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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


H : [anthropology] Hu; husband.  Cf. kin types.

H : [Ogham Q-Celtic] uiria.[1]

h. : heir, husband.

H.D.T.C.Q. : [Ogham] the second five letters of Ogham script, written as the notches C CC CCC CCCC CCCCC.

H.H.A. : HHA : Hunstanton Household Accounts, the accounts maintained by family le Strange at Hunstanton Hall, Norfolk, now reposited in the Norfolk and Norwich Record Office.

H.J.S. : hic jacet sepultus : here lies buried.

H.M. : His Majesty, His or Her Majesty’s.

h.m. : hoc mense : in this month.

H.M.S. : His Majesty’s Ship, Her Majesty’s Ship.  Cf. R.M.S., U.S.S.

H.P. : Houses of Parliament.

H.R.H. : His or Her Royal Highness.

H.R.I.P. : hic requiescit in pace : here rests in peace.

h.s. : hic situs.

h.t. : hoc tempore.

habburdyn : haberdine : a large salt-dried cod, or sun-dried cod.

habeas corpus : ‘you shall have the body’ of my client stand before you.  These are the first two words of a writ of habeas corpus, a type of writ devised to get prisoners out of jail.  Imprisonment was once a kind of indefinite purgatory, because authorities could arrest and jail just about anyone accused of an offense.  Offenders sometimes languished and died in prison without ever obtaining the opportunity to defend themselves before a justice.  The English therefore invented the writ of habeas corpus, which was a documentary means to introduce a prisoner’s case to a court, and to schedule a hearing on the court’s calendar.  Entitlement to expedient justice thus became fundamental to both English and American law.

habere in matrimonio : to have in matrimony; to be united to a person in marriage.

habergeon : a diminutive for hauberk; a short and light, abbreviated version of the hauberk, made of mail.  Another type of habergeon consisted of a small plate affixed to the upper torso to provide protection for the breast and throat.[2]

habet ius patronatus ecclesiæ S. Mariæ de Monthante : he has the right of patronage for the church Saint Mary of Monthante.[3]

habitation : the act of inhabiting, state of dwelling; dwelling, place of abode.

habitator : dweller, inhabitant.

habuisset filios : he might have had sons and daughters.

habuit adoptivum : he had an adoptive child.

habuit alumnam : had foster children, had slaves.[4]

habuit alumnos proneptes ex fratre : he fostered his brother’s grandchildren.[5]

habuit duas uxores : he had two wives.

habuit equus : he had horses.

habuit filiam : he had one daughter.

habuit filias : he had daughters.

habuit filios : he had sons and daughters.  This and similar clauses are used to designate a pater familias.  Cf. habuit liberos.

habuit filios et filios famulos et duos equus : he had natal children, slaves, and two horses.[6]

habuit filios sed occisus senectus : had children but was killed in his seniority.[7]

habuit filium : he had one son.

habuit filium terram cognominatam —— : he had one son of the earth surnamed ——.[8]

habuit furcas in manerio suo de Ness : he had the right of punishments at his manor of Ness.[9]

habuit in uxorem : he had as his wife.

habuit in uxorem Philippam 1m filiam Domini Johannis[10] : he had as his wife Philippa, eldest daughter of Lord John.[11]

habuit liberos : [always plural] she had children.  This clause is especially reserved for a bride who becomes an independent mater famil­ias through marriage.  A woman was expected to migrate to another family, and give rise to children who would be free (liberi) of her maiden family, and who would stand in contradistiction to her nephews (filii) remaining in the patriarchy from which she came.  As the expression seldom elaborates on the fate of such a woman, the word liberos is always plural.  Because the migrating sex customarily relocated to the distant home of her husband, a writer would usually have no idea whether she had just one child or many more, so it became normal to simply say she had free progeny.  To summarize, a man has sons and heirs (filios) who belong to the male line, whereas a woman has sons and heirs (liberos) belonging to another lineage.  Cf. habuit filios.

habuit liberos et liberos adoptivos : she had children and adoptive children.[12]

habuit liberos terras cognominatos ---- : she had children surnamed ----.

habuit nepos adoptivum : SbSo=Ne=So; he fostered his nephew.[13]

habuit pecua : [neuter plural accusative] he had a herd of cattle, or flock of sheep.

habuit pecus : [feminine singular accusative] he had one head of cattle.

habuit proles : he had offspring or progeny.  The term proles chiefly appears in the ablative case, in the negative sense of ‘without issue’ sine prole.

habuit secum 60 milites servientes sibi : he had with him 60 knights in his service.

habuit terras : had illegitimate children.[14]

hac : this, here; this way.

hackney : hacnai : [We] a pacing horse, nag, pad; a hired horse; a hireling, prostitute; anything let out for hire.

hackster : bully, ruffian, assassin.

Hades : Cf. Persephone and Hekate.

Hades : Dis [Gk] : Pluto [Lt] : god of the underworld.  Hell corresponds to Anubis or Osiris [Eg]; Ereshkigal [Ba]; Hel [Ns]; Bran or Urien [Ce]; Humahau [Ma]; Michtlantecutli [Az].

Hadrian and Antinoüs : Ph & Er; Emperor Hadrian (regnavit 117-138) and his lover.  Cf. Antinoüs.

haem- : hem- : hemat- : haemat- : [Gk] blood.

haemat- : haem- : hem- : hemat- : [Gk] blood.

hæreo : to hand upon the rear; to attach to a person.

hag : [Sx] witch, enchantress; fury, she-monster; an ugly old woman.  Cf. lamia.

hag-born : born of a witch or hag.

haggard : a mature wild hawk, difficult to tame.  If a haggard persists in acting wild, the falconer can usually tame it by depriving it of sleep, and handling it when it is exhausted.  Cf. eyas, hawk.

Hainaut. : Hainault : Henegouwen, Belgium.

hair : a sign of illegitimate birth; a reedlike growth that symbolizes new birth from a moist morass, or a cess pool of mire.  Cf. illegitimacy, Hure.

hair on one’s thighs : the reedlike hair on one’s thighs, said to be a sign or symbol of illegitimacy.  Cf. illegitimacy.

haketon : a stronger type of gambeson, made of buckskin and stuffed with cotton.  Cf. gambeson.

half dollar : [1806] a silver coin equal to 50 cents; 185-10/16 grains of pure silver.

half dollar : [1807-1839 Am] Liberty Capped Bust half dollar.

half dollar : [1839-1891] Silver Seated Liberty half dollar, the figure of which was designed to resemble the seated Britannia.

half dollar : [1892-1915 Am] Silver Barber half dollar.

half dollar : [1893 Am] Columbian half dollar.

half dollar : [1916-1947 Am] Silver Walking Liberty half dollar.

half dollar : [1948-1963 Am]  Silver Franklin half dollar.

half dollar : [1964 Am] Silver Kennedy half dollar.

half dollar : [1976 Am] Silver Bicentennial half dollar.

halfaunt : FaPaDa, MoPaDa; father’s halfsister, mother’s halfsister.

half-blood : [1553] PaCh; one not born of the same father and mother; a person sharing only one par­ent with a sibling, the relation between persons having one parent in common.

half-breed : the offspring of parents of different races, especially the offspring of an American native and a Caucasian.

halfbrother : FaSo ≠Sb, MoSo ≠Sb; eodem patre natus, born of the same father; eodem matre natus, born of the same mother; brother of the half blood; a brother related through one parent only.  Cf. stepbrother, paternal stepfather.

halfcousin : PaPaChChSo≠PaBrChSo, PaPaChChDa; the child of a halfuncle or halfaunt.

half-eagle : [1806] a cold coin worth $5; 123-6/8 grains of fine gold.

half-groat : [1603] twopence.

half-male, half-female : Orlando.

half-man, half-woman : Cf. Tlingit shaman.

halfniece : PaDaDa≠BrDa; daughter of one’s halfsister.[15]

halfsibling : FaCh≠Sb, MoCh≠Sb; one of two or more blood-related in­dividuals having only one parent in common.  Whereas halfsiblings are always blood relatives, stepchildren are not necessarily consanguineous.  Cf. paternal halfsibling, heterozygous halfsibling, uterine halfsibling, homozygous halfsibling, stepsibling.

halfsiblings : FaCh≠Sb, MoCh≠Sb; siblings who have only one parent in common; siblings related to the ego partly by blood.  Cf. stepsiblings.

halfsister : PaDa≠Si; eodem patre nata, eodem matre nata, a sister related through one parent only.  Cf. stepsister.

halfsisters : MoDa ≠Sb & MoDa ≠Sb; uterine halfsisters.  Cf. fraternal twin daughters by different fathers; Gemini.

halfuncle : FaPaSo, MoPaSo; father’s halfbrother, mother’s halfbrother.

hall for hynds : servants’ hall.[16]

Halloween : 31 October; Winter Even; Even of November; the last day of the pagan year.

hamadryad : [Gk] a mythological wood-nymph, believed to live and die with the tree to which it was attached.

hameau : [Fr] hamlet.

hamlet : small cluster of houses; a small collection of houses belonging to some village or parish.

Hamps. : Hampshire.

Hampshire : Hamps. : Hantonia : Suthamtunensis Provincia.

Han Ai Ti and Dong Xian : [regnavit 6 bc-ad 1] the Han emperor of China, and his boy lover.  When called to an audience, the emperor preferred to cut off his elegant sleeve rather than wake his beloved boy, and thus gave rise to the expression, “love of the cut sleeve.”  Ai Ti has often been referred to as the “last emperor of the Han dynasty,” but this identification seems to be somehow erroneous.  This editor would tend to believe that the citation must have referred to the ‘last Han emperor before Christ’ or Ai Ti or Ngai Ti (regnavit 6 bc-ad 1), of the former or Western Han dynasty.[17]

Han Ai-Ti and Tung Hsien : Han Ai Ti and Dong Xian.

hanc partem : sexual organ; that part; a phrase used 73 times by Ovid.

handfast : hold, custody; fast as by contract.

handfast : to betroth, join together solemnly by the hand; to oblige by duty; to bind.

handfasting : handfaestning : [Gm] a type of marriage contract; a kind of betrothal or contract for common-law marriage, the term of which lasted one year and one day.  Handfasted partners could separate during the handfasting period, but they were expected to formally confirm their marriage before church or civil authorities after that time.  If one spouse determined to leave the relationship, he or she was expected to assume sole responsibility for any issue from the handfasting union.[18]

handmaiden : maid-servant.

handmate : to place a ewe in stocks and introduce a ram to the pen, so as to encourage and ensure fertilization.

handsome : handsaem : [Du] beautiful, graceful, elegant; generous, noble; ready, gainly, convenient.

hanse : [Gm] gilda mercatoria, mercantile guild, a society of merchants in a town or city; a craft guild, an organization of artisans.

hanse : a mercantile fee, such as a toll imposed upon a merchant not belonging to any guild for the privilege of trading within a city.

hanse : a society of foreign merchants trading in England; a society of merchants trading abroad in any country.

hanse : the admission fee for a trade guild.

