The Alphabetary Heraldic
C : [anthropology] Ch; child. Cf. kin types.
C : [LDS] christening, an LDS Event subject to the Ordinances.
C : [Ogham Q-Celtic] caoi.
c : ca. : circa, about, around the year; century.
C : The Confraternity Edition of the New Testament (1941).
C.A. : Coast Artillery.
c.a. : copy of administration.
c.a.w. : copy of administration and will.
C.B. : Companion of the Bath.
C.Ch.R. : CCHR : Calendar of Charter Rolls.
C.Cl.R. : CCLR : Calendar of Close Rolls.
C.E. : Christian Era, anno Domini (ad).
c.e. : Common Era, anno æræ communis; the vulgar era, anno æræ vulgaris. The initials c.e. commonly appear as the international equivalent for ad or A.D., anno domini. Although our familiar year-dates are commonly used throughout the world, Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, communists, and other non-Christians are disinclined to use the Christian style.
C.F.R. : CFR : Calendar of Fine Rolls.
C.I.P.M. : CIPM : Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem.
C.M.G. : Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George.
C.P. : Cape Providence, now Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
C.P.A. : Certified Public Accountant.
C.P.R. : CPR : Calendar of Patent Rolls.
C.R. : church record.
c.t. : copy of testament.
C.Z. : CZ : Territory of the Canal Zone, now Panama.
ca. : circa : c. : about.
cabasset : a steel cap similar to the morion.
cabriolet : [Fr] an open carriage.
cac- : [Gk] bad.
cacando : to defile.
cacator : defiler.
cacaturio : the desiderative form of the verb to defecate.
caco : to defecate, defile.
cacoepy : incorrect pronunciation.
cacuit : he defiled.
cad- : cid- : cas- : to fall, befall.
cadastral : pertaining to a cadastre.
cadastral map :  a large-scale plan made by surveying to show the property boundaries, subdivisions, and buildings of a section of land. Detailed maps of this kind were sometimes drawn on the scale of 1 acre per 1 square inch, and became necessary as the methods of taxation and assessment became more complicated. Cf. cadastre.
cadastre : katastichon [Gk] : catastro [It] : notebook;  an official register of the acrage, value, and ownership of a parcel of real estate, maintained for the purpose of taxation. A cadastre is more formal and complex than an ordinary register, because its contents derive from large-scale cadastral maps.
cadaver : corpse.
cadence : cadency : fall, the fall of the voice; the flow of verses or periods; the tone or sound; the distinction of houses or families.
cadencies : differences, filiations. Cf. differences.
cadency : difference, the state of being junior to an older brother or senior lineage. Only the senior representative of a family is supposed to display the coat-of-arms, and all the sons and junior representatives are supposed to differentiate their shields with marks of cadency. The royal family uses a fairly well established sequence of bars and devices to show the order of births among the princes, and armorial scholars have often illustrated the common marks in series. However, in actual use, the marks of cadency were diverse, and not really standardized.
cadency : ranking by descent, inheritance, succession, or residence.
cadent : falling down.
cadet : le cadet : [Fr] younger son, the younger brother, the youngest brother; a volunteer in the army, some soldier anticipating a commission.
cado : to fall; to abate, decay; to end, fail; to fall in battle, to be slain in battle.
cadre : a cameradery of regulars and officers who constitute the essential skeleton of regiment or military unit.
cadureum : testicle.
Caecilia : Cecily.
Caecilius : Cecil.
cædes : murder, slaughter, homicide; murder victims, persons slain.
cælebs : cœlebs : coelebs : bachelor, single, unmarried; celebate, not having a spouse by being unmarried; widowed, divorced. Cf. innupta.
cælebs vita : single life.
cælestis arcus : heavenly arch, rainbow.
Cælum : God of the Sky, Serapis, Saturn. Cf. Terra.
caerimoniae : ceremony, religion.
Caerns. : Caernarvonshire, Wales.
Caesar : Cf. Julius Caesar.
Caesar conquered Gaul; Nicomedes, Caesar : Cf. Julius Caesar and Nicomedes.
Caesar type : an ambisexual type.
CAILS : Certified American Indian Lineage Specialist.
cairn: carn : [We] heap of stones, a primitive grave.
Caith. : Caithness, Scotland.
Caius : Gaius : Kay.
cajun : a Louisianan descendant of the Acadian migrants from Nova Scotia; a corruption of Acadia or Arcadia.
cal- : call- : kal- : kall- : [Gk] beauty.
Calamites :  Victorian paidophilic poetasters, beings of the calamus; a name that Swinburne applied to John Addington Symonds and his circle of friends. The term bears a deliberate similarity to Catamite, but is just as certainly a Whitmanesque word.
calamus : [Lt] sweet-scented wood; a long and sturdy reed used as a unit of measure; a reed-pen.
Calamus : Kalamos : [Gk] son of the river god Maeander. Calamus fell in love with the boy Karpos, and when Karpos died, Calamus continually pined for him and mourned. Rustling calamus reeds are believed to be the sound of Calamus’ never-ending lamentations.
