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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


: [Ch] Br(y); younger brother.

di : dimidium, half

di- : dis-, apart, away, not.

: ti : [Ch] Br(y); younger brother, younger man of ego’s generation.  Cf. de, tei [SJ]; otōto [Jp].

di- : twice, double.

dia- : [Gk] through, trans-.

diabolical marriage : maritagium diabolicum.

diacritical marks : accent, cedilla, tilde, dot.  Cf. alphabet modifications.

diaeresis : an umlaut (˝).

diagram : [anthropology] a graphical presentation of symbols, lines, and kin-type abbreviations that may be used to show (1) a specific genealogy, (2) the model of a kinship system, (3) gift exchanges among kindred, (4) the model of a basic marriage type common to several societies, or (5) ego-centric kinship terminology.

diagram of kinship ties : a pedigree designed to show kinship terms, together with affinal or consanguineal ties, all relative to a reference ego.  Such a diagram is typically used in anthropology to illustrate kinship systems, and can sometimes appear to be some type of sophisticated algebra.  Anthropologists used triangles for males and circles for females.  Cf. genogram, pedigree.

diamantine: diamantin : [Fr] adamantine, hard as a diamond.

diamērízein : [Gk] the English method; intercrural intercourse.

diamond anniversary : 60th year of marriage.

diamond anniversary : 65th year of marriage, presumably of a couple who failed to observe their 60th anniversary.

Diana : [1532] the lesbian nicknamed Lady of Play.  Cf. Lady of Play.

Diana : the goddess of the pagans.

Diana and Holle in Europe : Diana the Huntress and Holle the Sabbat leader.

Diana of Ephesus : [Lt] the Roman divinity of the Moon, the protectress of the female sex.  She was equivalent to Artemis of Greek mythology.  Cf. Artemis.

Diana the Huntress : a trinity goddess of the Romans, whose earthly incarnation is Diana the Huntress.  Diana is the Roman equivalent of the Olympian goddess Artemis, but should not be confused with Artemis of Ephesus.  Diana’s heavenly incarnation is Phoebe the Moon, and her subterranean aspect is Hecate, Queen of Darkness.  The youth Actaeon, son of a Maenad, spied upon Diana while she bathed in a river, and for this, the enraged Diana transformed Actaeon into a stag, and then hunted him and killed him.  As Actaeon was associated with the Maenads, we suspect that his death might have somehow been an arranged sacrifice.  Cf. Artemis, Hecate, Queen of Darkness; Hippolyte; Maenads; Phoebe the Moon; William II Rufus.

diaper : diapre, diaspre : [Fr] variation, ornament; a linen cloth woven to show flowers and other figures; napkin, towel.

dibriod : [We] unmarried.

dic- : dict- : to say.

dich- : in two.

Diciembre : Die : [Sp] December.

dico : to tell, order, call; to plead.

dict- : dic- : to say.

dicta : [feminine] styled, named.

dictator : a magistrate at Rome who was invested with absolute authority at times of distress or exigency.

dictatorship : the office of a dictator; authority; insolent confidence.

Dictum de Kenilworth : [1266] a settlement favorable to Henry III, made during the Siege of Kenilworth (1266).  Henry III annulled the provisions of Oxford, but proclaimed amnesty for his opponents in the House of Commons, and thereby reëstablished his authority, confirming that he would preserve the articles of the Great Charter to which he had sworn.

dictus : [masculine] named, called, styled.

didac- : [Gk] to teach.

Dido and Aeneas : Wi & Cc; Dido, Queen of Carthage, and her consort Æneas.  According to Virgil, this liaison ended with the departure of the Trojan prince for Italy, whereafter Dido committed suicide out of despair and pining.

didumoi : [Gk] twins; testicles.

die: [Sx] to lose life; to expire, pass into another state of existence; to be punished with death; to perish, come to nothing.

Die : Diciembre : [Sp] December.

die S. Ioannis Baptistæ anno Edwardi 2 regis : Saint John the Baptist day year of King Edward II.[58]

Die Stadtluft macht frei : [Gm] City air makes one free.  This was a popular proverb in medieval times.[59]  Cf. Arbeit macht frei.

died without issue : obiit sine prole, decessit sine prole; died childless, died without children.  Cf. d.s.p., ob.s.p.

diem clausit extremum : one’s final day; the day of one’s death.[60]

dieresis : the separation of one syllable into two.  Writers refrain from writing ‘cooperation’ with no diacritical marks, because a reader might be tempted to read the word with a long vowel, as ‘cooper-ation.’  A conservative writer will divide the initial vowel with a dieresis, as coöperation.  American typewriters did not have an Umlaut (ö), and therefore American writers have traditionally used a hyphen for this purpose, writing instead ‘co-operation.’

dies : d. : day, daylight.

dies baptismalis : baptismal date.

dies genitalis : birthday.

dies infra octavum : days under an octave.

dies intra octavam : days during an octave.

dies natalis : birthday.

dies Parentales : Parentalia, 13-21 February, feast of parents and other kinsfolk.

diet : [Gm] a multitude, an assembly of princes or estates.  Diet is today the name of Japan’s parliament.

diet : the daily scrapings of metals for assaying at Goldsmith’s Hall.  Periodically, the Hall melted down its collection of metal scrapings.  Cf. dieta.

dieta : day’s journey, the journey of one day; diet, regimen; assembly; a daywork of land.