Hanseatic League : a confederation of guild cities in northern Germany allied for mutual defense.

Hantonia : Hampshire.

härad : [Sw] the jurisdiction of a local government.

Haraldus : Harold.

harborough : [Sx] lodging.

hare : an animal sacred to the Celts as the animal translation of a witch; the sacred animal of fertility that symbolized the New Year, and rebirth, and was therefore forbidden to kill.  Christians adopted the hare as the symbol of spring and resurrection.  The Normans introduced the bloodsport of coursing hares with teams of greyhounds.  Cf. coursing, coursing field.

hare : Archelaus and Pliny stated that rabbits were hermaphroditic, and that they could conceive even while pregnant.  Cf. hyena and hare, superfetation.

hare : conus, the long-eared and timid mammal hunted as game of the forest.  Today we generally regard a hare to be the same as a rabbit, but in medieval times it probably denoted some gray or hoary variety, larger than a rabbit.  Cf. conye, game, rabbit.

Harefordia : Hereford.

haringe : herring.

hariolation : hariolatio : soothsaying.

harlequin : a word believed by some to have derived from ‘horned king.’[19]  The word is said to have some connection with Herlequin, Harlequin, Hellequin, and Hillikin, variant names for the Herechin, the Sabbat leader.  Cf. Cernunnos, Herechin, Horned God, Sabbat leader.

Harlequin : Harlequino : a buffoon who amuses guests; a zany person.  The name is said to mean ‘little Harlay’ after a famous comedian who frequented M. Harlay’s house.

harlot : herlodes : [We] a whore, strumpet.

harlotry : the trade of a harlot; ribaldry.

Harmodius and Aristogeiton : Er & Ph; tyrannoktonoi, the tyrannicides;[20] a pair of courageous lovers, younger and older.  Hipparchus was a notorious tyrant, and his younger brother Hippias took a sexual interest in Harmodius.  Aristogeiton became extremely jealous of Hippias, and therefore schemed with Harmodius to assassinate the tyrannical brothers.  They attacked the brothers during the Panathenaic festival in 514 bc, but managed to kill only the tyrant Hipparchus.  Harmodius himself was killed during the incident, and Aristogeiton was captured.  Hippias saw to it that Aritogeiton was tortured to death.  Thus, the pair became immortalized as martyrs and tyrannicides.

Harmonia : the weaver of the starry sky; wife of Mars, and mother of the hostile sisters who stand at opposite poles.

harmyte : hermit.

harpooning : a martial art taught by Scáthach.  She invented a barbed harpoon called the gáe bolg, and devised a method of launching it with one’s foot.

harpy : harpyia : a ravenous wretch; extortionist; a mythological bird having the face of a woman and long claws, with filthy habits and mannerisms.

harridan : haridelle : [Fr] a decrepid strumpet; a worn-out horse.  Cf. hackney.

hart : cervus, stag, a male of the red deer, especially one more than five years of age; game of the forest.  Cf. game, hind.

Hart Crane type : a man sexually attracted to sailors.  Cf. Caesar type, Finocchio type, seafood queen.

harumscarum : an adjective used of flighty persons or people always in a hurry.

hatch : hecken : [Gm] to produce young from eggs.

hatchment : a heraldic achievement; an armorial escutcheon such as might be shown on the hearse at a funeral; an escutcheon displayed in a church.  Hatchment is simply a colloquial corruption of achievement.

hauberk : hauberg : [Fr] a coat of mail without sleeves, made of plate or chainmail; a tunic made of interlinked iron rings.  Cf. habergeon.

haudattu : [Fi] buried.

hautboy : hautbois : [1575 Fr] oboe; literally ‘highwood.’

Hawaiiansystem: generational terminology.  Opp. Eskimo system, lineal terminology.

Hawisa : Hawise.

hawk : haroc : [Sx] a bird of prey used to hunt other birds.  Cf. gypcière.

hawker : harcene : [Sx] falconer.

hawker : hocker : [Gm] someone who sells goods on the street.

hawkesmete : feed for hawks.

Hawkins, Sir John (1531-1595) : [Eliz I]  Sir John Hawkyns became the chief naval administrator in the middle of Elizabeth I’s reign.  He caused the design of Elizabethan ships to radically change.  His marine architects started making ships with lower waists (D=B*½), reduced superstructures, shorter beams, and longer lengths (L2=L1-B*3/5).[21]  Hawkins was second in command to Sir Francis Drake on an expedition to the West Indies in 1595, and he died at sea off Puerto Rico.  Cf. ship proportions.

hawks : captive and trained hawks used for the sport of hawking.  Hawks are not bred in captivity, but are abducted directly from the nest or nature.  Birds of all sizes find it convenient and enjoyable to perch themselves on the backs of other animals, so it is hardly uncommon to see birds, and especially large birds, kept as pets.  Large birds in particular easily become adjusted to captivity, and some can be freely carried by their owners through public streets.  Bird owners often clip or shorten the wings to discourage and prevent the bird from flying any distance.  Naturally, a falconer is disinclined to clip the wings of a hawk, lest it loose its capacity to hunt quarry, so he must resort to other methods of control, such as lures to fleshy treats, jesses, bells, varvels, and hoods.  Cf. bate, eyas, eyas-musket, eyasses, falcon, fly, haggards, hood, imp, jesses, lure, manning, pitch, quarry, seel, stoop, varvel.

hay : haye : [1519/11/20-26 Sx] net, a net used to snare rabbits.  We have one example of one hay measuring one fathom (fadam) long having been purchased for 10s in 1519.[22]

hay barn : Hey Hall [1531/2/26].

haye : hay.

Hb : Hebrew.

He : hetaera, hetaira, the younger female lover; a primary kin term of a gynecophilic spouse in same-sex mateship.

header row : the first lateral row of a spreadsheet, which is usually reserved for the titles of the vertical columns.

heading : [MS] one of nine document headings, called Heading 1 through Heading 9 (H1-H9).  Headings subdivide a document into a hierarchy of sections, such that Heading 1 may represent Chapter Title (H1); heading 2, Part Title (H2); heading 3, Section Title (H3); heading 4 Subsection Title (H4).  The regular use of Headings 1 to 9 is a feature of Microsoft Word, but it reflects a similar use of headings in Hypertext or HTML documents.

heading : Style5 for Style Title Extranean, bold 36 Pt, with 1 ½ pt border of two solid lines.  Actual size:  Abc.

heading : title, caption.

Heading 1 : Chapter Title, IsabelleScapsSSK, 20 point.  Boldface, actual size:  Abc.

heading 2 : [H2] Part Title, CG Times, bold 14 point.  Boldface, actual size : Abc.

heading 3 : [H3] Section Title, CG Times, bold 12 point.  Boldface, actual size:  Abc.

heading 4

heading 4 : [H4] Subsection Title, CG Times, regular 10 pt small caps.

heading 5 : [H5] Monument Title, that numbers the generation that follows, as a Roman numberal (VII), isolated colon (— : —), (e.g.) sæculum septimum, colon  (— : —), and anno Domini ad date (1923).  It is naturally as place apropriate for hyperlinks and cross references.
¯      Heading 6 : Epitaph Subtitle, showing the proband of the preceding, bibliographic narrative, and whatever Subtitles that follow.

Heading 7 : [H7] Family Title, including slaves, et cetera

à         Heading 8:  [H8] Branch Subtitle.

à         Heading 9 : [H9] Scion.

heading Style Title Opus : Times New Roman, regular 10 pt, with 3 pt paly border.

head-money : [1847-1876] a fixed fee per capita that ship owners and agents paid directly to the Commissioners of Emigration to obtain a waiver for the 5-year, $300 immigration bond.  Head-money usually amounted to $1.50 or $2.50 per steerage passenger, and the Commissioners held the money in trust to be used to pay for any hospital or poorhouse charges incurred by an immigrant.  The U.S. Supreme Court ruled on 20 March 1876 that the collection of head-money was unconstitutional.

head-overturning ceremony : [Sumer] a cross-dressing initiation started by the goddess Inanna, wherein a woman and man are chosen for transvestism with clothes of the opposite sex, and then given the title pili-pili.[23]  Cf. Enheduanna, Inanna, Ereshkigal, pili-pili.

headword : cardinal headword.

headword : episcopal headword.

headword : the foremost word that commences a lexicon entry, and is sometimes set in boldface type.  In The Alphabetary, bod-face headwords designate cardinal words having hyperlinks among the comparatives.  In a lexicon or dictionary, a lexicographer will often place after the headword some essential data, such as etymological notes, set inside square brackets.  Cf. brackets, hyperlink, index entry.

hearsay : rumor, report; something informally heard from another.

hearse : [Sx] a temporary monument over a grave; the place or coffin in which a corpse is stored; a carriage used to convey the dead to a graveyard.

hearse : to enclose in a hearse or coffin.

hearsecloth : pall, a covering over the hearse.

heart : the central organ of a body, where the blood is pumped for circulation.  Philosophically, people in the middle ages identified three seats of the heart:  corde amare, the heart as the seat of emotions; sapere corde, the heart as the seat of thought, mind, and judgement; exsultania corda, the heart as exhalted through inspiration and faith.

Hearth$Rol : [Ir Database field] Hearth Money Roll.[24]

heath care : an arrangement for the regular attendance and oversight of a primary physician, usually in the context of a private, corporate, or government health insurance plan.  Cf. HMO.

heathen : [Gm] gentiles, pagans; nations unacquainted with the covenant of grace.

heathenism : gentilism, paganism.

heaven : [Sx] cæles, the sky above; the habitation of God and angels; the celetials; the pagan gods.  Cf. afterlife, Uranus.

heaven-begot : produced by some celestial power.

heaven-born : native of heaven, descended from the celestial regions.

heaven-bred : produced or cultivated in heaven.

heavenly love : aphrodite ouranios.