Calamus : the name of Walt Whitman’s sexually explicit and homoërotic chapter in Leaves of Grass, which provided the pretext for banning his work.
calare : to loosen, slacken.
calc- : limstone, pebble.
Calendæ : Kalendæ.
calendar : [50 bc, discovered 1897] Celtic solar-lunar calendar, illustrated by the Coligny Tablet. The Coligny Tablet was a Romanized Gaulish model of the Celtic calendar cast in bronze about 50 bc, and discovered in 1897. The Coligny calendar had alternating months of 29 days and 30 days, but added one intercalary month every 2.5 years or 3 years, to adjust its lunar cycle of 354 days to the solar year of 365 days.
calendar : a regular system of telling time. In Anglo-Scottish genealogy, it is important to distinguish 6 types of calendars, namely the Anno Iuliano, commonly called the Julian Period (JP), as well as the Julian Calendar (jc), Julian Period (JP), Gregorian Calendar (gc), Gregorian Retrospection (GR), New Style Julian Calendar (ns), and Old Style Julian Calendar (os). Cf. AI, jc, JP, gc, GR, Sc ns, En os, Anno Iuliano, Julian Calendar, Julian Period, Gregorian Calendar, Gregorian Retrospection, New Style Julian, Old Style Julian.
calendar : calendarium : register of the year in which months and times are marked, a register of festivals and holidays. Cf. French Republican calendar, Julian day number, New Style calendar, Old Style calendar.
calendar : ei : [1338-1751] English Incarnative, Era of Incarnation. Cf. Era of Incarnation.
calendar : gc : Gregorian Calendar.
calendar : gr : Gregorian Retrospection.
calendar : jc : Julian Calendar.
calendar : jp : Julian Period.
calendar : Judge’s Calendar, Sheriff’s Calendar. In a court with many justices, the Calendar Judge schedules proceedings, and assigns the other judges to hear pleas.
calendar : ns : New Style Calendar, Scottish reckoning in the os/ns Julian Calendar, or Old Style / New Style Julian Calendar.
calendar : os : Old Style Calendar, English reckoning in the os/ns Julian Calendar, or Old Style / New Style Julian Calendar.
Calendar : Perpetual Calendar : Cf. Calendar 01SuAA, Perpetual Calendar.
Calendar 01SuAA : Perpetual Calendar 1, Dominical Letter A, beginning on Sunday 1 January. Cf. Perpetual Calendar.
Calendar 02MoGG : Perpetual Calendar 2, Dominical Letter G, beginning on Monday 1 January.
Calendar 03TuFF : Perpetual Calendar 3, Dominical Letter F, beginning on Tuesday 1 January.
Calendar 04WeEE : Perpetual Calendar 4, Dominical Letter E, beginning on Wednesday 1 January.
Calendar 05ThDD : Perpetual Calendar 5, Dominical Letter D, beginning on Thursday 1 January.
Calendar 06FrCC : Perpetual Calendar 6, Dominical Letter C, beginning on Friday 1 January.
Calendar 07SaBB : Perpetual Calendar B, Dominical Letter B, beginning on Saturday 1 January.
Calendar 08SuAG : Perpetual Calendar 08, Dominical Letter AG, beginning on Sunday 1 January.
Calendar 09MoGF : Perpetual Calendar 09, Dominical Letter GF, beginning on Monday 1 January.
Calendar 10TuFE : Perpetual Calendar 10, Dominical Letter FE, beginning on Tuesday 1 January.
Calendar 11WeED : Perpetual Calendar 11, Dominical Letter ED, beginning on Wednesday 1 January.
Calendar 12ThDC : Perpetual Calendar 12, Dominical Letter DC, beginning on Thursday 1 January.
Calendar 13FrCB : Perpetual Calendar 13, Dominical Letter CB, beginning on Friday 1 January.
Calendar 14SaBA : Perpetual Calendar 14, Dominical Letter BA, beginning on Saturday 1 January.
Calendar 1752 jc/gc : vide Calendar 1752 JC/GC.
calendar correction : lunar correction. Cf. epact.
calendar cycle : epact. Cf. epact.
Calendar Day : one of seven possible days of the week.
Calendar Day 1 : 1A : Sunday.
Calendar Day 2 : 2G : Monday.
Calendar Day 3 : 3F : Tuesday.
Calendar Day 4 : 4E : Wednesday.
Calendar Day 5 : 5D : Thursday.
Calendar Day 6 : 6C : Friday.
Calendar Day 7 : 7B : Saturday.
Calendar Day A : 1A : Sunday.
Calendar Day B : 7B : Saturday.
Calendar Day C : 6C : Friday.
Calendar Day D : 5D : Thursday.
Calendar Day E : 4E : Wednesday.
Calendar Day F : 3F : Tuesday.
