioned in passing in many places, too numerous to cite.

passing bell : a single bell.  Cf. bell.

passion : passio : love, zeal, ardor; eagerness; any effect cause by some external agency.

Passover : the Jewish feast that commemorates the time when God smote the first-born of the Egyptians but passed over the Hebrews without causing harm.

pastor : shepherd, a herdsman in charge of a flock of sheep; a Christian metaphor for a clergyman, used as a synonym for a minister or parish priest.

pastorate : [Sw] an ecclesiastical district containing more than one parish.  Cf. deanery.

pat. : patent, patented.

Patagonian wizards and witches : [1775] wizards and witches of Patagonia, at the southern tip of South America.  The wizards ‘left their sex’ and dressed in women’s clothing, but could not marry.  Effeminate boys were chosen for the rôle, and they adopted the drum and rattle that were typical instruments of the female shaman.  The witches could marry.[26]

patapouf : [1800 En slang] pouf, an effeminate male homosexual working as a prostitute.[27]

patapouf : [1900] a male prostitute unconnected with any whorehouse; a street hustler frequenting Picadilly Circus.  Cf. jésus, petits-jésus, pouf, Times Square kids.

pate- : [Gk] to walk.

patent : patens : open to the perusal of all; apparent, conspicuous.  The word originally signified a deed issued by a monarch or government to grant or convey land to an individual or company for the purpose of settlement and development.  Today, the word mainly refers to a government’s certification of someone’s registered invention, issued to provide the inventor with a term of monopolistic privilege to sell or benefit from his invention.

patentee : one who has a patent.

patents under the Great Seal : [1615] the instruments by which the Sovereign solemnized the creation of a dukedom, marquessate, or earldom.  Royal Patents officially replaced creation ceremonies in 1615.  Cf. girding of the sword.

pater : [anthropology] the father as socially defined, rather than the natal or biological father.  Cf. mater.  Opp. genitor.

pater : Fa; father.

pater : surrogate father.  Cf. genitor.

pater adoptivus : Fa; adoptive father.

pater familias : pater familiæ : [70 bc-ad 400] Fa; a father as the head of his household, or familias, his family of dependents, includ­ing his wife, lineal descendants, and slaves.  The pater familias even had the authority to execute one of his adult children or sell one of his de­pendents.[28]

pater patriæ : father of one’s country.

pater vicarius : surrogate father.

patern- : patr- : father.

paternal : paturnus : Fa : fatherly, having the relation of a father; hereditary, received in succession from one’s father.  Cf. great-paternal, kin types.  Opp. maternal.

paternal halfsibling : heterozygous halfsibling.  Opp. uterine halfsibling.

paternal relatives : patrilateral relatives.

paternal traits : genetic traits that pass from father to child or grandchild.  Surprisingly few hereditary traits pass exclusively through male lineages, and the traits fathers do transmit mostly derive from female ancestors.  Genetic heritage is mainly through maternal lines of descent, and fathers provide a one-generation impediment to genetic inheritance.  Thus, we humans have many recessive genes, or genes that are present in the father’s mother, but which skip one generation, and reappear among the father’s grandchildren.  Cf. maternal endowment.

paternity : paternité : [Fr] Fa; fathership, the relation of a father.

paternos : [Sp] paternal.

paternus : fatherly.

-path : [Gk] one who suffers from a disease of.

path- : [Gk] to feel, suffer, disease.

Pathmos : Cf. Myrine amazons.

pathogen : an agent or microörganism that causes disease.

pathogenesis : the development of a particular disease.  A description of pathogenesis will typically name the bodily tissues and systems the disease affects, specify any events that characterize the disease, outline the mechanisms by which the disease damages the body, and estimate the time periods for disease progression.

-pathy : [Gk] disease of.

pati- : pass- : to endure, suffer.

patient: a person diseased, a sick person.

patior : the passive rôle in intercourse.

patr- : [Gk] Fa; father.

patr- : patern- : Fa; father.

patratio : orgasm.

patre vivente : while his father was living.

patres : Pa, Fa; parents, fathers.

patri- : [Gk] family, clan.

patri- : fatherland, country.

patria : fatherland, native country.

patria potestas : paternal authority, which once included the right to sell children.[29]  Patriarchal succession to patria potestas can be testamentary succession or intestate succession.

patriarch : patriarcha : one who governs by paternal right; a bishop superior to archbishops.

patriarchal marriage : Cf. marriage.

patriarchalism : the patristic tendency to organize society by ancestry and fatherhood, or agism, sexism, and lineage.  Opp. matrism, matriarchalism.

patriarchate : a bishopric superior to archbishoprics.

patriarchy : patrism, the masculine use of agism and sexism to define lineage.  Cf. kinship dimensions.  Opp. generation, matriarchy.