Heb : Hebrew.

heb briodi : [We] unmarried.

hebdomad : hebdomas : week, a period of seven days.

Hebrew : [1000 bc] Early Hebrew.

Hebrew : [800-700 bc] the language eventually written in Square Hebrew letters, consisting of 22 letters, four (4) of which stand for vowels:  A.H.U.I., A.H.II.I., A.H.Y.I, A.H.Ű(II).Y(I)., Alef, He, Waw, and Yod.  Five consonants have dual forms, namely the hard and soft forms, namely K.M.N.P.T., Kaf, Mem, Nun, Pe, Tzade.  Note that the order shows us two nasals (M.N.) flanked by the three familiar stops P.T.K., which may be altered by voicing (B.D.G.).  The order of the 22 Hebrew letters seems to be the oldest order among the Semitic scripts, and must have seen its inception about 800-700 bc.

Hebrew : A.B.G.D.H., W., Z.Ch.T.Y.K.; the 11 ascending Hebrew letters, written right to left[25]      ëéèçæ.å.äãâáà

Hebrew : L.T.Sh.R.K., Tz., P.I.S.N.M.; the 11 descending Hebrew letters written right to left[26]              îðñòô.ö.÷øùúì

Hecate of Greece : Hekate : Hecate, Queen of Darkness, the subterranean aspect of Diana the Huntress, and equated with the Greek goddess Persephone, the dark aspect of Aphrodite.  A favorite of sourceresses and conjurers, Hecate serves as goddess of the underworld, and goddess of the dark of the moon.  In the context of the moon trinity, Hecate stands in a trinity composed of Phoebe, Diana, and Hecate, who respectively represent heavenly birth, earthly life, and subterranean death.  Sacred to Hecate were dogs, honey, and black female lambs.[27]  Cf. Diana the Huntress, moon trinity, Persephone and Hecate, Phoebe the Moon, Sahacat.

hect- : [Gk] hundred.

hedger : [1548] one who plants, forms, and trims a dense row of shrubs or small trees.  Cf. wages for hedger.

hedon- : [Gk] pleasure.

-hedron : [Gk] solid figure.

hegemon- : [Gk] leader.

Hegira : 16 July ad 622, the date that commenced the Muslim Era.

Heidelbg. : Heidelburg, Germany.

heir: [male or female] a successor to the rights and liabilities of a deceased person.  There are three special categories of heirs:  heredes necessarius, heres extraneus, heres secundus.  Cf. coheir, heiress.

heir : heres, hæres : the bereaved; the inheritor of anything after the present possessor; one who inherits property; one who is entitled to succeed to a hereditary rank, title, or office.  The Latin heres is related to the Greek cheros, meaning ‘bereaved.’  Cf. coheir, semiheres.

heir and the spare : a jocular expression denoting H.R.H. Prince William of Wales and his younger brother H.R.H. Prince Henry, or the heir apparent and heir presumptive to H.R.H. Charles, Prince of Wales.

heir apparent : heres manifestus? : an heir whose right of inheritance is indefeasible, provided he outlives the testator; he who will certainly inherit if he survives the present possessor.  Cf. heir presumptive.

heir presumptive : heres coniecturus? : an heir whose claim to inheritance might be defeated upon the birth of an heir closer in relationship to the testator.  Heirs presumptive to the throne of England are the royal princes and princesses younger than H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, and their claims to the throne are subordinate to heir apparent and his direct heirs.

heirdom : the state of an heir.

heiress : a female heir; heir, coheir, a woman who inherits.  The terms heiress and coheiress were sometimes specially used as the feminine forms of heir and coheir, but this was not always necessary, because the seemingly male forms often signified women anyway.  Because gender distinctions have lately become obsolete, the genealogist should probably avoid using the female forms in narratives, and leave them unchanged in direct quotations.  Cf. heir, coheir.

heir-in-general : heir general.  Cf. retoured.

heirless : without an heir.

heirloom : any moveable or piece of furniture decreed to descend by inheritance and therefore inseparable from the freehold.

heirs general : Cf. heirs in tailzie.

heirs in tailzie : Cf. heirs general.

heirship : the state, character, or privileges of an heir.

Heisa : a place in Kent.

Hekate : Hecate.

Helen : Menelaus returned Helen to his homeland as a slave, and her nephew murdered her soon thereafter.[28]

Helena : Helen.

Helena-Selene : Helene-Selene : the moon woman who purportedly gave rise to the Dorians and Ionians.

heli- : [Gk] sun.

helio- : [Gk] sun, sol.

Heliogabalus : Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Heliogabalus (regnavit 218-222).  Cf. Elagabalus and Zoticus.

Hellespont : Cf. Hero and Leander.

helm : helmet : [1200] a piece of armor fabricated of metal to protect the head; the great close casque.[29]  Heralds customarily depict a helm resting atop the escutcheon, and use it as the base for the crest.  There are several shapes of helmets, and the depictions show helmets with closed visors, open visors, and sometimes with no visor at all.

helmet : [1592] a soldier’s helmet, valued at 8s about 1592.[30]

helmet: a diminutive of helm; a light armor covering for the head without any visor, often used as a liner to support a larger helm.

helot : Helotes : slave.  The term derived from the Laconian town of Helos, the residents of which were all enslaved by the Spartans.

helper : Cf. wages of helper in brew house, wages of helper in malt house.

helpmate : companion, assistant.

hem- : haem- : hemat- : haemat- : [Gk] blood.

hemat- : haem- : hem- : haemat- : [Gk] blood.

hemer- : [Gk] day.

hemerobaptists : [Gk] ancient Jews who bathed each day and in every season.

hemi- : [Gk] half, dimidium, semis.

hemorrhage and inflamation : ruptured aneurysm; swollen lymph nodes; superficial cancer with ulceration and bleeing.  Cf. lymph nodes.

hen daid : [We] PaPaFa; great-grandfather.

hen ewythr : [We] PaPaBr; granduncle.

hen fam : [We] PaMo; grandmother.

hen fodryb : [We] PaPaSi; grandaunt.

hen nain : [We] PaPaMo; great-grandmother.

hendad : [We] PaFa; grandfather.

Henoforthum : Hereford.

Henri III of France : [vixit 1551-1589, regnavit 1574-1589] He was intimate with Henri de Saint-Sulpice, whom he called ‘Colette,’ and surrounded himself with mignons from 1577.

Henricus : Henry.

Heortiforda : Hertford.

hepat- : [Gk] liver.

Hephaestus [Gk] : Vulcan [Lt] : god of fire and forging.

hept- : hepta- : [Gk] seven.

hepta- : hept- : [Gk] seven.

heptad : [Gk] sevensome.  Cf. fivesome, pentad.

heptarchist : one who rules one division of a sevenfold government.

heptarchy : a sevenfold government.  The term specifically refers to the seven kingdoms of ancient England.

Heptateuch : the first seven books of the Old Testament.  Cf. Pentateuch.

her : [Sx] belonging to a female; of a woman.

her- : hes- : to stick.

Her Royal Highness : H.R.H. : the courtesy title restricted to the immediate family members of the House of Windsor.  The title H.R.H. was conferred upon Lady Diana Spencer, postea Princess Diana of Wales, when she married the Prince of Wales in 1981, but the honor was withdrawn in her divorce settlement that became effective in August 1996.  After Diana’s funeral on 6 September 1997, the Prince of Wales offered to posthumously restore Diana’s title H.R.H., but the Spencer family declined the offer.  Cf. His Royal Highness.

her. : heraldry.

Hera : [Gk] goddess of the sky, queen of Zeus.  To the Romans, she was Juno [Lt], queen of Jupiter or Jove.  Queen Hera corresponds to Hathor or Isis [Eg], Innini [Ba]; Lakshmi or Parvati (Kali); Frigg [Ns]; Danu [Ce], Ixazuluoah [Ma], Tonacacihuati [Az].

Hera : Cf. Leto, Themis, and Hera.

hera : dame, lady; mistress of a house.

Herakles and Hylas : Hercules and Hylas.

herald : herault [Fr] : præco [Lt], an officer who registers genealogies, regulates ensigns armorial, and oversees funerals; an envoy who carries messages between princes; a public announcer who proclaims war and peace; proclaimer, publisher.

herald shamanic and female : Kutenai shaman.

heraldic : relating to heraldry; denoting genealogy.

heraldic bearings : armorial bearings.

heraldry : the art or office of a herald; a registry of genealogies.

Heralds : Garter King at Arms, Clarenceux King at Arms, Norroy King at Arms, Lord Lyon of Scotland, York Herald, Richmond Herald, Somerset Herald, Lancaster Herald, Chester Herald, Windsor Herald.  Cf. College of Arms, College of Heralds.

heraldship : the office of a herald.

herasthesan : [Gk] they fell in love.[31]

Hercules : the strongman purported to have had 14 male lovers.[32]  He also had a long succession of wives, who bore him many sons, but no daughters.

Hercules and Hylas : Ph & Er; the strongman and his favorite boy.  When Hylas drew water from the fountain in Mysia, the Naïads became enamored of his beauty, and carried him away.

Hercules and Iölaus : Ph & Er; the legendary strongman and his faithful servant and lover.  Iölaus helped Hercules to burn the eight mortal heads of Hydra, and bury the ninth, immortal head under a huge rock.[33]

Hercules and Omphale : Cc & Wi; Hercules as the concubitor of the amazon Omphale.

herd : a number of beasts gathered together; a collection of oxen; a keeper of cattle.  Cf. flock.

Herechin : [Teutonic] the Sabbat leader, otherwise called Berhta or Herla, and Herlequin, Harlequin, Hellequin, and Hillikin.  Cf. harlequin, Sabbat leader.

heredes extranei : children or slaves who are not within one’s power, or who are manumitted, but whom one nonetheless institutes as his heirs.[34]

heredes sui : sui heredes : family heirs; direct and necessary heirs of the deceased, firstly his surviving children, and secondly whosoever among his grandchildren have succeeded their parents.[35]

heredes sui et necessarii : the direct heirs and necessary heirs of the deceased.[36]  The children of the deceased who stand first in succession, either by testament or ab intestatio, and who have the right, as free persons, to decline their inheritance.

heredis : pertaining to an heir.

heredis tertia partis terrarum suarum : he inher­ited one-third of his lands.

hereditable : hæres : whatever may be occupied as an inheritance.

hereditament: hæredium : inheritance.

hereditary : hæreditarius : claimed or possessed by right of inheritance; descending by inheritance.

hereditary line : ta-tsung [Ch].

hereditary titles : tien-shih ‘heavenly teacher.’

hereditas : heirship, inheritance.

hereditates vestri generis : family estates.

heredium : patrimony.