Dieu et ma Dame! : God and my Lady!  This was the motto of a knight errant.[61]

dif- : dis-, apart, away, not.

diffareatio : an ancient form of divorce.  Cf. con­farreatio.

difference : some modification of a coat-of-arms, usually the addition of some extra charge, indicating the bearer’s cadency, dependence, or alliance vis-à-vis the rightful bearer of the original or undifferenced coat-of-arms.  Cf. cadency.

differences : filiations, cadencies; the six symbols used to denote birth orders among sons, namely (1) first son, label of three points, (2) second son, crescent; (3) third son, mullet; (4) fourth son, martlet, (5) fifth son, annulet; (6) sixth son, fleur-de-lis.

differencing : making a heraldic achievement distinct by adding marks of cadency, or other such alterations.

dìfù : [Ch] Br(y)Wi; younger brother’s wife, younger fraternal sister-in-law.

digamma : Ϛ : [Gk] the obsolete Greek letter koppa, written as Ϛ’ or Ϟ’ to represent the number 6.

digamy : [Gk] second marriage.

digitus impudicus : the middle finger extended, an apotropaic obscene gesture.

dignitary : a clergyman advanced to some rank above that of a parochial priest.

dignity : rank of elevation; advancement, preferment.

dignotion : dignosco : distinction, distinguishing mark.

digraph : Cf. \Æ, Œ\.

Dike and Aletheia : [Gk] An & He; Justice and Truth; a pair of companionate goddesses representing ‘natural justice’ and truth.[62]  Cf. Dike of Greece, dyke.

Dike of Greece : Justice, the balance; way, path; a goddess of storms.  Dike was the granddaughter of Gaia.  Her two sister were Eunomia and Eirene, or Order and Peace, and all three were present at the birth of Hermes.  Dike is shown riding a cart, and holding in one hand a measuring rod, and the other the scales of justice.  Cf. Hours.

dildo : [1780] An ancient dildo was worshipped at the church of Saint Cosmus, in Isernia, Naples, in 1780.[63]

dildos : [ad 296] The Christian Arnobius condemned the use of dildos in the pagan worship of Cybele in ad 296.  Cf. Cybele.

dildos : the sacred dildos used by worshippers of Pudicitia of Rome.

diligere : to love.

dim : diminuative.

dime : [1806] a silver coin equal to 10 cents; 37-2/16 grains of pure silver.

dime : [1837-1891 Am] Silver Seated Liberty dime.

dime : [1892-1916 Am] Silver Barber dime.

dime : [1916-1945 Am] Silver Mercury dime.

dime : [1945-1964 Am] Silver Roosevelt dime.

dime : [1965 Am] Proof Clad Roosevelt dime.

dimension : one of the kinship dimensions.  Cf. kinship dimensions.

dimidiation : division into two equal parts, halving.

dinas : [We] city.

dine : diner : [Fr] to eat the chief meal around the middle of the day.[64]

dinge queen : a male homosexual attracted to blacks.

dinner : [12 o’clock noon] the main meal of the day, traditionally consisting of meat, soup, potatoes, and bread.  Agrarian and pastoral families customarily prepared their largest meal at midday.  Industrial jobs and office schedules tended to disrupt this custom of dining at noon, and therefore dinner was eventually shifted to the evening, the only time when all the family members could gather.  Cf. breakfast, lunch, steerage fare, supper, tea.

dinner : [1592] a ordinary meal served at an inn, ranging in cost from 6d to 9d per person.[65]

dinner : chief meal, the meal eaten around midday.

dio. : diocese.

dioc. : diocese.

diocese : a subdivision of a prefecture of the Roman empire; an administration division of a country.

diocese : diocése : [Fr] dio. : dioc. : bishopric, a division of a church presided over by a bishop; the ecclesiastical or episcopalian see of a bishop; the territory over which a bishop presides; the circuit lying within a bishop’s jurisdiction.

Dioi : [Gk] divine; an appellation for the Pelasgians.

Dione : [1684] the fourth satellite of Saturn, discovered by Cassini in March 1684.

Dione : [1720] a pastoral tragedy by John Gay.

Dione : daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, wife of Zeus, and mother of Aphrodite.  She is a female Titan in Greek mythology.  Cf. Dioning.

Dioning : [Gm] someone who is overtly heterosexual and utterly denies any homosexuality;[66] one who loves a ‘true woman.’  Opp. Urning.

-Dioning : [Gm] the heterosexual aspect of an ambisexual; the heterosexual correlative of Uranian; a name coined by Ulrichs in Germany to create the term Urano-Dioning, denoting an ambisexual person.  Cf. Urano-Dioning, Śiva-Parvati.

Dionysos : Cf. trumpet.

Dionysus & Demeter [Gk] : Bacchus & Ceres [Lt] : god of the vine and goddess of the harvest.  The Vine and Harvest stand for Fertility, and correspond to the brother-sister, husband-wife Osiris & Isis [Eg]; Nanna or Ishtar [Ba]; Parvati [Sk]; Frey [Ns]; Danu [Ce]; Itzamma [Ma]; Tzinteotl or Coatlicue [Az].

Dionysus : Dionysos, DionusoV : alias Zagreus, the feminoid and androgynous boy-god; god of wine; god of ecstasy; divine madness; the god who possesses a person in love.[67]  Hera convinced her rival Semele that she should request Zeus to approach her with the same majesty he customarily showed his wife Hera.  When Zeus appeared to Semele as thunder and lightning, Semele was so frightened that she gave premature birth to Dionysus.  Zeus rescued the fetus from the flames caused by the lightning, and sewed it into his thigh that he might incubate it.  The boy was reared by Ino and Athamas, in Orchomenos, and he spent many years wandering the earth, planting and cultivating the vine, and thereby earned the surname Bacchus ‘the riotous god.’  Eventually he rose to Olympus.  Cf. Erōs.

diptheria epidemic : [1769 MA] an epidemic of diptheria claimed many infant lives in Massachusetts in 1769.

dipthong : Cf. \Æ, Ī, Œ\.

diptych : a folding tablet of two leaves joined by strings or hinges, and typically used as a portable shrine for displaying religious art.  Cf. triptych.

dirempterat : he separated.

diremptus : separated.