patriarchy versus matriarchy : [classical] the primacy of patrism over matrism, symbolized by two Greek myths, namely the matricide of Orestes, and the contest between Athena and Poseidon for control of Athens.[30]  Some historians cling to the notion that social orders emerge and develop in some evolutionary sense, progressing in steps from one order to another.  Anthropologists tend to view authority holistically, considering a variety of factors, such as borrowed kin terms, imported religions, fundamentalist conversions, and interbreeding.  Cf. Cecrops, chthonial, tellurian.

patriarchy versus matriliny : [modern] the authority of male unilineal descent, as opposed to a society organized by female unilineal descent which exercises authority through the agency of men, typically through the wife’s brother rather than the wife’s husband.  This phrase should probably replace the family patriarchy versus matriarchy, because anthropologists have never identified a living culture where the matrilines have wholly usurped authority from men.  In our present world, matriarchies happen to be theoretical, but the notion might have approached reality in the ancient Amazon cultures, or the womanly governments of the Black Sea, the Greek isles, and northern Africa.

patrician : patricius : noble, senatorial, not plebian.

patricians : qui patres scire possunt, those who know their fathers.

patricii : patricians, nobles.

patricii maiorum gentium : senators of great families, senators appointed by Romulus.

patricii minorum gentium : senators of lesser families, senators appointed by Tarquin.

patricius : patrician, noble, of the patres.  Cf. patres, senatus.  Opp. plebs.

Patricius : Patrick.

patriclan : a group of males associated through patrilocal residence, including their wives and unmarried daughters.  Cf. clan.  Opp. matriclan.

patrifiliation : a child’s identification with his father’s family.

patrifocal household : a single-father household with no permanent spouse.  Cf. one-parent household, matrifocal household.

patrikin : agnates, patrilineal kin; a class of cognates; the descending kindred within a patriliny.  Primitives believed that patrikin provided human bone.  Opp. uterine kin, Opp. flesh and blood, matrikin.

patrilateral cross-cousin marriage : FaSiDa marriage; father’s sister’s daughter marriage.  Cf. Trobriand-type marriage.

patrilateral parallel cousin marriage : FBD marriage, FaBrDa marriage; FaBrDa=Wi, FaBrSo=Hu; marriage between full siblings or classificatory siblings, or halfsiblings.

patrilateral relatives : patrilateral kin, paternal relatives; cognates connected to the ego through his father.

patrilineal : opposite of matrilineal; organized around a line of males and their sisters.  Patrilineal cultures tend to be pastoral and intensively agricultural.  The males remain in the natal group, whereas females constitute the migrating sex.

patrilineal descent : a kinship system that affiliates the ego with a group of kinsfolk who are all related to him through males.  Cf. agnatic descent.  Opp. matrilineal descent.

patrilineal descent groups : pd.[31]

patrilineal kin : patrikin.

patrilineal link that skips a generation : FaFa > ego; a form of descent wherein recruitment proceeds from grandfather to ego, skipping the father.  Most societies with descent rules reckon links between successive generations, but some place the ego in the same section as his grandfather.

patrilineal succession and inheritance : Br(e) > Br(y) > Br(e)So.  Succession or inheritance by younger brothers happens to be a rule that resembles the matrilineal family, in that offices and properties pass to the sibling, prior to falling to next generation.[32]

patrilinear : patrilineal.

patriliny : a limitation of kinship based on descent through males, whereby males remain in the natal group, whereas females migrate.  Cf. matriliny.

patrilocal : virilocal.

patrilocal residence : a marriage wherein the couple resides with or near the husband’s father; a norm that requires the bride to reside with the groom with or near the groom’s parents.  This phrase gave rise to the broader term virilocal.  Cf. ne­olocal, residence, virilocal marriage.  Opp. matrilocal, uxorilocal.

patrimony : patrimonium : heredium, inherited property; an estate possessed by inheritance; property inherited from one’s pa­trilineal ancestors.  Cf. matrimony, alimony, palimony, ceremony, property.

patriot : patria : one whose ruling passion is the love of his country.

Patriot Parliament : [1689] the parliament consisting mainly of Catholics that convened at Dublin in Mary 1689.

patripotestal : patriarchal.

patris : of one’s father.

patrism : the state of being rigid, antisexual, and holding women in low esteem, with a keen interest in differentiating the sexes.[33]  Patrism uses agism and sexism to define lineages.  Cf. kinship dimensions, patriarchy.  Opp. matrism, matriarchy.

patrist : someone given to patrism.

patrius : fatherly, paternal, of or relating to a father.

patrivirilocal : virilocal.

patro : to accomplish it; to cum.

patrologia : [Lt & Gk] myth of the father, a story or anecdote that seems to ennoble one’s ances­tor.[34]

patron : patronus : one who protects, supports, countenances; advocate, defender, vindicator; one who has donation or ecclesiastical preferment.  Opp. client.

patronage : support, protection, guardianship; donation of a benefice; the right of conferring a benefice.

patronus : protector, owner, benefactor, foster parent of an alumnus.

patronym : [Ir]  Cf. O’, mac-, nic.