Hereffordscr’ : Herefordshire.

Hereford : Ferulega : Harefordia : Henoforthum.

Herefordshire : Hereffordscr’ : Herefs.

Herefs. : Herefordshire.

heremite : hermit.

heres : heir.

heres extraneus : extraneous heir; an heir not subject to the potestas of the testator, who had the power of abstaining from or refusing the inheritance.  Once the extraneous heir accepted his inheritance, he was held responsible for its administration.  The heir could not thereafter renounce his inheritance, unless he were under twenty-five years of age and were excused of his responsibilities by a magistrate.[37]

heres necessarius : heir by necessity, necessary heir, heir of last resort; a slave of the testator, made heir of the testator, who could not refuse such inheritance, by reason of his slavery to the testator.

heres sedundus : secondary heir, a person named to receive the inheritance if the original heir cannot inherit.

heres solus et necessarius : sole and necessary heir.

heres suus et necessarius : direct and necessary heir.

heresy : [Gk] an opinion differing from the doctrines and dogmas of the catholic and orthodox church.

heretics and homosexuals: Albigensians; two categories of human being that the Roman church classed together as one.  Cf. Albigensians, Bogomils; Ketzer [Gm], gazarro [It], herite [Fr], Templars.

heretics of the Free Spirit : Cf. Free Spirit.

heritage : [Fr] inheritance, an estate devolved by succession.

heritage society : lineage society.

herite : [Fr] heretic; homosexual.

Herla : Herechin; the Sabbat leader among the Teutons.

hermana : [Sp] Si; sister.

hermano : [Sp] Br; brother.

hermano carnal : [Sp] Br; brother of the whole blood.

hermano politico : [Sp] SiHu; brother-in-law.

hermaphrodeity : the state of a hermaphrodite.

hermaphrodite : a concept that has been embodied since Saxon times in the English word bad; an animal or human exhibiting features of both sexes; a brigantine having both square and triangular sails.  Cf. bad.

hermaphrodite : intersexual.

hermaphrodites : Orlando.  Cf. bote, murfidai [Kalekau], Tlingit shaman.

hermaphroditic : partaking of both sexes.  Cf. gyanandroid.

hermaphroditus : sodomite, homosexual.  This was a medieval definition, even though the literal meaning of hermaphrodite is radically different from a lover of the same sex.[38]

hermit : [Gk] an anchoret, someone retired from society who pursues comptemplation and devotion in solitude.

hermit : harmyte.  Sir Thomas le Strange gave 1d to a hermit somewhere between Barkwaye and Ware in 1520.[39]

hermitage : [Fr] the cell or habitation of a hermit.

hernesew : hernshaw.

hernshaw : hernesew : heron.

hero : [Gk] a man renowned for his bravery, a man of the highest class.

Hero and Leander : Cc & Hu; the Romeo and Juliet of the Dardanelles.  Hero was the Priestess of Venus at Sestos, but her suitor Leander resided at Abydos, on the opposite side of the water.  Leander entered a visitational marriage with Hero, so he swam across the Hellespont every night to visit his love.  One cold, winter night, Leander drowned, and his body washed upon the crags beneath Hero’s tower.  Hero viewed the lifeless body of her lover, and cast herself off the tower, to join Leander in death.

heroess : herois : heroine, a female hero.

herred : [Dn] a district or subdivision of a county.

herring : haringe.  Cf. virgin of herring.

herring : white herring, bought for 13s 8d per barrel, or 26s 4d for 2 barrels, at Lynn on 1548/2/25.[40]

herring nets : items of fishing gear indicative of deep-sea fish, rather than in-shore fishing.[41]

herring-bone : a pattern of diagonal elements arranged along an axis to resemble the backbone of a herring.  The expression sometimes refers to a series of slanting stones or bricks built into a wall, for two adjoining rows of slanted bricks form a herring-bone pattern.  Our familiar term today refers to a distinctive wool material, woven to show diagonal angles in the same pattern.

hers. : herself.

Hertford : Heortiforda : Hertfordia : Vadum Rubrum.

Hertfordia : Hertford.

Herts. : Hertfordshire.

herus : Hu; owner, lord, master of a house.

hes- : her- : to stick.

Hestia [Gk] : Vesta [Lt] : goddess of fire.

hetæræ : He; female companions, intimate female friends.  Sappho used this word.  Cf. antianeiræ, auletrides, pornæ.

hetaira : He; lady entertainer.[42]  Cf. three components of love.

hetairekos : [Gk] male prostitute.[43]

hetairistriai : lesbians, homosexual women.[44]  Cf. gynecophile.

heter- : [Gk] other, different.

heterarchy : [Gk] the government of an alien.

hetero- : [Gk] different, alius, discrepans, diversus, dissimilis, varius.

heterogeneal : belonging to different genetic stock, affined relationship; not of the same nature; not kindred.  Opp. homogeneal.

heterogeneous : opposite or dissimilar in nature; not kindred.

heterosexual : [1939 En] the word as it first appeared in OED.  The first edition of OED did not show it in 1899, and ignored it entirely for forty years.[45]

heterosexual component : the component of an individual’s sexuality that complements the homosexual component.  Cf. Kinsey.

heterosexual couples : Cupid and Psyche, Daphnis and Chloe, Dido and Aeneas, Hero and Leander, Odysseus and Penelope, Troilus and Cressida.  Cf. same-sex couples.

heterosexual females : philandroi.  Opp. gynecophile.

heterosexual males : philogynaikes, gynaecerastes.  Opp. androphile.

heterosexuality : [1869-1899 Gk-Lt old meaning] a word newly invented in contradistinction to homosexuality.  The formal division of human sexuality into heterosexual and homosexual categories is a fairly recent convention, having had no precedent whatsoever in ancient or biblical languages.  The etymology of this word is somewhat bizarre, for it consists of the Greek hetero- ‘different’ juxtaposed with the Latin sexus ‘sex.’  Opp. homosexuality.

heterosexuality : [1939 Gk-Lt new meaning] sexual interest in members of the opposite sex.  Opp. homosexuality.

heterozygous condition : born of different mothers; engendered by different eggs.

heterozygous halfbrothers : FaSo; paternal halfbrothers sharing the same father but born of different mothers.  Opp. homozygous halfbrothers, uterine halfbrothers.

hex- : hexa- : [Gk] six.

hexa- : hex- : [Gk] six.

hexad : [Gk] sixsome.  Cf. fivesome, pentad.

Hey Hall : [1531] hay barn.

Heyoka shaman : Cf. marcha atras.

Heyoka trickster: the tribal clown who goes backward, or who is a male marcha atras ‘marching backwards.’[46]

HG : High German.

HHI: [Ir Database field] House Holders Index.[47]

hic : here, in this matter.

hic Conanus ædificavit turrim magnam in castro Richemont : this Conan constructed a tall tower at Richmond Castle.[48]

hic fuit superstes anno Domini 800 : he was sur­viving in the year of our Lord 800.

hic iacet Edmundus de Stafforde intumulatus : here lies entombed Edmund de Stafford.

hic jacet sepultus : H.J.S. : here lies buried.

hic jacet Thomas Hungerford ... hic jacet Joanna uxor eusdem Thomæ Hungerford : here lies Thomas Hungerford ... here lies Joan the wife of that Thomas Hungerford.[49]

hic obiit sine exitu corpis sui : he died without any issue from his body.[50]

hic prius erat cancellarius Lincoln : this prior was the chancellor of Lincoln.

hic prius erat thesaur : this prior was a treasure.

hic ramus anno 1853 iacet : this branch became dormant in 1853.

hic ramus iaceretur : this house might be dor­mant.

hic ramus superstes esset : this house might sur­vive.

hic ramus superstes est : this house survives.

hic requiescit in pace : H.R.I.P. : here rests in peace.

hic sepultus : here is buried, hic situs.

hic situs : here is placed; hic sepultus.

hic tumulatur : he might be buried here.

Hicca : people of the horse,[51] a Celtic race that inhabited East Anglia, but was subjugated by the Romans in ad 62.  The name Hicca was the Celtic basis for the Latin name Iceni.  The race was headed by Boadicea or Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni.  Cf. hipp-, wicca.

hidage : Danegeld.  Cf. hide.

hidalgo : [Sp] one of noble birth.

hide : [1000] carucate, hide of land, ranging in size from 60 to 120 acres; a measure of land that can be cultivated by 1 plowman in 1 year.  Plow blades varied in design and efficacy, and specific parcels of land sometimes posed particular difficulties for the tiller, so the acrage a hide represented tended to greatly vary.  In Saxon times, a hide equalled some 60 to 100 acres.  In Norman times, a hide amounted to some 80 to 120 acres.  The term was often used in the Domesday Book (1086), and continued to appear in later charters and documents.  This measure was used as a basis for taxation, for it determined hidage, or the assessment of Danegeld.  In its general sense, the hide denoted the household situated upon it.  Cf. Domesday acre.

hier- : [Gk] sacred.

hierarch: [Gk] the chief of a sacred order; the chief of any establishment.

hierarchy : sacred government; the ranking of holy beings; ecclesiastical establishment.

hieratic : hieraticus : [1669 Lt] hieratikos [Gk]; sacerdotal writing, the cursive form of Egyptian writing that was simpler than the hieroglyphic.  Cf. demotic, hieroglyphic.

Hieremias : Jeremiah.

hierodules : holy ones, the sacred slaves who served the goddess.  They purportedly engaged in sexual rituals with worshippers.[52]  Cf. qādēsh, qĕdēshīm, qĕdēshoth.

hieroglyphic : [1586] the picture script of ancient Egyptian priests.  Cf. demotic, hieratic.

hieromancy : [Gk] divination by sacrifice.