Calendar Day G : 2G : Monday.
calendar subdivision : appointment; a promise to meet at some given time of day; a pledge of one’s timely presence at some appointed hour, half-hour, or quarter-hour. Cf. appointment.
calendar subdivision : event, a calendar observance or engagement made to happen on an agreed day and date. Cf. event, pensum, task.
calendar subdivision : meeting, a conclave of two or more persons, assembling to perform some discussion, observance, task, or job. A future meeting is called an appointment. Cf. appointment, meeting.
calendar subdivision : task, a job or operation, scheduled for performance sometime during one day or more days. Cf. task.
calendar subdivision : weeks and days of the calendar, ordered into regular weeks, and seven-day periods. The first week or common week of a fortnight of 2 weeks runs simply from Holy Sabbath to the Saturnalian feast, or Sunday through Saturday, arranged in these series: 12345671, AGFEDCBA. The second week, or leap week, of the 2 fortnight weeks, runs from 08 to 14, Sunday to Saturday, in this sequence: 08-09-10-11-12-13-14-08, AG-GF-FE-ED-DC-CB-BA-AG. The first days of leaping years are always figured by applying a Dominical Letter to each year, thereby associating each year-date with a specific correspondence between the date 1 January and the day of the week. Dominical Letters are used in this fashion to identify a string of equivalents. Each Littera Dominicalis stands for a numbered Perpetual Calendar, and a correspondence between a day of the week and the date 1 January, such that each describes one of 14 possible calendars, 7 possible common years (AGFEDCBA, calendars 01-07), and 7 possible leap years (AG-GF-FE-ED-DC-CB-BA-AG, calendars 08-14), Cf. appointment, task, event, meeting.
calendar systems : Julian and Gregorian calendars constitute our basic, twofold division of reckoning. The Roman Julian calendar (Rm jc) bifurcated into two kinds of Britannic reckoning, namely the English Old Style Julian calendar (os) with Lady Day as New Year, and the Scottish New Style Julian calendar (ns) with 1 January as New Year. A single notation was improvised to express both systems at once (os/ns). English and Scottish os/ns Julian calendars (jc) ended on 2 September 1752, when Great Britain adopted the Gregorian calendar (gc) on 14 September 1752 gc (=3 September 1752 os/ns). From 1 January to 24 March each year, the English and Scots showed the disparity between their two systems by writing 1750’51 os/ns, but their year-dates were identical from 25 March to 31 December 1752 os/ns (also gc).
calendar year : [1601-present Rm Gregorian; January Year, historical reckoning] Microsoft Outlook calendar. Microsoft Outlook provides January calendars that commence on 1601/4/1 ns Sunday (1601/1/1 ns Monday, ns 2G14 CDI : 1601/1/1 os Thursday, os 5D14 CDI). The date 1601/4/1 ns Sunday was the first day of the 14th week, 1601/4/1-7. The first week of the January Year 1601 began on 1600/12/28 and ended on 1601/1/3. The New Year 1 January fell on 1601/1/1 ns Monday (1601/1/1 os Thursday, os 5D14) of the same week, 1600/12/28-1601/1/3.
calendar year : January Year, in which the weeks are numbered from 1 January, inclusively.
calendar year : Midsummer Year, commencing from Saint John the Baptist Day, 24 June. The first week includes the date 24 June.
calendar, style, and mode : the 3 basic aspects of a calendar, namely the year-date calendar, New Year style, and regional mode. Cf.calendars and styles, Stile dell’Incarnazione al modo fiorentino.
calendars : Exchequer Calendars.
calendars and styles :
calendars and styles, ES : [1603 et antea] ES English Style Julian Calendar. Cf. os/ns Julian Calendar.
calendars and styles, ES : [1603-1752] ES Julian Calendar, or os/ns Julian Calendar.
calendars and styles, jc/gc : [46 bc-ad 1582 jc, 1582-1918 jc/gc] jc/gc, Julian Calendar or Gregorian Calendar.
calendars and styles, os : [1603-1752] os Old Style Julian Calendar.
calendars and styles, RS :  RS Regnal Style. For any specific date, we may precisely identify which king or queen was sitting on the throne that day, and therefore we may trace a correspondence between the date 1 January of each Julian Period Year, and the reign of one particular Sovereign, e.g. 1519
calendars and styles, SS/ns : [1600-1603, 1603-1752] SS/ns Julian Calendar.
Calendary : The Calendary by John R. Mayer. Cf. Alphabetary, Kalendae. Opp. Calendary.
calends : the first day of a Roman month.
Calif. : CA : California.
caligraphy : [Gk] beautiful writing.
caliver : arquebus de calibre; a handgun having its bore calibrated to a standard size, to permit the soldiery to freely exchange supplies of bullets. When guns first came into popular use, the captain of each band determined what size the bores should be. The caliber, or caliver, represented the first attempt to subject gun manufacturing to standards for interchangeable parts.
call- : cal- : kal- : kall- : [Gk] beauty.
call number : an identification number assigned by a librarian, according to the Dewey Decimal System, or the Library of Congress system.
Callippic Cycle : [300 bc] four Metonic Cycles, with an altered distribution of months; 76 tropical years of 365.26 days each, as the precise equivalent of 940 lunations; a revision of the Metonic Cycle that eliminates the need for the intercalation of additional days. Callippus of Cyzicus slightly adjusted the Metonic month reckoning, by transforming just one (1) full month of 30 days into one (1) hollow month of 29 days, once every 76 years, or every 4 Metonic Cycles. Thus, Callippus counted 441 hollow months of 29 days, and 499 full months of 30 days, total 27,759 days. The older Metonic reckoning would have counted only 440 hollow months, but 500 full months. Cf. Golden Number, Metonic Cycle.
calo : [brothel slang] page, a soldier’s boy or servant.