patronymic : a byname formed by adding a prefix or suffix signifying filiation to the name of one’s father or paternal ancestor.  Macdonald means son of Donald, Johnson means son of John, and Ivanovich means son of Ivan.[35]  Nic Ailpin means daughter of Macalpine, and Ivanovna means daughter of Ivan.  Cf. mab, ferch, filius, Mac-, nic-, O’-, -ovna, -ovich, ibn.

patruel : cousin-german, father’s brother’s child; father’s brother, paternal uncle.  Cf. avuncular, materteral.  Opp. amital.

patrueles et consobrini : paternal and maternal cousins; parallel cousinage.  Par­allel cousins, or ortho cousins, are the offspring or lineal descendants of a pair of brothers, or a pair of sisters.  Therefore, parallel cousins are of two types, ei­ther agnatic or cognate, patrilateral or matrilateral, but always arising from siblings of the same sex.  They are called parallel cousins, in contradistinction to multi­lineal cousins, or cross cousins, or mixed cousins, be­cause their hereditary rights and respon­sibilities are essentially identical with those of their uni­lateral cousins, differing only by seniority.

patrueles fratres et sorores : agnatic cousinage.

patruelin : [NL] FaBrSo; paternal parallel first cousin male.

patrueline : [NL] FaBrDa; paternal parallel first cousin female.

patruelis : FaBrSo, FaBrDa; cousin-german, paternal cousin; parallel cousin; cousin-german on the father’s side; father’s brother’s son or daughter.  When two brothers sire two sets of chil­dren, the two sets become paternal cousins to each other, through their fathers.  Unilineal, pa­trilineal, or agnatic cousinage is the kinship of paternal cousins.  Cf. consobrinus.

patruels: [1623] BrCh, BrSo=Ne, BrDa=Ni; brother’s children, fraternal nephews and nieces.

patruus : FaBr; severe reprover; frater patris, paternal uncle, father’s brother.

patruus magnus : frater avis, paternal granduncle, grandfather’s brother.

patruus major : frater avis, paternal granduncle, grandfather’s brother.

pauper : poor, not rich; poor but not destitute.  Cf. egens, inopis, perpauper, poor, tennuis.

pauperculus : poor.

pavage : a duty imposed on foreign merchants for the paving and repair of city streets.[36]

pavan : a processional dance consisting of dignified and stately movements.  The pavan was staged to display the formal robes of magistrates, and the highly decorative mantles of nobles and princes.  The dancers took two steps forward, with one double step, and then stepped backward with the same number of steps.  As the forward steps were slightly longer than the backward steps, the party would slowly progress, to the accompaniment of trumpets and hautboys.[37]  Opp. galliard.

pawnbroker : one who lends money upon pledge.  In Europe, there were three types of pawnbrokering operations, namely the montes pletatis, private pawnbrokers, and public pawnshops.  Both the Bible and the Qur’ân specifically prohibit usury, or the lending of money for interest, and therefore the private pawnbrokers tended to be persons presumed to be exempt somehow from biblical rules.  The divine law against charging interest surely obtains for both Jews and Christians, but the Jews were the first to ignore it, and they justified their action by lending money at interest only to non-Jews, or Gentiles.  The Franciscan system and the public pawnshops both arose from a practical need to assist the poor.  Pawnbrokering has gradually diminished in importance, because Christians and Jews alike determined to ignore scripture, in favor of capitalism.  Cf. orbs, signs.

payment : the act of paying, something given in discharge of debt or promise.

pays : [Fr] country.

pb unk. : place of birth unknown.[38]  Cf. loco incognita, loco laudato.

pbro : presbitero : [Sp contraction] priest.

PC : politically correct.

pchd. : purchased.

pd : patrilineal descent groups.[39]

pd unk. : place of death unknown.[40]  Cf. loco incognita, loco laudato.

pd. : padre : [Sp] father.

peace : pax [Lt] : paix [Fr] : respite from war, rest from any commotion.

peacock : pecocke.

peal : a set of church bells.

pearl : 30th year of marriage; symbol of the thirtieth wedding anniversary.

peccatum illus : that sin, a phrase denoting same-sex love; the phrase Richard I Lionheart used in referring to his love of Philip of France.[41]

péché philosophique : philosophical sin, a reference to boy-love.

pecten : pubic hair.

pectiniculus :

pectus : lungs, chest.

pecudes et bestiæ : wild and domestic animals.

peculiar parish : an autonomous parish entrusted with the authority to independently administrate its affairs without deference to any higher authority, such as as a dean, bishop, or archbishop.  Such a parish often had the right to probate the testaments of its parishers.[42]

peculiati : mentulati.

peculium : a small parcel of private property that a son, daughter, or slave holds of the paterfamilias.

peculium : private property; penis.

pecuni- : money.

pecunia credita : credit.  Cf. res commodata.

pecunia debita : debit.

pecunia mutua : mutual account.

pecûs : [plural] cattle, a herd, flock.

pecus : [singular] a single head of cattle, a beast.