Hieronymus : Jerome.

hierophant : [Gk] priest, teacher of the religious rules.

highlander : mountaineer, an inhabitant of mountainous regions.

highwayman : a robber who plunders travelers along a public road.

hiippakunta : [Fi] bishopric, diocese.

hija : [Sp] Da; daughter, legitimate daughter.

hija natural : [Sp] Da; illegitimate daughter, natural daughter.

hija politica : [Sp] SoWi; daughter-in-law.

hijo : [Sp] So; son.

hijo de la iglesia : [Sp] son of the church.

hijo legitimo : [Sp] So; legitimate son.

hijo natural : [Sp] So; illegitimate son, natural son.

hijo politico : [Sp] DaHu; son-in-law.

hims. : himself.

Hincmar of Rheims : the Carolingian theologian who codified the meaning of sodomy.  Cf. sodomy.

hind : [Sx] the female of the red deer; game of the forest.  Cf. game, hart.

hind : hynd : hineman : [Sx] servant, peasant, boor.  Cf. hall for hynds.

Hine-nui-te-po : [NZ] the evil ancestress, the polynesian Maui equivalent of Great Mother.

hinter : [Dn] posterior.

hinterland : [1890] back country, remote place; the interior of a region; places far from cities or from the coast.

hipp- : [Gk] horse.

Hippolyte : the Amazon queen at Themiscyra who was attacked by Hercules and Theseus while her marcher queen Oreithyia was abroad with her army.  Theseus managed to abduct Antiope the Amazon, and transport her to his ship, but another Amazon discovered her at the Itonic Gate in Athens, and killed her.  Cf. Antiope, Oreithyia.

Hippolyte and Oreithyia (y) : Si(e) & Si(y); a pair of Amazon sister-queens, the older of which was Hippolyte, seated at Themiscyra.  Cf. Antiope, Oreithyia.

hireling : mercenary, prostitute, one who works for wages.

His Royal Highness : H.R.H. : a courtesy title reserved for the immediate members of the royal family of the United Kingdom.  Cf. Her Royal Highness.

hist- : histi- : [Gk] tissue.

hist. : history, historian.

histi- : hist- : [Gk] tissue.

Historia Francorum (591 & 642) : a large work in corrupt Latin that treats early Frankish history until ad 642.  Claude Fauchet observed that parts of the work take 1 January as New Year, whereas other parts take 1 March as New Year.  Fauchet therefore postulated that the earlier part was written by Gregory of Tours in 591, and the latter part was written by a conjectural author dubbed ‘Fredegarius’ in 642.  Cf. Gregory of Tours, Fredegarius.

historian : historicus : a writer of histories, a chronicler of facts and events.

historical year-date : a modern reckoning of historical time; an accurate conversion or translation of the year-date of some historical moment into reckoning of the Common Era (c.e.).  Historical years conform to the New Style, or the Gregorian calendar, begin in January, and end in December.  Cf. documentary year-date.

historiographer : [Gk] historian.

historiography : the art or employment of a historian.

history : [Gk] a narration of facts and events delivered with dignity.

Hittite : Aegean, the logo-syllabic phonography that evolved into the Aegean syllabaries of Linear A, Linear B, Cypro-Minoan, Cypriot, and Phaistos, and perhaps Byblos.  Cf. logo-syllabic phonography, syllabic phonography.

Hittites : people who held homosexuality to be a legal activity, but who prohibited father-son incest.[53]

HIV : [1984] the human immunodeficiency virus that slowly causes AIDS; one of two lentiviruses called HIV-1 and HIV-2.  When first isolated in 1983 and 1984, Americans called the virus HTLV-3, due to its similarity to the two oncoviruses that cause forms of leukemia.  French scientists argued that the virus was fundamentally different from the oncoviruses, and therefore the name was changed to HIV and the virus type was styled lentivirus.  Cf. lentivirus, oncovirus, retrovirus.

HMO : health maintenance organization, a collective insurance system regulated by business managers.

hobbler : hobilar : hobiler : hobeler : [Fr] a light cavalry soldier.  Cf. hobby, hobille.

hobby : hoppe : [Sw] nag, a pacing horse; a small horse; an Irish or Scottish horse.

hobille : gambeson, a quilted jack absent of any mail.

hoc loco : in this place.

hoc mense : h.m. : in this month.

hoc tempore : h.t. : at this time.

hod- : od- : [Gk] way, road.

-hoff : [Du] a suffix typical of Dutch surnames.

hogg : a sheep from its first shearing to its second shearing.  Cf. sheep.

hoggishedd : hogshead.

hogshead : hoggishedd : a large barrel used to contain tobacco, wine, or other commodity; a measure of liquid equalling 63 gallons.

Hohenzollern : [1849-1952] Hohenzollern, Germany, the ancient seat of the Swabian Hohenzollerns, who eventually ceded their territory to the Franconian Hohenzollerns, the kings of Prussia who became emperors of Germany (1871-1918).  Two Hohenzollern territories were merged into a single entity in 1849, and Hohenzollern was finally made part of Baden-Württemberg, West Germany, in 1952.

hol- : [Gk] whole.

hold : a common room for the condemned.

hole : the condemned hold of a prison, were convicts are stored prior to execution.  Cf. Black Hole of Calcutta, Hole at Newgate Prison.

Hole at Newgate Prison : [1658-1662] The Hole at Newgate, London, was a frightful place likened to Hell, completely devoid of furnishings, where prisoners languished atop one another, wallowing around on the floor like so many swine.  At the hanging of Colonel John Turner in 1662, the gaol keeper of Newgate proclaimed that seventeen out of nineteen poor wretches confined to the Hole, had managed to escape from it, implying that the seventeen had all gone to the press yard or gallows.[54]  Cf. Black Hole of Calcutta.

Holle : [central Gm] a goddess designated as Sabbat leader, who various named Holt, Hulda, Faste, Selga, Selda, or Venus.  Cf. harlequin, Sabbat leader.

holocaust : shoah [Hb].

Holocene epoch : year 10,000 bc.

holograph : [Sc] a complete deed written in the grantor’s own handwriting.

holographic will : a testament handwritten by the testator himself, but not attested; the personally written draft of one’s last will and testament missing the customary signatures of witnesses.  Many U.S. states have by now adopted the Uniform Probate Code, which stipulates that a holographic will must be recognized if its major terms were indeed written in the testator’s own hand, and the testator subscribed his signature.

Holt : Holle.

holy company of saints in heaven : Cf. saints, preamble to Catholic Will.

Holy Spirit : a divine inspiration, born directly from the mind of God.  The Latin archetype for the Christian Holy Spirit was the female warrioress Minerva (Pallas Athena), who was believed to have sprung directly from the brain of Juppiter (Zeus).  Minerva served as an example of parthenogenesis, or emanation from a singular god, but the masculine Holy Spirit of Christianity served as an agent for immaculate conception, or spiritogenesis.  Cf. fatherless son of a virgin, parthenogenesis, spiritogenesis.

hom- : home- : homal- : [Gk] same, regular.

homage : homagium [Lt] : hommage [Fr] : obeisance; an outward action demonstrating respect; fealty professed and service paid to a superior lord or sovereign.  Historical incidents in which one sovereign requires another sovereign to pay him homage provide us with some fascinating and amusing stories.  Paying homage required contrition, and when it involved sovereigns, it signified the subordination of a lesser duke to a greater king, but it nonetheless obliged the superior lord to reciprocate the act, by granting the vassel benevolence and recognition.  Kings and emperors often deliberately paid homage to the pope to win the favor of the church.  Political manipulations and warfare sometimes reversed the rôles of vassal and lord.

homal- : hom- : home- : [Gk] same, regular.

hombre : [Sp] man.

home : [Sx] one’s own house, a private dwelling; one’s own country; a place of constant residence.

home- : hom- : homal- : [Gk] same, regular.

homeborn : native, natural, domestic; not foreign.

homebred : native, natural; plain, uncultivated, artless, rude.

homeo- : [Gk] similar, similis, par.

Homer : the pet name of Angilbert.

homestead : [1785] a farm sold or granted by some conditional patent to a settler by the U.S. government for residency and cultivation.  This was originally the concept that settlers should be permitted to create their own farms out of the vast, undeveloped tracts of land on the western frontiers of the United States, and that the the government should protect and indemnify such settlers against losing their homesteads to creditors.  Business interests mounted considerable opposition to the idea, because the capitalists believed that encouraging migration would deplete labor forces and depress rents.  As is usually the case, the Congress contritely yielded to the plutocracy, and compromised the Homestead Movement, by agreeing to sell parcels of land instead of granting them outright.  Thus, by subsequent sales of public lands, the modest farmers paid the government enough money by 1835 to eliminate the national debt.  Contrary to popular belief, there were very few homesteading provisions that permitted the free patenting of land.  The government continued some limited homesteading until the 1950s, but none of the acts ever came close to original concept.  In the twentieth century, most of the offered acrage fell into the possession of vast landowners, including mining interests and logging businesses.  Canada also passed homestead acts.

Homestead Act : [1862] a measure passed by the U.S. Congress on 20 May 1862 to allow a prospective settler to take possession of 160 acres (65 hectares) of land, providing he occupy and cultivate the parcel for a minimum of five years.  By the late date of this act, most of the accessible and desirable farmland was already privately owned, and few applicants had the capital needed to newly develop wilderness areas, so this plan failed to enjoy much success.  By 1890, only one out of three applicants remained in possession of their parcels.

homestead application : a settler’s application to obtain 160 acres under the Homestead Act.

homicide : the murder of a human being.  In 80% of all homicides, the victims know their killers.  Only 20% of homicides constitute stranger murders.  Cf. manslaughter, murder.

homines : infantry.  Opp. equites.

homines ad arma : men-at-arms.[55]

Hominidae : [1,000-400th millennia bc] the two species of men called Homo erectus or Pithecanthropus, and Homo sapiens, who lived during the Early Quaternary period.

Hominidae : [100-10th millennia bc] the men called Neanderthal (Homo erectus) and Cro-magnon (Homo sapiens sapiens), who flourished during the Late Quaternary period.

Hominidae : [3,000-1,000th millennia bc] hominids of the basal Quaternary period, namely Ramapithecus, Kenyapithecus, and Australopithecus.