Dirne : [Gm] clitorid type, a primary type of woman.[68]  Opp. Mutter.

dis- : apart, away, not.

Dis. : [NA] disability, a condition which qualified the veteran for a pension.

Disability Trust Fund : [1960] the second of four Social Security Trust Funds established in the United States.  Cf. Social Security Trust Funds.

disbursement : the act of disbursing or laying out.

discalceation : pulling off the shoes.

disci : dishes

discidium : divorce, separation.

disciple : discipulus : a scholar, one who professes to receive instruction from another.

discipline : disciplina : education, instruction, the rule of government, order; military regulation; a state of subjection; anything taught; an art, science; punishment, chastisement, external mortification.

Disclaimer : Cf. Instrument of Disclaimer.

disclaiming hereditary peerages : [1963] the volitional abrogation of a peerage title for life.  The Parliament determined that each holder of, and each successor to, a hereditary peerage in the peerages of England, Scotland, Great Britain, and the United Kingdom would have a 12-month period in which to disclaim the peerage.  During that period, he or she could issue an Instrument of Disclaimer to the Lord Chancellor, to relinquish a peerage for life.  The 12-month period was to start (1) upon commencement of the act for peers and peeresses already sitting in the House of Lords, or (2) upon an heir’s coming of age at 21 years, or (3) upon succession to a peerage.  Whosoever applies for a Writ of Summons to attend the House of Lords becomes incapable of disclaiming a peerage.  Membership in the House of Commons makes one disqualified from succession to a peerage.  Therefore, elected Members of Parliament have a 1-month period after succession to peerage in which they must issue an Instrument of Disclaimer to the Lord Chancellor in the House of Lords, with a copy to the Speaker of the House of Commons.  Peers, peeresses, and their heirs may stand for election to the House of Commons, but cannot sit in both Houses, and therefore need to relinquish one or the other dignity.[69]  Disclaiming a peerage is irrevocable, and it becomes effective the moment the peer’s Instrument of Disclaimer is delivered.  Cf. Instrument of Disclaimer.

discriminate : discrimino : to mark with notes of difference; to distinguish by certain tokens; to select, separate, sever.

discrimination : an act, practice, or instance of discriminating categorically rather than individually.  Cf. bigotry, reverse discrimination, rhetoric.

discrimination by gender : preferment according to chromosomal sex, genitalia, assigned birth sex, or initial gender rôle.  This peculiar nomenclature aims to define equal rights for transsexuals and transgendered persons.

discrimination by sex : chiefly the preferment of men over women.  Women were not counted in the 1790 U.S. census, unless they were slaves or servants, and women did not achieve suffrage until 1920.  U.S. federal law prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, only with respect to education, employment, and housing.  The proposed Equal Rights Amendment (1923) would have provided broader anti-discrimination protections for women, but the proposal died in 1982.

discrimination by sexual preference : preferment on the basis of sexuality or sexual orientation, i.e. heterosexuality, homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderism.

discus : quoit.  Cf. Hyacinthus and Apollo.

disengagement : a release from any engagement or obligation; freedom of attention; vacancy.

disennoble : to deprive someone of nobility, to deprive someone of that which ennobles him.

disenroll : to erase or remove one’s name from a roll or list.

disenslave : to redeem from slavery, set free.

disfranchisement : the act of depriving someone of privileges.

disgarrison : to deprive of a garrison.

disheir : to debar from inheritance.

disherison : debarring from inheritance, disheriting.

disherit : to cut off from hereditary succession.

disheritance : the state of being cut off from inheritance.

dishonor : reproach, disgrace, ignominy, censure.

disinherison : the act of cutting off from any hereditary succession.

disinherit : to cut off from hereditary rights; to deprive of inheritance or hereditary succession.

disinter : to unbury, to remove from the grave.

disinterment : the act of unburying a corpse, removing a corpse from its grave.

disiunctio : separatio, separation.  Cf. separatio.

disjoin : dejoindre : [Fr] to separate, part from each other; sunder.

disloyalty : want of fidelity to a sovereign, want of fidelity in love.

disown : to expel from a Quaker community; to excommunicate a fellow Quaker for marriage out of unity, or slave-owning, or military service.

dispair : to part a couple.

dispassion : freedom from mental perturbation.

dispendium : distribution of payments.

dispensatio a minori gradu affinitatis : dispensation to an affined relation of minor degree.  Cf. gradus.

dispensation ex post facto : permission granted after the fact; a marriage license issued retroactively by some remote authority.  Ralph Neville (1406-1461),[70] 2nd Earl of Westmorland, contracted to marry Elizabeth Percy on 7 May 1426, and she received a local license to marry on 20 July, but the confirming dispensations issued from Rome on 30 August, and from York on 28 November.  A genealogist might record the Neville-Percy marriage as 20 July, but some have dated the marriage on 28 November.

dispeople : to depopulate, to empty of people.

displace : to put out of place, to place in another situation, disorder; to put out of any state or condition.

displantation : the removal of a plant, the ejection of a people.

disposition : a tendency to any act or state, temper of mind; affection of kindness or ill-will; predominant inclination.

disputative : subject to challenge or disputation.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.  Opp. putative.

disreputation : disgrace, dishonor, loss of reputation, ignominy.

diss : dissolved

disseisin : an unlawful dispossessing a man of his land or tenement, or any other immovable or incorporeal right.

disseize : dissaiser : [Fr] to disposses, deprive.

disseizor : he who dispossesses another.

dissenter : one who disagrees with an opinion, one who refuses the communion of the Anglican church.