ped- : foot.

ped- : paed- : [Gk] child.

pedagogus : pedagogue.

pedententim : on foot; a heraldic beast depicted in a natural walking posture, passant.

pederast : ephebophile, a man interested in having sexual relations with adolescent boys; a man with sexual interest in prepuberal children and adolescents of either sex.  Only men should be categorized as pederasts, because women have seldom been certainly known to engage in the same behavior.  We may sometimes hear reports of women engaging in sex with adolescent boys, but it is rare indeed to hear of a woman engaging in child molestation.  Fundamentalist fanatics made various allegations of this type against women in several courts the U.S. in the 1980s, and many of the defendants were jailed.  However, this phenomenon seems to have resulted from temporary zealotry and misconception, rather than fact.  A mother of four became pregnant by a 13-year-old boy in 1997.

pederasty : paederasty : [Gk] ephebophilia, Greek love; man-boy love; chid molestation; a male’s sexual interest in boys; a male’s sexual interest in prepuberal children of either sex; a misnomer for buggery.  This sexual obsession is usually characteristic of men, but not women.  Whenever women are accused of pederasty, one may interpret the charges as a case of paranoic witchhunting, and not a genuine case of child molestation.  Cf. buggery, Little Rascals Daycare Center, pedophilia, witchhunts American.

-pedia : [Gk] education.

pedicare : pedico.

pedicari : dividi.

pedicatio : anal intercourse.

pedicationis causa : a cause for having been violated in the anus.

pedicator : bugger.

pedicator : prostitute.

pedicel : pediculus : [1676] the stem of a flower; the slender, basal part of an organism, or one of its appendages.

pedico : to have anal intercourse.

pedicor : bugger.

pedigree : pié de grue : [Fr] crane’s foot; genealogy, lineage, account of descent; a genealogical stemma or table showing either ascending lines of ancestry from one individual, or descending lines of succession from a common ancestor; cuadro genealógico [Sp]; bonedd [We].  Cf. diagram, genogram, medical pedigree.

pédigrée : pié de grue : [Fr] pedigree.

pedo : to defecate; to break wind.

pedobaptism : infant baptism.

pedobaptist : one who practices infant baptism.

pedophilia : paidophilia : [Gk] Greek love; ephebophilia; a love for adolescents.  The original use of this word was restricted to a male’s passion for boys, but the meaning expanded to include attractions for adolescents of either sex.

pedwerydd hen daid : [We] FaFaFaFaFaFa; great-great-great-great-grandfather, fourth-great-grandfather, grandfather of the 6th degree.

peer : pair : [Fr] equal, one belonging to the same rank; compeer, a member of one of the degrees of nobility in the United Kingdom; a duke, marquis, earl, vis­count, or baron.

peer : the first peer next to the Royal Family is the Archbishop of Canterbury.  Cf. Archbishop of Canterbury.

peer : the second peer is the Lord High Chancellor.

peer : the third peer is the Archbishop of York.

peer Irish : whosoever holds a peerage in the peerage of Ireland cannot be disqualified from (1) election to, and membership in, the House of Commons, for any constituency in the United Kingdom, and (2) voting in elections for the House of Commons, whether or not he is a Member of the House of Commons.[43]

peer Scottish : the holder of a peerage in the peerage of Scotland.  A peer of Scotland is entitled to be recognized as the holder of a peerage in the peerage of the United Kingdom, and therefore is entitled to receive Writs of Summons to attend the House of Lords, and to sit and vote in that House.[44]

peerage : Cf. destination.

peerage : the dignity of a peer; hereditary kinships of noble or gentry rank, categorized as extinct, exstinctus; dormant, iacent; for­feited, amissus; abeyant, intermitti; created, creatus; merged, miscere.

Peerage Act of 1963 : the act that added provisions for the disclaiming of peerages.  This legislation applied to peers, peeresses, and their successors in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom, and received Royal Assent on 31 July 1963.[45]  Cf. disclaiming hereditary peerages, Life Peerages Act of 1958.

peerage patents : writs of summons issued to confirm one’s succession to a peerage.  Patents are written on parchment, and bear only the Great Seal, but no signature.[46]

peerage succession : An heir claiming a seat in the House of Lords must (1) prove he is of age, and (2) prove his right of succession.  If his proofs are accepted, he receives a Peerage Patent, which bears the Great Seal, and Parliament issues to him a Writ of Summons.  When he arrives at Parliament he is introduced and ushered by two peers of the same degree as he, who present him to the Lord Chancellor.  The Garter King of Arms carries his Patent, and the peer presents both his Patent and Writ of Summons to the Lord Chancellor.  After the oath is administered, and the new peer takes his seat, he returns to the Lord Chancellor for congratulations.

peerage titles : honors and dignities created by the Sovereign.  The Sovereign customarily avoids creating any titles that might be confused with another title.  If the Sovereign grants a title to a member of the Royal Family, the same title is never granted thereafter to anyone outside the Royal Family.  If a title becomes extinct, but is later revived by the Sovereign, it normally stands in the same rank as before.  Rarely, the Sovereign recreates a title in a rank lower than that title’s previous rank.  Cf. double territorial designation, territorial designation.