Hominidae : [400-100th millennia bc] the men called Homo sapiens, who flourished during the Middle Quaternary period.  Cf. Omo man, Fontéchevade man, Steinheim man, Swanscombe man, Vertesszöllös man,.

homme : [Fr] man.

homo- : [Gk] same, idem.

homo : man.

homo erectus : literally standing man.  Cf. Neanderthal man.  Opp. homo sapiens.

homo liberaliter educatus : a man of good edu­cation

Homo neanderthalensis : Neanderthal man.

homo nobilis : nobles, noble men.

homo sapiens : [35,000 bc] literally wise man; modern man, the Cromagnan man that migrated out of Africa.  Homo sapiens seem to have converged with homo erectus populations in the Middle East from about 90,000 bc to 60,000 bc.  The homini sapiensi arrived in Gaul around 35,000 bc, and encountered Neanderthal societies in southern France.  The Neanderthal people inhabited caves and valleys, and never buried their dead.  The homini sapiensi settled on strategic hilltops, and buried their dead.  Cf. Neanderthal man, Kennewick man.

Homo sapiens sapiens : Cro-magnon man.

homoëroticism : homosexuality.

homogalactes : [Gk] men nursed with the same milk; uterine brothers-german in Athens.  Halfbrothers and halfsisters born of different fathers were not considered to be related, and therefore the rules against incest were determined only by maternal relationship.  Cf. conlactea, conlactus.

homogeneal : belonging to the same genetic stock, kinship, blood relationship; having the same nature or principles; suitable to one another.  Opp. heterogeneal.

homogeneous : homogeneal.

homogenic love : homosexuality.

homophile : a lover of someone of the same sex.  Cf. androphile, gynecophile.

homophobia : [1969] the fear of sameness; the irrational Christian fear of homosexuality or homosexuals, which officially commenced with the imposition of the death penalty in ad 390 by Theodosius I.  Cf. homosexophobia, patrism.

homophones : two words having the same syllabic values; two or more words that sound alike, but which have different meanings.

homosexophobia : an irrational fear of homosexuality.[56]  Thie word was newly coined by John Boswell to illustrate the vague and uncertain formation of the word homophobia ‘fear of sameness.’

homosexual : [1891 En] the word as it first appeared in John Addington Symonds’ Problem in Modern Ethics (1891), in the phrase ‘homosexual instincts.’  OED listed the first use as 1897.[57]

homosexual attachments: paisi misgontai [Gk].

homosexual cliques : Alcuin’s Circle, Quadruple Alliance.

homosexual emperors : androphilic leaders of the Roman Empire.  Gibbon reported that 14 out of the first 15 Roman emperors had homosexual affairs, and that the only exception was Claudius.[58]

homosexual first ladies : Mary Lincoln née Todd and Mercy Levering.  Rose Cleveland (circa 1846), sister of President Grover Cleveland, served her brother as First Lady during his first term (1885-1889), and fell in love with Evangeline Marrs Simpson Whipple (circa 1860) in 1890, remaining her lover for 28 years.[59]  Eleanor Roosevelt.

homosexual generals : [1700] the four French generals of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, namely the Grande Condé, Duc d’Orléans, Maréchal de Vendôme, and Prince de la Roche sur Yon.[60]

homosexual goddesses : Artemis; : the lesbian triad of Demeter, Persephone, and Hecate, all associated with the underworld.[61]

homosexual gods : Zeus, Apollo.

homosexual kings : William II Rufus and his lover Tyrrel, Richard I Lionheart, Edward II, Henri III of France (vixit 1551-1589, regnavit 1574-1589), James VI of Scotland postea James I of England, William IV.

homosexual monarchs :  Cf. gay sovereigns, lesbian queens.

homosexual presidents and first ladies : James Buchanan; Abraham Lincoln and Joshua Speed whose relationship lasted from 1837 to 1841, and ended when both men married.[62]

homosexual prostitution : Cf. tax on homosexual prostitution.

homosexual queens : Boudica, Anne of England, Christina of Sweden, Myrina.

homosexual relations : mixis athesmos.

homosexual terms adopted from Greek : pedico, pathicus, cinædus, catamitus, malacus.

homosexual women : hetairistriai.  Cf. gynecophile.

homosexualism : homosexuality.

homosexuality : [1869 Gk-Lt, original meaning] Urningtum; sexual concern for the same sex; passing or temporary interest in the same sex, within a primarily heterosexual context.  This word was newly coined in 1869 by Karoly Maria Kertbeny, who intended it to mean sexual concern for the same sex, rather than sexual preference per se.[63]  The word is odd and unusual, for it consists of the Greek homo- ‘same’ juxtaposed with the Latin sexus ‘sex.’  Ancient Greek had a vocabulary of perhaps two dozen terms denoting homosexuals and their relationships, but the Bible used none of them:  neither the Greek Septuagint nor the Latin Vulgate contain any words representing eros.  Kertbeny devised the term homosexuality as a substitute for Urningtum.  Prior to 1869, practically all of the equivalent terms in common use were pejorative and derogatory, such as buggery, pouf, patapouf, sodomy, unnatural vice, et cetera.  However, the Europeans were well acquainted with Greek love, and therefore sometimes used some fairly neutral terms, such as Platonizer, boy-lover, et cetera.  Cf. appenomixia, eros.

homosexuality : [1869 Gk-Lt, present meaning] sexual preference for the same sex, sexual interest in members of the same sex;  homogenic love, contrasexuality, homoëroti­cism, similisexualism, uranism.  Prejudicial terms for homosexuality include sexual inver­sion, intersexuality, transsexuality, psycho­sexual hermaphroditism, and the third sex.[64]  Cf. delta.  Opp. heterosexuality.

homosexuality as a social norm : [1300] androphilia in Germany and Germanic kingdoms in the thirteenth century.  Whereas several legal codes in Europe began to criminalize homosexuality by the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the Germans demurred from establishing penalties for sodomy.  The subject was not addressed in the Constitutions of Melfi (1231), which Emperor Frederick II promulgated for the Kingdom of Sicily, and had no place in the Sachsenspiegel (circa 1233) and Schwabenspiegel.[65]

homosexuality as a social norm : [ante ad 390] androphilia in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.  Many Christian writers, such as Minucius Felix, Tatian, Lactantius, and Clement of Alexandria all attested to the fact the pederasty and homosexuality was the ‘Roman religion,’ highly esteemed by all segments of Roman society.[66]  Lesbianism was also prevalent, but was seldom documented, due to the cloistered and private nature of female societies.  Clement of Alexandria asserted that homosexuality had been prohibited by the ancients, but historical evidence tells us otherwise.  Etruscan society at Rome was matristic and organized into matriarchal clans, so it should not have been homophobic at all.  Homosexuality was criminalized and made a capital offense in the same year Christianity was made the state religion, ad 390.  Cf. bonobo.

homosexuality as eros : [169 bc] male homosexuality, which was first outlawed by the Senate of Rome in 169 bc.

homosexuality as luxuria : [1260] the sexual proclivity outlawed by the legal code of Orléans in 1260.  Mutilation was the punishment for first and second offences, but death by burning was imposed for a third offence.  Cf. death penalty.

homosexuality as sin : the Christian doctrine of homophobia that was chiefly developed by Peter Cantor (obiit 1197), who selected many biblical passages to evidence of his presumption.  Bible scholars generally agree that none of the homophobe’s selections actually condemn homosexuality,[67] but Roman and fundamentalist Christians nonetheless perpetuate Cantor’s propaganda even today, purporting it to represent the ‘word of God.’  Cantor was the French theologian who established the verse in Leviticus as a Christian justification for murdering homosexuals, even though the original context pertained exclusively to the conduct of heterosexual Levite householders, and never mentioned any other tribe or class of individuals.  Cantor attempted to convince the French to adopt civil statutes against sodomy, and his persistent campaigning seems to have resulted in the harsh measures adopted by the Third Lateran Council (1179).  Acceptance of Cantor’s thesis logically requires the Bible reader to reject all the contrary passages that happen to esteem homosexual relations, such as may be found 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, Ruth, Matthew, and John.  Cf. death penalty, Lateran Council.

homosexuals : Cf. beguines, beghards.

homosexuals and heretics : Cf. heretics and homosexuals.

homozygous condition : two or more siblings born of the same mother, specifically of the same egg.

homozygous halfbrothers : uterine halfbrothers.  Opp. heterozygous halfbrothers.

Hon. : Honorable; Honourable.

Honi Soit Qui Mal Y Pense : [1344] Shame be to him who thinks evil; the motto embroided in gold on the blue velvet garter of the Order of the Garter.[68]  The garter is worn on the left leg, directly below the knee, and commemorates the time when the garter of Joan, Countess of Salisbury, fell to the ground during a dance.  Edward III was known to be fond of the beautiful countess, so when he bent down to retrieve her garter, his courtiers laughed, and caused Joan to blush with embarrassment.  To chastize his courtiers, the king promised them that he would make the blue garter the highest dignity of the land.

honor : dignity, reputation, high rank; the title of a man of rank; due veneration; privileges of rank or birth; seigniory, lordship.

honor constabulariæ : honor of the constable.

Honorable : Hon. : the Honorable, the Honourable; the illustrious, noble, great; a courtesy title customarily applied before the name of any public magistrate or elected official; magnanimous, generous; free from reproach, free of taint; honest; having no deceitful intentions; equitable.

honorable ordinary : a charge made with ordinary lines and divisions on an escutcheon.  Cf. charges, common charge.  Opp. subordinaries.

honorary : made in honor, done in honor; conferring honor without gain.

honorary pallbearer : one of six ceremonial ‘bearers’ who simply attend a corpse and hold the pall.  Ordinarily, the honorary bearers are close friends and relatives of the decedent who are too old or infirm to carry the corpse.  Cf. pallbearer.  Opp. underbearer.

Honourable : [1611-1850] a courtesy title sometimes used to address a Baronet of England, Ireland, Scotland, Great Britain, or the United Kingdom.  The courtesy title Honourable was never formally conceded by Letters Patent, and therefore was gradually disallowed by the early nineteenth century.

hood : [AfAm slang] neighborhood.  Cf. boys of the hood.

hood : a tailored blind that covers the head of a hawk.  A blinded hawk does not attempt to fly, and easily acquieses to the handling of a falconer, so it is customary during taming to sew threads into the lower eyelids of a hawk, as a means to frequently and mechanically close its eyes (seel).  Once the initial taming is complete, the threads are removed, and a hood is used instead to blind the hawk in the field.  The hood serves as a convenient mask that attenuates the hawk’s senses of hearing and smell.  Cf. hawks, seel.