CALS : Certified American Lineage Specialist.
calyx : [Gk] chalice; the green or leafy external parts of a flower, which consist of sepals. Cf. corolla.
camail : cap-malh : [Fr] cap-mail, armor or mail used to protect one’s head.
Camboricum : Camborium : Cambridge.
Cambridge : Camoricum : Camborium : Cantabrigia : Granta : Grantanus Pons : Grenteburga.
Cambs. : Cambridgeshire.
camera : treasury.
camerade : [Fr] one who lodges in the same chamber.
camerarius : cammerarius : cubicularius, chamberlain, a household officer.
Camilla : the virgin warrior queen of the Volscians. Virgil placed her in the Æneid, as the daughter of King Metabus of Privernum. When she went to the assist Turnus, she was slain by the treachery of Aruns.
camp : a spectacle of costumed actors, reminiscent of a campaign or tournament; a comical and often transvestite performance or exhibition, characterized by exaggerated action and speech, extravagant dress, and joyous prominades. Cf. campaign.
campagne : [Fr] a field in the countryside where mime troops strolled and entertained. Cf. camping.
campaign : campagne : [Fr] camp; a marshalling of troops and a temporary settlement of tents on an open field, sometimes for the purpose of waging war, and sometimes for the purpose of staging war games and tournaments. Cf. camp.
camping :  young men wearing the costumes of women in a play. Cf. campagne.
campy : showy, theatrical; in the manner of camp.
Canad : Canadian.
canaille : [Fr] the lowest people; the dregs of mankind.
Cancer : a : the Crab, a sign of the zodiac.
cancer : a general term for abnormal cell growth, which typically leads to tumor formation, destructive morbidity, or leukemia. In the 1980s, deaths by cancer accounted for 22% of all American deaths. Presently, approximately 50% of all men and 30% of all women develop some variety of cancer during their lifetimes. In the 1950s, people commonly perceived cancer as an incurable and inevitably fatal condition, but President Nixon campaigned to promote cancer research in the 1970s, so the mortality rates gradually began to decline.
cancer : prostrate cancer, caused by the gene APC1. This is a male disorder with which some 35,000 men in the United States are diagnosed each year. The death rate is about 42,000 men per year.
Cancer the Crab : 23 June to 23 July.
cancers : breast, bowel, colon, ovarian, skin, stomach, and lung cancers, as well as leukemia.
Candace : [floruit 332 bc] Black Queen Candace, chief of the Kushite Ethiopians. Candace was a Meroitic native who rose to become a famous Kushite warrioress, known for her abilities as a tactician and field commander. When Alexander the Great marched south to invade Ethiopia in 332 bc, Queen Candace personally confronted him with an army of war elephants, and he determined to retreat back to Egypt. Kushite Ethiopia thereafter remained free of alien influences until Ptolemy I acceded to the throne of Egypt.
candidate : candidatus : competitor, someone eager for advancement.
candle : [1599 En] The maximum price for tallow candles was fixed at 4d per pound in August 1599.
Candlemas Day : 2 February.
canis : dog.
cannibal : man-eater.
cannibalism : the character of a cannibal.
canon- : [Gk] a rule.
canon : [Gk] rule, law; a general term denoting the entire corpus of laws made by ecclesiastical councils, and confirmed by a sovereign or the pope.
canonical hours : the seven services of Christian prayer that are assigned to different times of day, namely matins with lauds at dawn, prime at 6 a.m., terce at 9 a.m., sext at noon, none at 3 p.m., vespers in early evening, compline at bedtime.
canonry : canonship : a benefice in some cathedral of collegiate church.
Cant : Cantonese.
Cantabrigia : Cambridge.
Cantia : Cantium : Kent.
cantle : kant : [Du] fragment, portion.
canto : [It] a book or section of a poem, the treble part of a musical score.
canton : [Be] a Belgian district forming the jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace.
canton : [En] a diminutive term for quarter; a small, rectangular subdivision of one quarter of an escutcheon. Coats-of-arms are sometimes divided into quarters, and sometimes the quarters are subdivided into cantons.
canton : [Fr] a subdivision of an arrondissement.
canton : [Sz] a state in Helvetica, the Swiss Confederation.
canton : Cf. inescutcheon.
Cantor : Peter Cantor (obiit 1197), the homophobe who popularized his obsession. Cantor formalized the hatred of sodomites, and transformed it into a Christian genocidal art. Cf. homosexuality as sin.
cantred : [We] hundred, the Welsh correlative to the English hundred; [OE law] a district comprising 100 villages.
canus : gray, hoary; foamy; old age.
cap- : cip- : capt- : cept- : to take, seize.
capelle : the right of patronage, a perpetual advowson.
caper : the capriol dance.
capillus : hair of the head. Opp. pilus.
capit- : cipit- : head.
capital offence : a crime so heinous as to deserve the so-called death penalty.
capital punishment : death penalty.
capite : a tenure held directly of the king. Cf. in capite.
capitis damnatus est : he was condemned to death.
capitular : pertaining to an ecclesiastical chapter.
capitulation : reduction into heads, stipulations; yielding to certain stipulations; surrender.