peerages in abeyance : [1926 antea] peerages that had fallen into disuse, usually by reason of the absence of an heir male.  The Select Committee on Peerages in Abeyance (1926) recommended that any abeyances that had first commenced more than 100 years before the presentation of the Committee should not be terminated.  Beyond this limit of 100 years (i.e., prior to 1827), no termination of the abeyance should be considered unless there happened to exist some special circumstance or reason to do so.  The Committee further recommended that no Petition to terminate an abeyance should be considered, in any case, when it happened to represent less than one-third of the entire dignity.[47]

peerages of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britian, and the United Kingdom : peerages that admit five degrees of peers, namely Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons.  Life Barons are counted as peers.

peerages of the Peerage of Scotland : [1603-1707] The Crown could once request a peer of Scotland to surrender his peerage, so that the Crown could reconfer the peerage with a different remainder.  The objective was to impose some conformity of limitation on the various remainders permitted in the realm.  However, the Act of Union (1707) disallowed the Crown to so alter the remainders of Scottish peerages.[48]

peerdom : peerage.

peeress : the lady of a peer; a woman ennobled.

peeresses : [1958] Life Peeresses, women who have been admitted to the Upper House since 1958.

peeresses in own right : [1958 et postea] women who are now afforded the same rights as men in the House of Lords.  Irrespective of any terms in the original Letters Patent or other instrument, a woman may now hold a hereditary peerage in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, or the United Kingdom.  A peeress in her own right has the right to receive Writs of Summons to attend the House of Lords, and to sit and vote.  A peeress is subject to the same disqualifications as a peer, respecting election to and membership in the House of Commons.

peeresses of England, Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and Scotland : [1963] women holding hereditary peerages, who have been admitted to the Upper House since 1963.

peers below the rank of Earl : peers who must be described by patent with a territorial designation, as “of (someplace).”

peers holding only Irish titles : peers disabled from sitting in the House of Lords.

peers holding only Scottish titles : [1963] peers who have been enabled to sit in the House of Lords since passage of The Peerage Act of 1963.

peers of England : [1707 antea] peers created before 1707.

peers of England, Scotland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom : [1802] lords spiritual or temporal who are barred from sitting in the House of Commons.

peers of Great Britain : [1707-1801] peers created between 1707 and 1801.

peers of Great Britain and Ireland : [1802] peers who are ranked according to the dates of their Patents, among the peers of Great Britain and Ireland.[49]

peers of Ireland : [1802 antea] Irish peers created before the Union with Ireland (1802) take precedence of British peers created in later years.[50]

peers of Ireland : [1802] Irish peers created later than the Union with Ireland, who are ranked according to the dates of their Patents, among the peers of Great Britain and Ireland.[51]

peers of Ireland : [1927 antea] Irish Representative Peers, who were elected for life by their fellow peers, before the establishment of the Irish Free State (1927).  Irish peers can stand for election to the House of Commons for any constituency in the United Kingdom, and they may vote at elections for the House of Commons whether or not they be Members.[52]

peers of Ireland : peers from whose number 28 are elected to each parliament.

Peers of Parliament : all of the Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal who have precedence in the House of Lords.

peers of Scotland : [1707] Scottish peers take precedence of British peers of the same rank who represent peerages created after the Union with Scotland (1707).[53]

peers of Scotland : peers from whose number 16 are elected to each parliament.

peers of Scotland : Scottish Representative Peers, peers who were elected by their fellow peers for one Parliament only.[54]

peers of the United Kingdom : [1802] peers created from 1802 to the present.

Pegasus : the horse that sprang forth from the blood of the Libyan amazon Medusa.[55]

peg-house : a house of prostitution specializing in male teenagers.[56]  Cf. Molly house.

peghouse : peg-house.[57]

peine forte et dure : [Fr] literally punishment strong and hard; the torture the English called the press.  Cf. press.

pel- : pell- : puls- : to drive, push.

Pelasgians : the people called divine (Dioi), because they were the only survivors of the Greek Deluge, and they preserved the antediluvian letters.[58]  Notably, Deucalion and Pyrrha both survived the flood.[59]

Pelasgians : the people called divine (Dioi), because they were the only survivors of the Greek Deluge, and they preserved the antediluvian letters.[60]  Notably, Deucalion and Pyrrha both survived the flood.[61]

pell- : pel- : puls- : to drive, push.

pellagra : a disease that arises from eating spoiled maize.  The early symptoms are vomiting and diarrhea.  The later symptoms include a swollen and sore tongue, a red and ulcerated mouth, body rashes, and body sores.

pellex : pælex : [Gk] mistress, the concubine of a married man.

Pelopidas : one of two Theban leaders of the Sacred Band of Thebes.  Cf. Gorgidas.