Dissenter sect : [1662-1689] Old Dissenter sect, one of four Nonconformist sects that rejected the Act of Uniformity (1662), namely the Presbyterians, Independents (postea Congregationalists), Baptists, and Quakers.

Dissenter sect : [inde 1715] New Dissenter sect, one of four Nonconformist Protestant sects that arose in the wake of the ‘Fifteen Rebellion, or the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion, namely the Unitarians, Congregationalists (antea Independents), Moravians, and Methodists.

dissolutio conjugii : dissolution of marriage, divorce, Ehescheidung [Gm].

dist. : district.

distaff : [Sx] the staff from which one draws the flax during the spinning of wool.  The distaff has always served as an emblem of the female sex.  Cf. comb, distaves, pensum, task.

distaves : the plural of distaff.

distinctions of cadency : descent, inheritance, succession, and residence.

distracted : mad; being out of one’s mind.  Women labeled ‘distracted’ could be arrested and whipped in Elizabethan times.  Cf. whipping post.

distribution : a court apportionment of the personal property of someone who died intestate, among persons deemed to be the decedent’s heirs.

district land office : an office that manages and oversees land ownership in a district.  Such an office will usually maintain and keep a tract book and plat book.  Cf. plat book, tract book.

dísūn : [Ch] SoSo, grandson, by the principal wife, not by a concubine.

disunity : a state of separation.

dit : [Fr] called, styled, e.g. dit le Marquis de Lestrange.[71]  Opp. titré, entitled, titled.

ditto : detto [It] : do. : |”| : a word signifying ‘the same’ in commercial accounts.

div- : de- : god.

div. : divorcé : divorcée : [Fr] divorced.  Both the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches permit widows and widowers to remarry, but disallow marriage with a divorced spouse.  Examples of two divorced persons marrying one another are accordingly rare in European pedigrees, and when such instances appear, the abbreviation ‘div.’ carries with it negative connotations.  In Europe, remarriage of the divorced is a black mark, for it indicates disobedience to the church, and suggests that the spouses are apostates, or excommunicated.[72]

Divana : Chester.

divination by rods : [400 bc] The Scythians had a custom of divining by a large bundle of willow rods, which they would untie and lay out on the ground for the purpose of making a prophecy.[73]  This Scythian habit seems to describe the shape of the Roman fasces, and it evokes comparision with the Chinese custom of divining Yi-qing or I-ch’ing fortunes with a bundle of yarrow rods.  Cf. Enaree, fasces.

divine : a minister of the gospel; a priest, clergyman, theologian.

divine : divinus : [1400] soothsayer, clergy­man, theologian.

divine right : Cf. David and Jonathan.

divorce :  Two conflicting statements by Jesus the Christ were recorded.  The Christ once acknowledged that adultery or fornication was sufficient grounds for divorce,[74] but he also stated that there were no grounds for divorce.[75]

divorce : [1789-1816 Fr] the first period in which divorce was permitted in France.

divorce : [inde 1884 Fr] the second period of legalized divorce in France.

divorce : diffareatio.

divorce : divortium : the legal separation of a husband and wife; disunion; the sentence by which a marriage is dissolved.

divorce : to separate a husband or wife from the other; to separate by violence, force asunder; to take away, put away.

divorce a mensa et thoro : divorce from table and bed.

divorce a vinculo matrimonii : divorce from the bond of marriage, the total divorce of a husband and wife, dissolution of the marriage tie, release of the parties from their matrimonial obligations.

divorcement : divorce.

divorcer : the person or cause which produces a divorce or separation.

divorcive : having power to divorce.

divortati sunt : they divorced.[76]

divortatus : divorced.

divortii sententia : bill of divorce.

divortium : divorced.

divortium bona gratia : divorce on good terms.  Opp. divortium ob indignitatem.

divortium dicitur a divertendo, quia vir divertitur ab uxore : divorce is so called after divertendo, because a man diverts from his wife.

divortium facere cum marito : to divorce her hus­band, lover, or suitor.

divortium facere cum uxore : to divorce his wife.

divortium ob indignitatem : divorce with indignation.  Opp. divortium bona gratia.

DIVVS JVLIVS : Julius the God, a coin inscription.

diwrnod : [We] day.

dizygotic twins : fraternal twins born of two separate eggs.  Cf. monozygotic twins.

D-love : deficiency love.  Opp. B-love.

Dn : Danish.

DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid : the substance of heredity, a large molecule that carries genetic in­formation necessary for the replication of cells and production of proteins; a large molecule in the nucleus of a cell that constitutes the cell’s genetic code.  The DNA molecule consists of only four kinds of nucleotides that join together in a long sequence, and it is the sequence of nucleotides itself that provides the specific codes for alleles of of one gene.  A memory RNA (mRNA) replicates the structure of DNA, and then acts as a genetic template during protein synthesis in a ribosome.  Cf. protein, RNA.

do- : [Gk] to give.

do. : ditto.

doblet : doublet.

døbt : [Dn] baptized.

doc- : doct- : to teach.

Doc. : Doctor.

doc. : document.