Capoids : one of the five races; the peoples of northern Africa, namely the Bushmen and Hottentots. Cf. races.
capon :  castrated male chicken, valued at 2-½d in 11 Hen VIII, 1519.
capon :  a fat, unsexed chicken. The maximum price for a pair of capons was fixed at 20d per pair in August 1599.
Capons : [1519/12/25-31] capons.
Capricorn the Goat : 23 December to 19 January.
Capricornus : g : the Goat; capricorn, a sign of the zodiac.
capriol : the caper, an energetic dance in which the dancer leaps into the air to tap his feet together. The step has become a common feature in ballet.
capt- : cap- : cip- : cept- : to take, seize.
capt- : cap-.
captain : [1596 En] the head of a company of 200 men, paid 8s per day while serving in France.
captain : capitain : [Fr] chief commander, the chief of any number of men.
captainry : chieftainship, the post of a captain.
capti et decapitati : they were captured and decapitated.
captivity : subjection by warfare.
captivus : captive.
captus : captured, captive.
captus et decapitatus : captured and decapitated.
captus et decollatus : captured and beheaded.
captus et postea decollatus : captured and afterwards beheaded.
capulus : sword hilt, penis. Cf. gladius.
capus : scapus, penis.
caput : head, chief. The word is sometimes used obliquely to refer to life or intelligence of a person.
caput : head, glans of the penis.
caput amputatum tyrannide Ingwer : he was decapitated by the tyrant Ingwer.
caput baroniae : castle or chief seat of a baron; the chief seat of a gentle family.
carabineer : a light-horse trooper carrying a carbine.
caraculum : carajo [Sp] : stake, penis, mentula.
carbine : carabine : [Fr] a small firearm, larger than a pistol but smaller than a musket; a rifle-barreled matchlock.
carbon-14 : Cf. radiocarbon dating.
carcerarii : officials in charge of abandoned children found in churches.
card catalog : a library catalog stored on index cards and housed in large and expansive banks of drawers. Each title generates a number of identical cards, which are customarily filed by three criteria: author, title, subject. Libraries sometimes maintain separate catalogs for special collections. Genealogical libraries often have separate catalogs organized by place names and family surnames. Computers have been gradually replacing and superseding card catalogs since the 1970s.
card games : baccarat, beggar-my-neighbor, bezique, blackjack, Black Maria, brag, bridge, canasta, casino, chemin de fer, concentration, cribbage, écarté, euchre, fantan, faro, five hundred, gin, hearts, loo, Michigan, monte, nap or napoleon, old maid, ombre, patience or solitaire, pinochle, piquet, poker, Pope Joan, quadrille, racing demon, rouge et noir, rummy, seven up, skat, snap, solo, speculation, tarok, war, whist.
cardi- : [Gk] heart.
cardio- : [Gk] heart, cor, animus, mens.
cardiovascular diseases : high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, heart disease, hyperlipoproteinemia, stroke, and congenital heart disease.
Cards. : Cariganshire, Wales.
Carms. : Carmarthenshire, Wales.
carn- : flesh.
carnadine : red velvet.
carnage : [Fr] slaughter, heaps of flesh.
Carolus : Charles.
carp- : [Gk] fruit.
carpel : pistil. Cf. flower.
carrier of genetic disease : a parent having a defective recessive gene bonded to its normal allele. If another copy of the recessive gene is inherited from the other parent, then the defective recessive gene can be transmitted to the progeny.
carrot brackets : Cf. brackets.
cart’s tail : tying a victim to the end of a cart to whip him. This was a practice of the field, or wherever there was no public whipping post. Cf. whipping.
cartulary : cartulaire : [Fr] register, record; registrar, someone in charge of the records, an ecclesiastical officer.
carucate : [Lt 1600] hide, a measure of land amounting to some 120 acres; as much land as can be tilled with 1 plough in 1 year. Cf. hide.
carum habere : to love, care for.
cas- : cad- : cid : to fall, befall.
casado : [Sp] married.
Cashinahua of Peru : a native people in southeast Peru who divide themselves into four sections and two moieties. The moiety Inubakebu consists of the vertical sections Awainubakebu and Kanainubakebu, whereas the moiety Duainubakebu consists of the vertical sections Yawainubakebu and Dunuinubakebu. Within one moiety, the sections are used to create namesake groups, such that the ego shares names with his or her same-sex parent’s parents (PaPa) and children’s children (ChCh). The preferred marriage is moiety exogamy between bilateral cross cousins.
castellany : the lordship belonging to a castle.
castellation : the fortification of a house, making it into a castle.
castellum : the keep of a castle. Cf. castrum.
Castile : [1313-1492] the former kingdom in Spain, which comprised most of modern Spain.
castle : castellum : stronghouse, fortified house.