Pembs. : [We] Pembrokeshire, Wales.

penal : pœna : enacting punishment.

penalty : liability to punishment, condemnation to punishment.

penance : [800] penance for a priest who has engaged in hunting, set at 3 years by Pope Saint Gregory III.[62]

penance : [800] penance for lesbianism, set at 160 days by Pope Saint Gregory III.[63]

penance : [800] penance for male homosexuality, set at 1 year by Pope Saint Gregory III.[64]

pend- : pens- : to hand, weigh, pay.

pendo : to weigh, judge, consider; to value, esteem; to pay out money by its weight; to allocate a material by its weight.  Cf. pensum.

penis : literally tail.  The original meaning had become obsolete by the classical period.  There are purportedly 105 Spanish terms for penis in Ecuador.  The flesh that makes the penis of a male happens to be the same flesh that forms the clitoris, and therefore a surgeon performing a male-to-female sex-change operation uses the penis to create the semblance of a clitoris.  Cf. clitoris, labia majora, scrotum.

penis-fencing : a male-to-male sexual activity common among bonobos wherein two males hang face-to-face on a branch and rub together their erect penises.  Cf. genito-genital rubbing.

Penkerdd : [We] Chief Bard.  Cf. bard, ollave.

Penkerdd : [We] Chief Bard.  Cf. bard, ollave.

-pennale : wing.

Pennsylvania Dutch : the German immigrants from the southwest Germany who settled in Pennsylvania during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.  Descendants of these immigrants continue to use Germanic vocabulary items and preserve some distinctive elements of their culture.  The appellation Dutch is a misnomer that perhaps derived from the fact that many such migrants sailed from Dutch and Belgian ports.

penny : [1603] a silver coin worth 4 farthings; the equivalent of about 25 cents in 1967 dollars.

penny : [1793-1857 Am] Large Cent.

penny : [1806] 4 farthings, equal to 1.851 cents in 1806 dollars.

penny : [1859-1864] Copper-nickel Indian Cent.

penny : [1859-1909 Am] Indian Cent; Indian-head penny.

penny : [1909 Am] VDB Cent.

penny : [1943 Am] Steel wartime penny.

pens- : pend- : to hand, weigh, pay.

pens. : pensioner.

pensilia : the things that hand; male genitalia.

pension records : [NA] the original pension applications of veterans, widows of veterans, and blood-related claimants.  In American genealogy, this phrase mainly denotes the collection of pension files for veterans of the War of the American Revolution (1775-1783), some of which were destroyed by conflagrations in 1801 and 1814, which are stored at the National Archives.

pensum : task, a day’s work; literally, a portion of wool weighed for a spinner as her day’s work.  Cf. distaff.

pent- : penta- : [Gk] five.

penta- : pent- : [Gk] five.

pentad : [Gk] fivesome.

Pentapolis : Cyrenaica.

pentarchy : government exercised by five powers.

Pentateuch : Torah, the first five books of the Old Testament.  Cf. Heptateuch.

Pentecostalism : [1901] a sect dedicated to faith healing, premillenialism, glossolalia, baptism, or any of several fundamentalist themes.

Penthesilea : She mistook her sister Hippolyta for a stag, and accidently killed her during hunting.  Cf. Amazon army of Penthesilea, Pantariste, William II Rufus and Tyrrel.

Penthesilea and her Maids : Penthesilea and her 12 maiden warriors, who made the coven number of thirteen (13), and who joined Priam in the defense of Troy.  Cf. Pantariste.

Pentitentes : [1700-1930 Sp] Pentitents, the colonial Spaniards who celebrated Easter with a procession of flagellation, and then crowned and crucified a boy 14 years of age.  The Roman church excommunicated the Pentitentes, and civil authorities completely outlawed their curious practice by the 1930s.[65]

pentre : [We] village.

peon : a foot solider in India; servant, attendant.

people: muninntear [Ir] : a rural Irish colloquialism for kindred.  Cf. friends.

people : populus : nation, those who compose a community; commonalty.

pep- : pept- : [Gk] to digest.

peperit : he brought forth, produced.

peperit 7. foetus : she produced seven offspring.

peperit quinque foetus : she produced five off­spring.[66]

pept- : pep- : [Gk] to digest.

per : through, by, by means of.

per- : through; thoroughly, very, completely.

per accidens : accidentally.

per annum : p.a. : annually, by each year.

per capita : succession per capita.

per legem Anglie : by Anglian law.[67]

per litteris : by ——; authored by ——; litteris ——.

per mandatum : by Parliamentary Writ.

per stirpes : succession per stirpes.

percellana : porcellana : porcelaine [Fr] : a shell having the shape of a female’s external pudenda.