Hopi system : a matrilineage.

hora : hour; time; season.

hormone : a chemical messenger essential to the regulation and coördination of cellular and bodily functions.

hormone replacement therapy : a medical remedy for hormone deficiency wherein the physician injects testosterone and/or estrogen into the body of someone wanting those hormones.

Horned Goat : Horned God; goat-god.  Cf. butch, Horned God.

Horned God : Cernunnos; Horned Goat, the impersonators of which included the character Puck.  Portrayals of the Horned God often involved transvestism.  Cf. butch, Puck.

horniness : sexual desire.  Cf. Horned God.

horns : the invisible horns that supposedly grow from the head of a cuckold.  No one knows exactly how this symbology developed, but we commonly suspect that it somehow derived through the comparison of a cuckold to a yoked and stupid ox.  Perhaps the horns are connected somehow to the Horned God.  Poets and playwrights in the Renaissance consistently made references to a pair of horns whenever their subject was a cuckold, or a husband incognizant of hiss wife’s infidelity.  Cf. cuckold, cuckoo, Horned God.

Horo : Horon : [Teutonic] whore; slime, filth.

horography : [Gk] an account of hours.

horoscope : [Gk] the configuration of the planets at the hour of one’s birth.

horse : [1533?/3/18] £3 6d 8d.  Fitzwilliam purchased a horse of Sir Thomas for £3 6s 8d on or about 1533?/3/18.

horse : [Sx] a neighing quadruped used for draught, carriage, and warfare.

horse : male horse, usually called a stallion, stud, stag, or simply horse.

horses : herd of horses.  Collectively horses may be referred to as a herd, string, field, or stable of horses.  Two rarer collectives are haras and remuda.

horses : pair of horses.  Two horses might be called a pair, team, or set of horses.

horse : female horse, called a mare or dam.

horse : young horse, variously called a colt, stot, foal, stag, filly, hogget, or hog-colt.

horse : a symbol for a woman.  Cf. animal metaphors for women.

horse : hippos [Gk], which is evident in the names Alcippa, Dioxippa, Hippothoë, Hippolyte, and Melanippa.[69]  Cf. mare.

horse sacrifices : the sacred marriage between the divine white stallion and the Amazon chiefess.  This was an annual event that featured the pseudo-marriage of the Amazon leader and a white stallion, on Ares Isle in the Black Sea.[70]  Cf. Asvamedha, horsebaiting.

horsebaiting : [1603] an Elizabethan blood sport wherein a group of dogs was allowed to chase a pony or horse with an ape tethered to its back.  The dogs utterly terrified both the pony and the ape, and the screaming ape tended to spook and startle the pony into a frenzy.  The pony would avidly defend itself by biting at the dogs.  The dogs were presumably pulled away after a time, to spare the lives of the pony and ape.  Cf. bearbaiting, bullbaiting.

horseboy : stableboy, a boy employed in the dressing of horses.

horseknave : groom, a horse servant.

horseman : rider, a man on horseback, one skilled at riding.

horsemanship : the art of riding, the art of managing a horse.

horsemeat : horsemete : provender; hay and corn.

horses : animals to which adulterers were compared.  Cf. animal metaphors for men.

horticulture : the art of cultivating gardens.

hortus : culus, rectum, buttocks.

hose : nether-stocks, stockings worn on the lower legs.  Opp. hose-stocks.

hose-stocks : upper-stocks, short breeches.  Opp. hose, nether-stocks.

hospice care : nursing services designed to comfort the dying, and typically provided at a separate hospice, rather than a hospital.  Cf. respite care.

hospitable : hospitalis : kind to strangers, giving entertainment to strangers.

hospitableness : kindness to strangers; the disposition to entertain strangers.

hospitage : hospitium : hospitality.

hospital : hospitalis : a place for shelter or entertainment; a place provided for the reception of the sick or the support of the poor.

Hospital Insurance Trust Fund : [1970] one four Social Security Trust Funds established in the United States.  Cf. Social Security Trust Funds.

hospitality : theoxeny, the sacred right of hospitality in the desert.

hospitaller : hospitalier : [Fr] a member of a religious community dedicated to the relief of the poor or the care of the sick; a knight of a religious order.

hospitium : hospitality, the relation between host and guest.

host name : [1990] the third part of an e-mail address, designating the server name of the host computer.  E.g. juno.  Cf. address.

hostage : ostage : [Fr] someone given as security for the performance of conditions.

hostes : enemies.  Cf. barbari, peregrini.

hostiarii : ushers, the lesser functionaries of a household.

hostiarius : hostage.[71]

hostis : enemy, stranger, public enemy.  Cf. per­duellis.  Opp. civis.

hour : [Ba] 60 minutes.

hour: hora [Lt] : heure [Fr] : a twenty-fourth part of a day; the period of sixty minutes.

Hours : the trinity of Dike, Eunomia, and Eirene; Justice, Order, and Peace, the three granddaughers of Gaia.  The three sisters joined with Demeter to make a foursome holy to women.[72]

housage : warehousing, a fee paid for the storage of goods in a house.

house : [Sx] a place of human abode, a place wherein someone lives; monastery, college; the station of a planet in the zodiac; family of ancestors, descendants, and kindred; household, a family dwelling in a house; a body of parliament.  Cf. la maison [Fr].

House of Julus : gens Julius : the royal house of original Rome, identified as such by Virgil.  According to Virgil, Æneas left his consort Dido, Queen of Carthage, and sailed to Italy, where he married Lavinia, daughter of Latinus, King of the Latini.  The grandson of Æneas is supposed to have been Julus, and he gave rise to the Caesarean Julius gens or clan.  This is the central genealogy of the Æneid, because Virgil wrote the work for Augustus Caesar, the adoptive son of Julius Caesar.  Other authorities equate progenitor Julus to Anchises, King of Dardanus, whom Virgil held to have been the father of Æneas.

House of Lords : Cf. Upper House.

House of Priam : Cf. Æneas.

housedog : a mastiff maintained to guard a house.

household : a family living together; a family co-resident; domestic management; family life at a residence or settlement.  The word household is not a synonym of family, for it implies co-residence, and not the family per se.

household officers : steward, butler, chamberlain, marshal, ushers.  The four great officers in the French royal household of Philip I were the steward, constable, chamberlain, and butler.[73]

household size : [1557 En] 5.05 people was the mean size for one residence in Clackclose Hundred, in southwestern Norfolk.[74]

household size : [1574-1821 En] 4.768 people was the mean size for one residence in England, according to a sampling of 100 listings mainly drawn from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in England.[75]

householder : Hu; master of a family.

housekeeper : householder, master of a family; a woman servant who cares for a family and superintends other maid servants.

housewife : Wi; the mistress of a family; a female economist.

housewifery : domestic or female business; management becoming the mistress of a family.

housling fire : sacramental fire used in an ancient marriage ceremony.

hoy : [Sp] today.

hP’ags-Pa script : Mongolian alphabet.

Hsung : [Ch] a Chinese surname.  Sebastian de Vries adopted Hsung as his surname, and was known as Hsung San Pa.[76]

HTLV : human T-cell leukemia virus.  Cf. oncovirus.

HTML : HyperText Markup Language, a simple document-processing language, based upon the larger SGML, or Standard Generalized Markup Language.  Cf. SGML.

Hu & WiSi : sororate marriage.

Hu : [anthropology] husband, as paired with wife (Wi), concubine (Cc), or contubernine (Ct).  Cf. spouse (Sp).

huame : hwame.

hubristes : [Gk] rapist.

huckster : hucksterer : hucker : [Gm] peddler; one who sells goods by retail or in small quantities.

hue : huée : [Fr] a legal pursuit, characterized by clamor, and cries of alarm throughout the countryside.

hue and cry : the excitement and yelling occasioned by the community pursuit of a criminal.  This is a common expression in English law representing the act of raising hue and cry, as well as the local right or jurisdiction to hunt criminals.  Cf. posse.

Hugo : Hugh.

Hugonem puerum 8 annos natum, cruci­fixerunt : they crucified Hugo, a boy eight years of age.[77]

Huguenot : Eignot : confederate; a French Calvinist, a member of the Reformed religion in France.  By the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, the Catholics drove thousands of Huguenots into exile.  They settled in Germany, Holland, England, and America.

Huguenotism : the profession or principles of a Huguenot.

huius mensis : of this month.

Hulda : Holle.

human : humanus : belonging to man; having the qualities of a man.

human sacrifice : Cf. Pentitentes, Penthesilea and Hippolyta.

humaneness : humanity, tenderness; benevolence in governance.

humanism : Cf. rhetoric, secular humanism.

humanity : humanitas : humankind, the nature of man, the collective body of mankind; benevolence, tenderness; grammatical studies, philology.

humatus : inhumed, buried.

Humfredus : Humfrey.

humility : humilité : [Fr] modesty, freedom from pride; act of submission.

humor : [1590] one of the four humors that comprise a human personality, corresponding to the four elements.  Imbalances in the four humors were believed to lead to mental and physical problems.

humor : moisture; temper of mind; present disposition; jocularity, merriment; tendancy to disease, morbid disposition; petulance, peevishness; caprice, whim; predominant inclination.

hūn : [Ch] donor affines who give wives to another clan, or donee affines.  Cf. hūnyīn, yīn.

hund. : hundred.

hundred : hundredum : a body or collection consisting of a hundred; a old subdivision or canton of a county which was originally based perhaps on the count of one hundred freemen, or one hundred manors.  During the plantations of Ireland and America, the hundred was used as a political division in some places.  Hundreds once existed in colonial Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania.  Delaware continued to use hundreds.[78]

hundred court : moot, the local court of a hundred.

hundreder : hundredarius : dweller in the hundred; someone who has jurisdiction over a hundred; one who holds the hundred court; the member of a jury assembled to investigate a controversy.

hunger : [Sx] desire for food; the pain felt when fasting; any intense desire.

Huntedon : Huntingdon.

hunter : one who chases animals for food or pastime.

Huntindonia : Huntingdon.

Huntingdon : Huntedon : Huntindonia : Huntundona.

Huntingdonshire : Venantodunia.

huntress : a woman who follows the chase.

Hunts. : Huntingdonshire.