Castle Garden : [1857-1892] the old building where immigrants were processed when entering the United States. Immigration procedures were later transferred to Ellis Island in 1892. Castle Garden was used for a grand ball to receive Marquis Lafayette in 1832, and for a reception for President Tyler when he visited New York in 1843. The place served as a concert hall for many years, and Jenny Lind made her debut in America at Castle Garden. The dome rose 75 feet, and the large enclosure was used as a central exchange for the immigrants, for it was surrounded by enclosures and cubicles for a restaurant, money exchange, telegraph office, post office, and other services. The building was partly destroyed by fire on 9 July 1876, but was restored to its original shape. Cf. Ellis Island.
castleward : the imposition for maintenance of a castle, such as watch and ward. Cf. escuage uncertain.
castramentation : the art of forming an encampment.
castrate youth : Attis, consort of Cybele.
castrated male : wether. The wether has no testicles, but the rigsey retains one. Cf. rigsey, sheep.
castrati : [1562 It] castrated boys placed in choirs. The castrati first appeared in papal choirs in 1562.
castrati : [1603 En] castrated males who became famous in the performing arts, such as Kynaston, Dicky Robinson, and Nat Field.
castration : [ad 650] the penalty for homosexuality as was decreed by the ruler of the Spanish Visigoths.
castration : the operation of gelding, removal of the testicles.
castrum : outworks of a castle. Cf. castellum.
casual sex : intercourse between acquaintances or friends, more intimate and emotive than prostitution, but something less than romantic love.
casus belli : cause for war.
cat : [Sx] the lowest order of the leonine species; a domestic animal, a pet. One cat was commonly valued at one penny in the tenth century. Later in history, for its utility as a mouse catcher, the cat was valued by the English at 4 pence.
catacombs : [ad 180-600] underground burial places near Rome where Christians buried their dead. Christians suspended cremations and preserved the bodies of their dead, by reason of the doctrine of ressurection. They excavated tomb chambers in soft tufa, or volcanic ash, and sometimes built as many as four levels of burial chambers. The catacombs are believed to house the remains of some 750,000 people. Cf. ossuaries.
catalog : catalogue : [Gk] list, an enumeration of particulars.
catalogus : register, Verzeichnis; a book containing record entries for vital events and transactions.
catalogus baptizatorum : baptism register, Taufverzeichnis [Gm].
catalogus confidentorum : confession register, a register of penitents attending confession, Beichtkinderverzeichnis [Gm].
catalogus confirmatorum : confirmation register, a catalog of novices who have publicly confirmed their religious faith, Verzeichnis der Gefirmelten [Gm].
catalogus conjugatorum : marriage register, Trauungsverzeichnis [Gm].
catalogus copulatorum : marriage register, Ehestandsregister [Gm].
catalogus defunctorum : death register, Totenregister [Gm].
catalogus mortuorum : death register, Sterberegister [Gm].
catalogus proclamatorum : marriage licenses, a register of the banns of marriage, Verzeichnis der Aufgebotenen [Gm].
catalogus sepultorum : burial register, Beerdigungsverzeichnis [Gm].
catamiti : passive male prostitutes. Cf. exoleti.
catamitus : [Gk] catamite.
Catamitus : [Lt] Ganymede [Gk]; Ganymedes, the Greek youth raped by Zeus.
catasta : a stage whereupon slaves were exposed in the market.
catasto : census.
catastro : [Sp] a census of land.
catechism: a form of instruction consisting of questions and answers.
categorical statements : Opp. genealogical reckoning.
categories : ten fundamental categories by which all things in the universe may be defined. The categories of any discipline generally conform to the ten categories established by Aristotle, namely (1) being, or substance, (2) quantity, (3) quality, (4) relation, (5) date, or time, (6) place, or space, (7) position, (8) state, or having, possessing, or exhibiting, (9) action, or doing, and (10) passion, or suffering, or passivity. Cf. properties.
categories of a life : (1) species, (2) quantity, or genealogical position, (3) social rank, or station, or prestation, (4) relationship, or kinship, or affinity, (5) dates of birth and death, (6) places of residence, or destinations, or territorial designation (7) senior, or junior, or precedence, (8) married and having children and dependents, (9) acting or performing, (10) hereditary status at death (ob.s.p., et cetera). Cf. properties of atoms.
category of kin : kin term.
category versus genealogy : Cf. genealogy versus category.
catell : cattle.
cath. : cathedral.
Catharism : the heretical religion of western Europe that gave rise to courtly love, or cortezia.
cathedral : cath. : the principal church of a diocese.
Catholic priests : [1598-1606] the secular celebrants permitted to practice the Roman rites in private, but who enjoyed no state recognition in England.
Catholicism : [ad 500] Christianity, as it was formalized in Rome during the fourth century. Cf. Roman Catholicism.
catholicism : adherence to the catholic or universal church; the orthodox faith of the whole church.