Dochter : [Du] daughter.

docibility : readiness to learn.

dockyards : Chatham dockyards : [1550-1570] the new dockyards at Chatham, which had no wharves and no storehouses until 1565.  Ships moored in the Medway, between Upnor and Rochester, and obtained their victual stores at Rochester.  Wharves and storehouses were constructed at Chatham between 1565 and 1570, but the navy built no dry docks there in the time of Elizabeth I.  The ships with little damage moored at Medway, whereas extensive reparations occurred at Woolwich and Deptford.

dockyards : Portsmouth dockyards : [1549 et antea] The dockyards at Portsmouth had dry docks, and could procure timber in the localities near the Isle of Wight, but the shipwrights there needed to order most other items from London, and could not find enough local labor to build ships of considerable size.  Therefore, the Elizabethans moved their dockyard operations to Chatham, Woolwich, and Deptford.  Portsmouth suffered greatly by lack of use, and fell into disrepair in late Tudor times.

doct- : doc- : to teach.

doctorate : the degree of a doctor.

doctrine : the princples or positions of any sect or master; the act of teaching.

document : an original paper or certificate relied upon as proof for some historical event.  A document may become the basis for some secondary source, such as a transcribed record, translated record, or record abstract.  A historical narrative is composite work, ordinarily based upon many documents and secondary works.

documentary year-date : a year-date expressed in the same form it was originally written.  The year 1 Edward II started on 8 July 1307 and ended 7 July 1308, so historians must sometimes translate the year-date as 1307’8, or 1307-1308, especially when only the regnal date is known, but month and day are unknown.  When converted into our reckoning of the Common Era (c.e.), the regnal year-dates are translated into Gregorian-style years, running from January to December, in the New Style, to become newly expressed, historical year-dates.  Cf. double-dating, double year-date, historical year-date.

documented fact : a fact or statement known to be supported by certified copies of originals, photocopies of originals, or original documents personally examined or faithfully transcribed.  The documents telling of some fact are customarily cited or listed in a footnote.

død : [Dn] died.

död utan bröstarvinge [Sw] : died without issue, obiit sine prole.

døde : [Nw] died.

døde barnløs : [Nw] died without issue.  Cf. obiit sine prole.

Dodo : the pet name of a wine-drinking student in Alcuin’s Circle.[77]

døduden afkom : [Dn] died without issue, obiit sine prole.

doe : a game of the chase.

doer : one who does something; actor, agent, performer; one who habitually performs or practices something.

dog : dogghe : [Du] canis, a common domestic animal; a buck or blood; a gay young man; the constellation called Sirus or Canicula.

dog- : dox- : [Gk] opinion, teaching.

dogma : established principle, doctrinal notion; some doctrinal part of the Christian faith.

dogs : animals to which whores were compared.  Cf. animal metaphors for women.

doing business as : d.b.a. : Cf. Cf. alias, a.k.a., fictitious name.

dolich- : [Gk] long.

dollar : $ : [1806] a silver coin equal to 100 cents; 347-4/16 grains of pure silver.  The unit was worth slightly more than one English crown, or 5 shillings, in 1806.

dollar : [1878-1921 Am] Morgan silver dollar.

dollar : [1921-1935 Am] Peace silver dollar.

dollar : [1971-1974 Am] Eisenhower silver dollar.

dollar : [1976 Am] Silver Bicentennial dollar.

dollar : [1979-1981 Am] Susan B. Anthony dollar.

dolor : pain.

dolor stomachi : stomach pain.

dolus : device, artifice, fraud, a ground for divorce.

Dom : [1716 En] master, a title for some monks and canons regular.  Cf. dom [Fr, Portuguese], don [Sp].

dom. : domestic.

Domesday acre : [1086] a measure of land considerably larger than our modern acre (4,840 square yards), perhaps twice as large (about 9,680 square yards).[78]  Cf. acre, hide.

Domesday Book : DB : [1086] a voluminous survey of the people and properties in Britain controlled by William I the Conqueror, representing the Great Inquest or Great Survey conducted in 1085 and 1086.[79]  An investigation of any locality in Great Britain will normally commence with a summary or restatement of what was recorded about the place in the Domesday reckoning.  The survey resembles a census, in that it recorded the names of local proprietors, and described their land holdings, personal property, and livestock.

domestic : domesticus [Lt] : domestique [Fr] : [1613 En] a household servant; someone attached to the domus or household, rather than the larger estate and family.

domestic economy : Hauswirtschaft.[80]

Domestic Partner Ceremony : [1996] The City of San Francisco conducted a large, public Domestic Partner Ceremony on 25 March 1996, to confirm the marriages de facto of many unmarried couples.  The majority of unions solemnized that day were the same-sex marriages of couples who had lived together in common marriage for about 18 to 20 years or more.  Cf. marriage ceremony, wedding.

domestic partners : [1988] a domestic union of unmarried and unrelated persons; a euphemism for a clandestine same-sex marriage; a phrase used to describe any pair of closely connected persons who live interdependently in a single living or household.  Although the phrase was coined in San Francisco, it was Los Angleles that became the first U.S. city to enact a domestic partners statute in 1988, making it possible for unmarried partners, cohabitants, gays, and lesbians, to enjoy fundamental social recognition.  This measure, and other statutes elsewhere, have permitted unmarried pairs of individuals to partake of certain benefits derived from in­surance, in­heritance, taxation, and several other conventions that have long been taken for granted by the hegemony of heterosexual, white Christians, but routinely denied to others.

domestic worker : maid, cleaning lady; scullery maid.  Cf. au pair.

domestici : of his extended household.[81]

domicile: [Fr] a house.

domina : lady, wife, mistress of the household; the mistress worshipped as a goddess by the household cult; god­dess (e.g. Venus, Cybele).

dominant : a characteristic that finds expression even when the gene for it is inherited from just one parent.

dominant gene : a gene that find phenotypal expression even when its allele on the paired chromosome happens to be different.[82]

domination : power, domination, tyranny, insolent authority.

dominations : dominions : the fourth highest choir of angles, among nine.

Domingo : Dgo : [Sp] Sunday.

domini : Hu & Wi; lords; the master and mistress of a household.

Dominical Letter : Litteras dominicalis : [1500] L.D., the Lord’s day; the letter relating to our Lord’s day, i.e. Sunday; the letter or combination of letters that tells on which date will fall the first Sunday of a given year.