Perchta : Berhta : the Sabbat leader among the Teutons.

percussorium : penis; plectrum for a string instrument.

perdepso : to forcefully knead in an act of sexual intercourse.  Cf. depso.

perduellis : enemy.  Cf. hostis.

père : [Fr] Fa; father

père de : [Fr] father of.[68]

peregri : abroad, away from home; to, from, or in a foreign land; pero-agro, distant field land.

peregrinatio : absentia; lack of residence, prolonged absence, a ground for divorce.

peregrination : travel, abode in foreign nations.

peregrinator : traveler.

peregrine : peregrinus : foreign, not native, not domestic.

peregrini : strangers, foreigners.  The term often refers to foreigners who reside as aliens in the city or state.  Cf. hostes, barbari.

peregrinity : peregrinité : [Fr] strangeness.

peregrinus : stranger, foreigner; peregrine, from pergere ‘to go ahead’ or progredi ‘to advance’, a derivative of peregri.  Cf. hostis, barbarus.  Opp. civis.

perhaps : it may be; peradventure.

perianth : perianthium : [Ln-Gk] the external envelope of a flower, consisting of the petals, and the connective sepal, by which the petals adjoin the pedicel.  The word refers to the outer parts of a flower, and normally denotes both the floral corolla and the sepal calyx.

perineum : [1632] the area between the anus and the posterior part of the external genitalia.

period : a secondary division of prehistoric time, shorter than an era, ranging in length from 10s of thousands years, to hundreds of millions of years.  The term period is also applied to the Precambrian period, which lasted some 2 billion years, and should probably be called instead the Precambrian aeon.

periscono : perish.

perjury : perjurium : false oath.

permolo : to have intercourse with another man’s wife.  Cf. molo.

perpauper : very poor.  Cf. egens, inopis, tennuis.

Perpetual Calendar : one of 14 possible calendars of the Julian Calendar (JC) and the Gregorian Calendar (GC).  The Perpetual Calendars 1 to 7 equate to the Dominical Letters A to G, and represent common years that begin on 1 January, Sunday to Saturday (1-7, A-G).  The Perpetual Calendars 8 to 14 equate to the Dominical Letters AG, GF, FE, ED, DC, CB, and BA, and represent leap years wherein the date 1 January falls respectively on Sunday (AG), Monday (GF), Tuesday (FE), Wednesday (ED), Thursday (DC), Friday (CB), and Saturday (AG).

Perpetual Calendar : a series of 14 possible calendars, featuring seven Calendars 1-7 (AGFEDCB) for common years, and seven Calendars 8-14 (AG, GF, FE, ED, DC, CB, BA) for leap years.  Cf. Calendar 01SuAA.

perpetuity : a lineage characteristic; an important characteristic of a corporate group; the long-lasting survival of major economic, political, and religious functions through collective ownership and rules of inheritance or succession.  Cf. corporate group, lineage characteristic.  Opp. kindred.

pers. : persona : [Sp] person.

persecutus est autem Abia fugientem Hieroboam et cepit civitates eius : And Abijah pursued after Jeroboam, and took cities from him, ...[69]

Persephone : Hecate, Queen of Darkness.

Persephone : she who gathers everything; the daughter of Demeter the Earth Mother.  She one day walked into a meadow with 23 maidens, and began collecting crocuses, roses, violets, irises, and other flowers.  When she was lured to the purple narcissus, death overcame her, and Hades, Lord of the Underworld, abducted her.  She was required to return to the underworld for six months every year.  Her tale probably has some connection with the ancient Hebrew practice of timing childbirth to coïncide with the New Year, in September or October.

Persephone and Hekate : the goddesses that jointly rule the underworld with Hades.[70]

Persephone of Greece : daughter of Demeter.

Persephone’s dark bedroom : the underworld as the realm of the dead.

person : persona : individual; a particular man or woman.

persona : ego’s social mask, the paternal and patristic ego-ideal by which the ego lives.  Cf. ego.  Opp. anima.

personage : air, stature; a considerable person; a man or woman of eminence.

personal property : the movables someone owns; whatever tangibles and intangibles one privately possesses and claims as his own, such as jewelry, clothes, furniture, implements, books, vehicles, and copyrights.  Chattels, or chattel property, constitute a special category of personal property.  Chattel paper is a collection of documents or titles evidencing a person’s ownership of something especially large, valuable, or precious that might be absent from his house or residence, such as a slave, a herd of cattle, a wagon or automobile, et cetera.  If a person ventures to take or remove the personal property of another without the owner’s permission, he might be accused of petty theft or grand theft, depending on the value of the item.  Opp. real property.

personality : genealogical position.

persons unborn : [1827-1874] a phrase used to describe members of the gentry not yet born, who would be deserving of some title in the future, on the grounds of some privilege the Crown had granted to his ancestor or predecessor.  Baronets were routinely granted the right of having their eldest son or heir apparent knighted upon coming of age, and this right was passed from one generation to the next by the rule of primogeniture.  George IV formally ended the practice on 19 December 1827, and last relented to knight Ludlow Cotter by the old custom in 1874.  Honors and dignities such as knighthood should be conferred directly by the Sovereign upon someone the Sovereign himself elects, and therefore the old practice of reserving knighthoods for ‘persons unborn’ was deemed to be unconstitutional in the United Kingdom.