Catiline and the Consul : Ph & Er, the politician and his lover. The Consel interceded for Catiline with Cicero.
cattle : bovine animals raised on a farm or ranch. The male is a bull, the female is a cow, and the young are various called calf, stot, yearling, bullcalf, and heifer. Bovine cattle are raised in herds or droves.
cattle : capitale :  beasts of pasture that are neither domestic nor wild; domesticated quadrupeds either held as property, or raised for use. Capitale is the Latin neuter case for capitalis ‘of the head,’ suggesting a beast counted by the head. The term did not originally suggest any species, and therefore could be used in reference to sheep as well as bovine animals.
cattle : catell : [1519/10/25] wethers, rams; kinds of sheep, with no mention of any bovine species.
cau- : caus- : [Gk] to burn.
Caucasoids : one of the five races; the race that has flourished in Europe, western Asia, and northern Africa. Cf. races.
cauda : penis.
caulis : stalk, cabbage stalk.
caus- : cau- : [Gk] to burn.
causidicus : barrister, advocate.
cavalier : [Fr] horseman, knight. The party of Charles I called themselves Cavaliers.
cavalry : cavalerie : [Fr] horse troops. Opp. infantry.
CC : [Ogham Q-Celtic] cailep.
Cc : concubine. Cf. contubernine. Opp. spouse (Sp).
CC the letter : the letter Q written as a double CC, as is typical of O’Flaherty’s B.L.N. Q-Celt alphabet.
cc. : copies. Cf. AA., ff., pp.
CD : [Lt] a combination of letters representing the pendant penis (C) and scrotum (D). The letters perhaps represented a vertical penis, in front of the two testicles CD. Cf. ρ (the Greek letter rho), penis.
CDI : a mnemonic acronym for Perpetual Calendar, Dominical Letter, and Roman Indiction. When these key numbers and letters are compiled for specific years, they may be conveniently abbreviated in the CDI order, e.g. 1512/1/1 Thursday : 12DC15* CDI, Calendar 12, Dominical Letters DC, Indiction 15, Leap Year (*). The researcher begins with a table of Julian and Gregorian years, and finds which of the 14 possible calendars in the Perpetual Calendar corresponds to the subject year. In this example, we have identified 1512 as 12 CDI. After making this initial determination of 1512 : 12 CDI, the researcher may then expand the definition, by adding the day of the week for 1 January, the Dominical Letter or Letters, and the Roman Indiction, adding an asterisk (*) after each code for a leap year. The result of this expanded tabulation will be ‘1512/1/1 Thursday : 12DC15* CDI,’ giving the scholar everything he needs to know to make a calendar for that year. The Dominical Letters and the Indiction numbers will progress in a cyclical manner, and double Dominical Letters will always be marked as a leap year (*), and therefore a comparison of calendar-year codes for 1 January each year should expediently reveal any errors. The day of the week for 1 January should regularly correspond with certain Dominical Letters and Indictions, and thus provide the scholar with an additional measure for checking the sequences. If the user wishes to tabulate such codes in a spreadsheet, he should be careful to reformat the numbers with zeros (0s) and placeholders, e.g. 12-DC-15* and 07-B/-07 (for 7B7).
ce : [Hb] ad; Common Era. Cf. Jewish Mundane Era.
-ce : -cium : -tium : action, the result of action.
-ce : -tia : quality, state, condition.
ceannach col : [Ir] buying col; receiving a priest’s dispensation to remove an impediment to marriage.
ceathradh glúin : [Ir] Fa(counted) + SoSoSo(ego); FaFaBrSoSo; fourth generation; second cousins, relatives in the fifth degree. The Irish reckoning here is based on lineal descent, and includes the propositus and three generations of his descendants. The Irish count the ego as one of the great-grandsons, so the count therefore differs from Catholic and anthropological counts. Cf. second cousins.
Cecrops : the Athenian founder of patriarchy. Cf. marriage.
ced- : cess- : to go, yield.
cede : ceder : [Fr] to submit, resign.
cedilla : ç : [Fr, Po] the sound s, as in the English superior. The pronunciation is typical of French and Portuguese, but not Turkish.
cedilla : ç : [Old Sp] the sound ts in old Spanish. The sound is obsolete in modern Spanish, so the cedilla is seldom used.
cedilla : ç : [Tk] the sound ch, as in the English church. This sound is typical of Turkish, but does not occur in French or Portuguese.
cedilla : ç : a diacritical mark that usually appears beneath the letter Ç or ç in French, Portuguese, and Turkish. The cedilla seldom appears in English, except in borrowed words. Cf. alphabet modifications, diacritical marks.
cefn der : [We] male cousin; patruelis.
ceiv- : cap-.
celer- : swift.
celibacy : cælebs : single life, bachelorhood.
célibataire : [Fr] unmarried.
cellarer : the bursar or steward of a monastery.