Dominical Letter A : Sunday 1 January.

Dominical Letter B : Sunday 2 January.

Dominical Letter C : Sunday 3 January.

Dominical Letter CD : Sunday 3 January.  Double letters indicate a leap year.  Therefore, CD stands for a leap year in which the first Sunday falls on 3 January.  The intercalation of the one (1) leap day, namely 29 February, causes the balance of the calendar days to shift forward, and makes the remaining year, 1 March to 31 December, match the calendar of Dominical Letter D.

Dominical Letter D : Sunday 4 January.

Dominical Letter E : Sunday 5 January.

Dominical Letter F : Sunday 6 January.

Dominical Letter G : Sunday 7 January.

Dominical Letters A-G, single : the seven possible days of the week.  Each Dominical Letter A-G stands for a day of the week, but in the reverse of a numerical sequence.  Counting from Sunday to Saturday, we say “1 to 7,” but the sequence of the Dominical Letters always travels backward.  The weekday numbers 1-7 for Sunday through Saturday correspond to the Dominical Letters in the backward letter sequence AGFEDB … AGF, or AGFEDBA, Sunday to Sunday.  When compared to the weekdays and their sequential numbers, the sequence becomes Sunday 1A, Monday 2G, Tuesday 3F, Wednesday 4E, Thursday 5D, Friday 6C, and Saturday 7B, or simply 1A, 2G, 3F, 4E, 5D, 6C, 7B.

Dominical Letters AG-BA, doubled : the seven possible leap years.

Dominican : a member of the order of Saint Dominic.

dominion : sovereign authority, unlimited power; right of possession or use; territory, region, district.

dominitrix : dominatrix : she who tames, a domineering mistress.

domino terre feudi Marconis : lord of a Marcher fief.[83]

dominula : a little mistress.

dominulus : a young master.

dominus : [1300] lord, the title of a peer of England.  In the late thirteenth century, when formal titles were just being adopted, there was no clear distinction between dominus ‘lord’ and miles ‘knight,’ and a man summoned to parliament as a baron might be styled either way by his contemporaries.  Some medievalists translate dominus as ‘sir’ where the subject was a knight, and as ‘lord’ when speaking of a baron, but this modern convention tends to obscure the fact people of that time used the same term for both classes.[84]

dominus : Hu; lord, master, seignior; ruler, owner; master of the house, head of the household; husband, lover; the master of a household as worshipped by the household cult; Lord, a reference to God.

Domitian and Earinus : Ph & Er; the Emperor Domitian (regnavit ad 81-96) and his favorite cupbearer Earinus.

Domnania : Devonshire.

domo : to tame, break in, conquer, subdue men or communities.

domo emigrans : emigrant family.

domo sua : in his house or family.

Domsaga : [Sw] a judicial district or circuit.

domuncula : a small cottage, house, lodge.

domus : domus [S Fr] : ousta, ostal [N Fr] : Hof [Alsace & Gm] : house;[85] family, a central blood-related household having certain self-de­terminative rights such as powers of adoption, bequethal, and enslavement.  Cf. ædes, famulus.

domus : temple, native country.

Domus Procerum : House of Lords.

don : dominus [Lt] : the Spanish title for a gentleman.

Don Juan : [1400] Don Juan Tenorio of Seville.  He was the son of an illustrious family, and after he seduced the daughter of Commandant Ulloa, he murdered Ulloa.  The Franciscans monks were so disturbed by Don Juan’s debaucheries, that they purportedly lured him to their monastery to murder him, and then covered up the crime by concocting a magical story.  The Spanish legend held that a statue of Ulloa came to life, and dragged Don Juan to hell.  Molière wrote the comedy Don Juan, ou Le Festin de Pierre (1665), and Mozart wrote the opera Don Giovanni.  Byron left a partial poem Don Juan (1824), and the German dramatist Grabbe issued Don Juan und Faust (1828).

donatio ante nuptias : dowry and nuptial gift.

donation : donatio : a thing given to sacred uses.

donation application : an application for frontier land in Florida, New Mexico, Oregon, or Washington.  Land donations were made to settlers willing to meet certains conditions imposed by the state.  Cf. homesteading.

donavit : he gave, donated.

donec : until, up to the time.  Cf. dum quoad, non prius quam, non ante quam.

donee : the person to whom a gift is made.

donjon : dungeon : a strong tower in the midst of a castle or fort; a tower in which prisoners are kept.

donkey : the incarnated shape of Pales, the phallic god.

donor : a person who makes a gift or grant.

donor of egg : genetrix, egg donor.  Cf. parent genetic.

donor of sperm : genitor, sperm donor.  Cf. parent genetic.

donsel : [It] donzel, squire, page; a young gentle­man not yet knighted.

donship : the quality of gentleman.

dont il eut : [Fr] hence he had, by whom he had, e.g. allié en 1710 à Catherine de Soudeilles dont il eut [one son].[86]  Cf. ex ea.

dont il eut entr’autres : [Fr] hence he had among others, by whom he had among others.

Donum : Gift (later ‘Benevolence’); a free gift.

donum : gift.

doomsday : a common mispelling of domesday.  Cf. Domesday Book.

dopamine : the neurotransmitter that controls a person’s sexual promiscuity; the chemical that determines whether a person behaves monogamously or polygamously.  Cf. serotonin, sexual promiscuity.

døpt : [Nw] baptized.

döpt : [Sw] baptized.

Dorbeia : Derby.

Dorcestria : Dorsetshire.

-dorf : [Gm, Sz] village.

Dorian boy-love : pederasty of the peculiarly militaristic type.  Opp. berdache, Oriental boy-love.