Huntundona : Huntingdon.

hūnyīn : [Ch] affines; a term that anciently denoted two groups, namely the hūn and yīn.

Hure : [Gm] whore; prostitute; a word derived from the old Teutonic words Horo and Horon, meaning ‘slime, filth.’[79]  Cf. hair, illegitimacy.

Huron system : a horticultural matrilineage of uterine relatives, or enate relatives, wherein the women remain in the natal group, and males constitute the migrating sex.[80]

hurricane : Cf. Ouriganos [west Af].

husband : gwr [We].

husband : hossband [Dn] : Hu; a man married to a woman; the male correlative to wife; economist, a man who practices frugality and knows how to profit; farmer, tiller of the ground; époux [Fr], esposo [Sp], Ehemann [Gm]; echtgenoot [Du].  Cf. as her second husband – quasi maritus secundus ejus,[81]consort, lover, mate, spouse.

husbandless : without a husband.

husbandman : Hu; householder; master of a family; farmer, one who works in tillage.

husbandry : tillage, agriculture; the manner of cultivating land; thrift, frugality, parsimony; the care of domestic affairs.

husbands : gwyr [We].

husbn. : husbandman.

husbonde : [Dn] Hu; husband.

husmand : [Dn] Hu; a modest farmer who owns his own house.

hussy : a bad or sorry woman; a worthless wench.

hustler : a street prostitute, someone unconnected with any whorehouse or peghouse.

hustru : [Dn, Nw, Sw] wife.

huswife : [Sx] Wi; a bad manager, a sorry woman; economist, a thrifty woman.

huswifery : management good or bad, the management of a rural business entrusted to women.

hwame : [Pima] a native American medicine woman; lesbian shaman.  Cf. nadle [Navajo], bote [Crow], medicine woman.

hwame : huame : [Mojave] lesbian shaman, who takes a marriage partner of the same sex.  The hwame was said to be capable of curing veneral diseases, and visits to the hwame were considered lucky.[82]  Cf. alyha, American shamans.

Hyacinth : Hyacinthus : Er; a youth Apollo loved, but accidentally killed.  Zephyrus the West Wind also loved Hyacinth, but grew jealous of the boy’s preference for Apollo.  When the boys were playing with a quoit, Zephyrus blew the quoit off its course, and caused it to strike and kill Hyacinthus.[83]

hybrid : [Gk] mongrel; of different species; a crossbred plant; an animal of mixed breeding.

hybridization : cross breeding with animals, which was forbidden in the Old Testament.[84]

hybridous : begotten between animals belonging to different species.

hybris : [Gk] an evil desire.

hybriste : [Gk] the steed of evil desire.[85]

hybrizein : to have sex illicitly, stupro [Lt].

hydr- : [Gk] water.

hydro- : [Gk] water, aqua.

hydrocephalus : [Gk] dropsy in the head; having excess fluid pressuring the brain.

hydrography : a description of the water parts of our terraqueous world.  Cf. geography.

hydromancy : [Gk] prediction through the use of water.  Nostradamus was a hydromancer.

hydrops : dropsy, edema, anasarca, accumulation of fluid,[86] a collection of water in a large cavity.

hyena : Cf. alzabo.

hyena and hare : two animals obsessed with sexual intercourse.  Moses forbade his people from eating hyenas and hares.[87]

hygr- : [Gk] wet, moist.

Hymen: [Gk] the god of marriage.

hymen : the virginal membrane.

hymenæus : hymeneal, marriage, wedding.

hymeneal : hymenean : marriage song; pertaining to marriage.

hymn : [Gk] a song of adoration to some superior being, an encomiastic song.

hynaf : [We] eldest.

hynafiad : [We] ancestor.

hyper- : [Gk] above, supra, super.

hyperborean : hyperboreus : Northern.

hypergamy : social class exogamy wherein a woman is expected to marry into a family superior to her own; a marriage wherein a man marries a woman belonging to an affinal group of lower status than the groom’s kin group.  Cf. exogamy, isogamy.  Opp. hypogamy.

hyperlink : [1990 MS] vide; a cross reference; a programmed referral to another document.  This tool for scanning resources is the modern equivalent of scholastic cross references, which were normally designated with Latin expressions such as these:  vide, see; quod vide, which see; vide infra, see below; vide supra, see above.  Cf. confer, cross reference, headword, v., q.v., v.i, v.s.

hypermasculine : characteristic of a man having an overtly masculine, patristic, or heterosexual orientation.  Cf. Caesar type, Mike Hammer syndrome.

hypochondres : [Gk] the two regions under the ribs which contain the liver on one side, and the spleen on the other.

hypochondria : melancholy.

hypochondriac : melancholic person; someone with disordered imagination, especially one who tends to be fearful and paranoic about his health.

hypocrisy : dissimulation with respect to one’s moral or religious character.

hypocrite : [Gk] dissembler in morality or religion; an insincere person; someone appearing different from reality; one who acts in a manner inconsistent with the beliefs he publicly professes.

hypogamy : reversed hypergamy; a marriage wherein a man marries a woman belonging to an affinal group of higher status than the groom’s kin group.  Cf. isogamy.  Opp. hypergamy.

hypogeum : [Gk] crypt; the underground parts of a building, such as cellars, vaults, and basements.  A hypogeum was commonly used as a burial crypt, or catacomb, especially by Christians, and it also served as a repository for wine.  An underground environment with a cool and stable temperature (about 57 degrees), tends to preserve corpses, especially when the crypt happens to be embedded within some clay or limestone that absorbs moisture.  One hypogeum in Malta was discovered in 1902, and has been dated to 3000 bc, when it was used for burials.  The Maltese hypogeum contains evidence that pregnant women made ritualistic visits to the tomb, presumably to invite spirits of the dead to animate their fetuses.

hyster- : [Gk] uterus, hysteria.

hysterical : [Gk] disordered in the region of the womb; proceeding from disorders of the womb; troubled with fits.

hysterics : the fits of a woman, supposed to originate from some disorder or trouble in her womb.



[1] According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens.  Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  116-117.

[2] Davis 1924:  617.

[3] Leland:  5.11.166.

[4] BRUN 4.123.1-J.

[5] PLEA 11.1321351331.B-C.

[6] WISE.

[7] Joseph Abner Strange (1847-circa 1900), CULP 4.1448.

[8] PLEA 12.132135133231.

[9] HL:  122, 480.

[10] 1m means primam, the feminine accusative form of primus, meaning “first” or “eldest.”

[11] Leland, 1.92.

[12] PLEA 12.132135133221.

[13] CHES 7.1126445.

[14] Leland:  2.4.11.

[15] Benjamin R. Strange’s halfniece Rachel Rickman, HOWA 7:1332318, HOWA 8:13323127.

[16] Shakespeare, As You Like It, 1.1.20.  Davis 1924:  617.

[17] G.H. Van Gulik, Sexual Life in Ancient China, Leiden, 1961:  63.  Boswell 1980:  27.

[18] Marjorie Kelt, “Handfasting Explained,” The Nugget, California Genealogical Society, 1995:  6.1.24.

[19] Evans.  Grahn 1990:  96.

[20] Eglinton 1964:  248.

[21] Davis 1924:  275.

[22] HHA 1519.

[23] Grahn 1990:  288.

[24] Dave B. Strong.

[25] Kurt Seligmann (1900-1962), The History of Magic and the Occult, New York:  Harmony Books, 1948, reprint 1975.

[26] Kurt Seligmann (1900-1962), The History of Magic and the Occult, New York:  Harmony Books, 1948, reprint 1975.

[27] Grahn 1990:  35.

[28] Grahn 1990:  183.

[29] Davis 1924:  617.

[30] Henslowe.

[31] Boswell 1980:  361.

[32] Listed in Meier and de Pogey-Castries.  Boswell 1980:  25.

[33] Bullfinch 1855:  119.

[34] Sandars 1868:  217.

[35] Sandars 1868:  216-217.

[36] Sandars 1868:  214.

[37] Sandars 1868:  219.

[38] Boswell 1980:  185.

[39] HHA 1520.

[40] Gurney, 561.10.

[41] Oestmann 1994.

[42] Eglinton, 5.4.116.

[43] Boswell 1980:  362.

[44] Plato.  Boswell 1980:  30.

[45] Boswell 1980:  42.

[46] Grahn 1990:  106.

[47] Dave B. Strong.

[48] Leland:  5.11.142.

[49] Leland, 1.137.

[50] Leland:  5.11.135.

[51] Grahn 1990:  136.

[52] Eglinton 1964:  483.

[53] Boswell 1980:  21.

[54] Chronicles of Newgate, 68.

[55] HL:  272.

[56] Boswell 1980:  46.

[57] Boswell 1980:  42.

[58] Edward Gibbon.  Boswell 1980:  61.

[59] Jonathan Katz, “The President’s Sister and the Bishop’s Wife,” The Advocate, 1989/1/31.

[60] Boswell 1980:  25.

[61] Grahn 1990:  129.

[62] Jonathan Ned Katz, “Abe and Josh, Mary and Mercy,” The Advocate, 1988/9/13.

[63] Eglinton 1964:  446.

[64] Kinsey 1949:  612.

[65] Boswell 1980:  286-287.

[66] Boswell 1980:  68.

[67] Harper’s Bible Dictionary.

[68] Harrison 1948:  1657.

[69] Diner 1965:  126.

[70] Diner 1965:  127.

[71] Eyton, 7.228.

[72] Grahn 1990:  47.

[73] Douglas 1964:  145.

[74] D.M. Palliser, The Age of Elizabeth, London, 1983:  38.  Oestmann 1994:  157.

[75] P. Laslett, “Mean household size in England since the fifteenth century,” Household and Family in Past Time, Cambridge, 1972:  125-158.  Oestmann 1994:  156-157.

[76] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[77] Leland:  5.11.179.

[78] Everton 1971:  188.

[79] Diner 1965:  73.

[80] Schusky 1972:  24-25.

[81] Confer LANC, sub John Beaufort, 1404-1444, Duke of Somerset, second husband of Margaret Beaufort née Beauchamp.

[82] George Devereux.  Grahn 1990:  59-60.

[83] Bulfinch 1855:  59-60.

[84] Genesis, 30.31-42.  Boswell 1980:  154.

[85] Plato, Phaedrus.  Boswell 1980:  358.

[86] UMPQ 6.115116.

[87] Boswell 1980:  140.


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