Pertunda: the goddess who takes part in the deflowering of a bride.

pertundo : pulso.

pertunsorium : penis.

perversion : a pejorative term used to denote any sexual activity different from one’s own.[71]  Cf. sadism, inversion, polygamy, fetishism.  Opp. inversion.

perversus : perverted, some grossly misstated fact, such as a one-century error between the years 1618 and 1718.  Several IGI errors deserve the characterization perversus.  Cf. falsus.

pessary : a device a woman wears in her vagina for birth control, a device worn in the vagina to support a displaced uterus.

pestis : smallpox.

pet- : petit- : to seek, assail.

petal : petalon : [Gk] something spread out; one of the modified leaves of a corolla of a flower.  Cf. polypetalous, sepal.

petaloid : [1730] resembling a flower petal; pietal, pertaining to one’s son.  The adjectives petaloid and pietal can be used as adjectives to denote persons relative to one’s son (pietal), as opposed to one’s daughter (filial).  Cf. pietal, radix, ramage, ramus, stemma.  Opp. filial.

petalous : having petals; having many petals.  Cf. polypetalous.

petit- : pet- : to seek, assail.

petit fils : [Fr] SoSo; grandson.

petite fille : [Fr] SoDa; granddaughter.

petition : a formal request, addressed to some person, administration, or government, soliciting some relief, benefit, or favor.  A petition is sometimes used to demand civil rights, and sometimes used to request mercy or leniency for someone condemned.  The U.S. Constitution guaranteed the people’s right to petition the government.

petitioner : one who petitions.

petits-jésus : teenage boy prostitutes.  Cf. patapouf, Times Square kids.

petr- : [Gk] rock.

petronel : petrinal : [Fr] a small gun used by a horseman, larger than a pistol but smaller than an arquebus, and designed to be fired from the shooter’s chest (poitrine).[72]

Petrus : Peter.

pets : cat, dog, ferret, hawk.

Pett family : [1509-1694] Peter Pett was an Elizabethan shipwright, and he belonged to a family that had an unbroken lineage of shipwrights who built ships from the time of Henry VIII to that of Mary II.[73]

[1] Ariès & Duby:  1.79.

[2] Boswell 1980:  342.

[3] Grahn 1990:  16.

[4] Grahn 1990:  12.

[5] Boswell 1980:  341.

[6] Leo Frobenius.  Diner 1965:  274-275.

[7] Boswell 1980:  137.

[8] Boswell 1980:  342.

[9] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[10] Werele, 1988/7-8.

[11] Herodotus.  Boswell 1980:  345.

[12] Caius Julius Hyginus, Fables, 277.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  224-225.

[13] Davis 1924:  618.

[14] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[15] HL:  230.5.

[16] Grahn 1990:  174.

[17] Boswell 1980:  112.

[18] Boswell 1980:  111-112.

[19] Murphy and Kasdan 1959.  Schusky 1972:  66.

[20] Parkin 1997:  60.

[21] Eglinton 1964:  241.

[22] Plucknett 1956:  714-717.

[23] Boswell 1980:  262.

[24] Boswell 1980:  28.

[25] HL:  164.

[26] Thomas Falkner 1775.  Grahn 1990:  120.

[27] Eglinton 1964:  486.

[28] Boswell 1988:  58-59.

[29] Boswell 1988:  54.n2, 65.

[30] Diner 1965:  146.

[31] Parkin 1997:  35.

[32] Parkin 1997:  23.

[33] Eglinton 1964:  486.

[34] Boswell 1988:  188.n20.

[35] Everton 1971.

[36] Riley, Liber Albus, 126.  Davis 1924:  618.

[37] Harrison 1948:  1646.

[38] Theresa Lang 1997/9/29.

[39] Parkin 1997:  35.

[40] Theresa Lang 1997/9/29.

[41] Boswell 1980:  231.

[42] Everton 1971.

[43] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  59.

[44] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  59.

[45] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  58.

[46] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[47] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[48] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  58.

[49] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[50] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[51] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[52] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[53] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[54] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.

[55] Diner 1965:  127.

[56] Eglinton 1964:  486.

[57] Eglinton 1964:  484.

[58] According to notes on the Iliad, 2.841.  Eustatius the Byzantine grammarian.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  225.

[59] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  225-226.

[60] According to notes on the Iliad, 2.841.  Eustatius the Byzantine grammarian.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  225.

[61] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  225-226.

[62] Boswell 1980:  180.

[63] Boswell 1980:  180.

[64] Boswell 1980:  180.

[65] Grahn 1990:  213.

[66] Leland, 5.170.

[67] HL:  235.

[68] LIMO.

[69] 2 Chronicles, 13.19.  II Paralipomenon, 13.19.

[70] Grahn 1990:  35.

[71] Eglinton 1964:  486.

[72] Davis 1924:  618.

[73] Davis 1924:  278.

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