Dorian love : a misnomer for homosexuality.  Cf. Dorian boy-love.

Dorian type : an ambisexual type; three-quarters homogenic, someone who is primarily homosexual.[87]  Cf. Caesar, Finocchio.

Dorians : [ante 800 bc] the people named after the moon goddess Doris; the Doric-speaking tribes that invaded Greece, and settled in Crete and the Peloponesus, promulgating the sexual ethic of boy-love.[88]

Doris : the moon goddess.  Cf. Dorians.

dormancy : quiescence.  Cf. abeyance, extinction.

dormancy : suspension of peerage through royal election, or through prolonged abeyance.

dormant : [Fr] sleeping, private, conceiled, not public, not divulged.

dormierit : eritque cum dormierit dominus meus rex cum patribus suis ... : Otherwise it shall come to pass, when my lord the king shall sleep with his fathers, ...[89]

dormio : to rest, be inactive, sleep.

dormio cum : to sleep with.  Cf. iaceo cum, maneo.

dormivit igitur David cum patribus suis, et sepultus est in civitate David : So David slept with his fathers, and was buried in the city of David.[90]

Dorothea : Dorothy.

dorp : [Du] village.

dorse : dorsum : back of a book or folded document.

Dorset : Dorsetshire.

Dorsetania : Dorsetshire.

Dorsetia : Dorset.

Dorsetshire : Aramis : Aranus Civitas : Dorcestria : Dorsetania : Dorsetia : Duria : Dorset.

dorsum : back.  Cf. in dorso.

dorter : dormitory.

dos : dotarium : gift, marriage portion; dower.

dot : a diacritical mark.

dot : dowry.

dotage : second childhood, a state of senility and decay when one loses one’s mental alertness and becomes helpless as a child.

dotal : dotalis : of or relating to the dowry, or the portion of a woman.

dotalia instrumenta : marriage document.

dotard : a man whose advanced age has impaired in intellect.

dotarium : dos : gift, marriage portion.

dotation : dotatio : endowment, the act of giving a dowry or portion to a woman, endowment.

dött : [Sw] died.

dotter : [Sw] Da; daughter.

dotterdotter : [Sw] DaDa; granddaughter, daughter’s daughter.

dotterson : [Sw] DaSo; grandson, daughter’s son.

Douay Version : [1931] an English transla­tion of the Vulgate, prepared in Douay, France, and used by Roman Catholics.

double cousin : FaBrCh=MoSiCh; twice a parallel cousin, through both father and mother; a symmetrical cousin allied to either kind of par­allel cousin, agnate and cognate.  Such cousins only arise when a pair of brothers happen to marry a pair of sisters, because their children can claim collateral kinship through both their moth­ers and fathers.  Opp. cross cousin, multilineal cousin.

double date : a phrase with the potential for great confusion.  Cf. double-dating, double year-date.

double date : an instance of courtship that unites two pairs of lovers in a foursome.

double dating : the practice of courting one’s beloved in the company of another amorous pair.

double descent : Fa > Ch + Mo > Ch; the acknowledgement that an individual belongs to two complimentary lines of descent, one patrilineal and the other matrilineal, and that the individual is thereby entitled to inherit certain types of property through each descent.  Cf. bilateral descent.  Opp. mixed descent.

double jeopardy : [1910] being tried twice for the same crime; two adjudications for one offense.  Secondary prosecutions are prohibited by common law, as well as by the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, to prevent double convictions.  However, there is no rule against double punishment, so defendants may be separately adjudicated and punished in both criminal and civil trials.

double standard : the male prerogative to continue courting other women while pretending fidelity to one.  The double-standard chauvinism of the Western male originated in biblical polygamy, and remains unchanged today, even in the context of heterosexual monogamy.

double territorial designation : two place names identifying a peer ranking below an Earl.  If a place name is properly part of a peer’s title, then the peer will normally be named with a redundant or double territorial designation.  Examples include Baron Ponsonby of Shulbrede, of Shulbrede; Baron Ritchie of Dundee, of Welders, Chalfont St. Giles; and Baron Brassey of Apethorpe, of Apethorpe.[91]

double unilineal descent : double descent.

double unilineal descent system : Cf. descent system.

double unilineal descent, inheritance, succession, and residence : The Penan of Borneo carefully divide people by four distinctions of cadency.  Penan recruitment to groups is cognatic, for material inheritance may pass unilineally, or in a double unilineal fashion, through either sex.  Names devolve patrilineally, but residence is uxorilocal.[92]

double year-date : two historical year-dates representing one regnal year, as in the expressions 1583/4 or 1583-1584 for 26 Eliz I; a historical notation of year-dates corresponding to a specific regnal year-date.  A historian routinely applies new double year-dates to express and compare documentary dates, and his double notations constitute translations into common historical reckoning (January through December).  The convention of writing double year-dates instead of regnal year-dates is a fairly complicated historiographic exercise, because the writer must sometimes know or estimate the specific dates each reign commenced and end in order to know the specific range for each and every regnal year.  Cf. Era of Incarnation, regnal year.

double-dating : [1947] a misnomer for a double notation of Christian year-dates in English and Scottish reckoning, 1582-1603; an appellation for the irregular dating of the years 1582-1603 and 1603-1752; a popular misnomer for a special problem in the historiographies of England, Scotland, and the colonies between 1582 and 2 September 1752.[93]  Rome adopted the Gregorian calendar, with its New Year occurring on 1 January, in 1582, but neither England nor Scotland immediately adopted it.  Scotland adopted 1 January as its New Year in 1600, three years prior to the time James V of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth I as James I of England in 1603.  England did not change its New Year, and continued to observe its change of years on 25 March, or Lady Day.  For the period 1 January to 24 March each year, and until 1752, the English persisted in dating documents with Old Style year-dates, which would remain unchanged between 25 March of one historical year to 24 March of the next historical year.  Simultaneously, the Scottish used the New Style year-dates corresponding to our conventional year-dates for historical time (January through December).  Because the double crown of James V & I had commenced this disparity in reckonings, the civil and ecclesiastic authorities sometimes tried to reconcile the difference by making a double notation of the English-Scottish year-dates in this manner:  1623/4 for the historical year 1624.  Authentic transcriptions must always show the actual form of the original record, but it is erroneous and deceitful to newly create such double notations in modern narratives and pedigrees.  The practice of automatically generating such double notations by means of genealogical software is an especially odious and egregious exercise in fiction.  A consistent historian or genealogist usually translates so-called ‘double-dates’ into historical year-dates before presenting them for perusal in a formal history.  The proper procedure is to drop the English date, or the first year-date, converting the notation 1623/4 into the historical year 1624, such that even someone in China may effortlessly identify the true, historical year, according to our universal and common reckoning by the Common Era (c.e.).  Contemporary examples of these double notations are truly rare, because the English and Scots commonly expressed regnal year-dates instead of numeric year-dates until the reign of Edward VII (regnavit 1901-1910).  The indulgent historian who uses or replicates these double notations should assume that his reader will apprehend them to be direct conversions or translations of documentary dates into common reckoning.  Double-dating is a faux pas, for it constitutes nothing but a modern imitation of an obscure and erratic documentary form.  Cf. double year-date.

double-gibbet : a type of gallows, built with a single pole and crossbar in the shape of an upright T, and designed to hang two men at once.  The letter T is also the shape of the Roman furca.  Cf. suspendatur per collum.

doublet : [1592] a satin doublet was valued between 40s and 45s around 1592.[94]

doublet : doblett : a close-fitting jacket.  The family le Strange purchased a doblett of yel­low satin for 3s in 1519.  They bought material for making and lining of a black satin dou­blet welted with cloth of gold, for 3s 4d in 1519.  They bought a doublet of crane-colored fustian, for 5s in 1519.[95]

doublewoman : wila numpa [Lakota].

doubtful : the status of a peerage having some uncertain fate or authority.  Cf. destination.

DOW : day of the week.

dowager : douairiere : [Fr] a widow holding some property or title through the rights of her deceased husband; a widow with a jointure; the title given to a lady who survives her husband.

dower : dotarium : widow’s endowment; the portion of, or interest in, real estate of a deceased husband, which by law had to have been given by the husband to his wife in jointure during his lifetime.  The word dower originally had the same meaning as dowry, but legalism led to its special meaning as the endowment of a widow.  Cf. dowry.

dowry : dotarium : bride’s endowment; a woman’s share of her father’s estate; the money, goods, and estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage.  A woman’s endowment at marriage was formerly called a dower, but the word dower came to have a special meaning denoting the property of a widow.

dowry : groomprice, usually the major prestation in a marriage; a property transfer from the bride’s family or kin group to the groom’s family or kin group.  The dowry is often a direct, same-sex transfer of property made from the father-in-law to the son-in-law.  If the bride is permitted to exercise any control over the dowry, then the portion she controls will usually constitute a pre-mortem gift of inheritance from her parents.  The dowry is typical of a stratified society, for it serves as an incentive for the groom to ally himself with a lower stratum.  If the property is transferred from the groom to the bride, it is called an indirect dowry, or dower.  The dower became an important feature in England, for it became mandatory for the husband to transfer a dower to his wife prior to his death.

dox- : dog- : [Gk] opinion, teaching.

doyen : [1670 Fr] dean; the senior member of a group.

doyenne : [1897 Fr] a female doyen; the oldest female member of a group.

doyenne of humanity : [1997] Jeanne-Luc Calment (1875-1997) of Arles, France, who lived one hundred and twenty-two years.  Cf. 122 years.

doyishini : [Navajo] WiMo; literally she I must not see; mother-in-law.  Cf. avoidance relationship.

dpl. : place of death.

dpm : date and place of marriage.[96]  Cf. data, loco, maritagium.

[58] Leland:  4.I.157.

[59] Boswell 1980:  208.

[60] HL:  166.

[61] Eglinton 1964:  307.

[62] Grahn 1990:  322.

[63] Evans 1978:  169.

[64] Shakespeare, quoted by Johnson.

[65] Henslowe.

[66] Ulrich.  Eglinton 1964:  480.

[67] Eglinton 1964:  252.

[68] Otto Weininger.  Eglinton 1964:  480.

[69] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  58-59.

[70] MORL 14:11112,11112,1131.

[71] LIMO.

[72] LIMO.

[73] Herodutus.  Grahn 1990:  206.

[74] Matthew, 19.9.

[75] Mark, 10.11-12.

[76] LOOG 30:00000,07281,2L211, Margaret Leone Pollard née Miller, 1932, NY-PA.

[77] Boswell 1980:  189.

[78] Eyton, 12.152.  HL:  17.

[79] HL:  12-13, 15, 1720, 351.

[80] Webber edited by Parsons, 1947:  223.

[81] Ariès & Duby:  2.146.

[82] Gormley 1989:  163.

[83] HL:  302.

[84] HL:  294.

[85] Ariès & Duby:  3.500.

[86] LIMO.

[87] Eglinton 1964:  480.

[88] Eglinton 1964:  480.

[89] I Kings, 1.21.  III Regum, 1.21.

[90] 1 Kings, 2.10.

[91] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  57.

[92] Needham 1971:  11.

[93] Everton 1971:  172-173, sub double-dating.

[94] Henslowe.

[95] HHA 1519.

[96] Theresa Lang 1997/9/29.



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