Celt : Celtic.
cem. : cemetery.
cen. : central; census.
cena novendialis : a second funerary feast at the grave site held on the ninth day, after the octave of full mourning. Cf. funerary feast, mourning, silicernium, tonsure.
cenotaph : [Gk] a monument for someone buried elsewhere. A cenotaph marks the fictive grave of Joan Ferrers née Beaufort at Stanthorp College, next to the real corpses of her second husband Ralph Neville (circa 1364-1425) and Ralph’s first wife Margaret Stafford, but Joan’s body was actually buried in Lincoln.
cenotaph of Shahjahan : At Agra, India, the Mogul and his wife lie entombed beneath the Taj Mahal, in an especially deep crypt that once remained hidden, with marble representations of their tombs appearing as cenotaphs on the main floor above. The Mogul’s objective was to have the cenotaphs divert visitors away from his treasure store of buried gems, but the British unearthed the real crypt, and then appropriated the Mogul’s most precious gem, dubbing it the Star of India, and placing it in the Empress Victoria’s sceptre.
cenotaphium : an honorary sepulture, an honorary tomb, honorarium sepulcrum, honorarius tumulus.
Cenozoic era : a long period of prehistoric time, including the Tertiary and Quaternary periods. Cf. year 10,000 bc, year 65 million bc.
censeo : to count, reckon; to tax; to vote.
cension : a tax rate, an assessment.
census : [1855 NY] the 1855 New York census provided a column to indicate how many years each person had lived at the place of enumeration.
census : [1925 IA] the 1925 Iowa census recorded the birthplaces of both parents, as well as the maiden name of the mother.
census : a count or tally of living persons, anciently used as a basis for taxation and conscription. The census was a public declaration made before Roman censors wherein each family reported its names and places of residence. U.S. censuses have traditionally recorded heads of households and their dependents, and have often listed the names, nativities, and age ranges of family members, servants, and slaves. Some censuses have evaluated the personal and real properties of householders. The United States conducts a census every ten years, mainly for the purpose of political redistricting, and the Census Bureau collects statistical data that is useful to state and local governments, as well as businesses. Preparing muster rolls from census counts is now a defunct practice. Income taxation is a voluntary tribute, and the U.S. Congress has barred the public from examining census details for a period of 15 years after collection, so the enumeration may not be used by the IRS or any other authority. Poll taxation was deemed to be an unlawful means of racial discrimination in the 1960s, and was forbidden thereafter. Cf. ascensus, descensus, hearth tax, muster roll, poll tax, redistricting, tithing, tax roll.
cent :  a copper coin equal to 10 mills; 208 grains of copper.
cent : Cf. penny.
cent- : hundred.
Centectl : the Maize Mother in Mexico, equivalent to Tonantzin. Cf. Tonantzin.
centena : hundred, a district or division containing 100 freemen; 10 tithings, groups of 10 families each of freeholders or frankpledges. Cf. cantred.
centenarian : someone 100 years of age or more, thriving beyond the theoretical limit of a human lifetime.
centenarii : archer in a company of one hundred men.
centenary, centennial : 100 years.
centesimal year : a hundredth year; a year-date ending in two zeros (-00); a round year-date ending a century, e.g. 1700. Cf. Gregorian Calendar, leap year.
centesimal year : Gregorian centesimal year. The Gregorian Calendar changed Julian centesimal rule, by stipulating that each centesimal year evenly divisible by 4 would be a leap year, unless it also happened to be divisible by 400, in which case the year would remain a common year. Thus, the Gregorian system made 3 of 4 Julian centesimal leap years into common years of 365 days. Under the Gregorian system, the centesimal years 1600 and 2000 would be a leap years, but the Julian centesimal leap years of 1700, 1800, and 1900 were made into Gregorian centesimal common years. Cf. Gregorian Calendar.
centesimal year : Julian centesimal year. The Julian Calendar stipulated that each centesimal year evenly divisible by 4 would be a leap year. E.g. 1600, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2000, et cetera.
centi- : hundred, ekton [Gk].
centr- : [Gk] center.
centripetal and centrifugal : chthonial and tellurian.
centuria : century, a division of one hundred.
cephal- : [Gk] head.
cephalum : glans of the penis; caput.
cept- : cap- : cip- : capt- : to take, seize.
cer. : certificate.
cerca de : [Sp] circa, about.
cerebro- : brain.
cerebrotonia : pleasure by experience. Cf. three components of love.
ceremonies : Cf. same-sex marriage.
ceremony : cærimonia : religious observances, outward observances, outward rite, outward forms of state, external form in religion. Ritual consists of formal presentations of gifts from one person to another. Patrimony is inheritance, matrimony is the dowry which a father gives to his prospective son-in-law, alimony is the support a husband gives to his estranged wife, and palimony is the subsidy a man gives to his estranged concubine. Testimony is the act of formally witnessing some matter of fact, so as to endorse or verify personal acts of patronage, dowage, alienation, or estrangement. Ceremony is the generic term, referring broadly to all of the acts “-mony” mentioned above. Cf. alimony, patrimony, matrimony, palimony. Opp. promiscuity.
Ceres : [Lt] the Roman goddess of harvests and grains, who was equated to the Greek goddess Demeter. Cf. Demeter.
cern- : cret- : to separate, distinguish.
Cernualia : Curnualia : Cornwall.
Cernunnos : Horned God.
cerro : [Sp] small hill.
certified copy : a copy attested to be a true and accurate copy of the original document. A certified copy of one’s birth certificate is often required as a basis for identification, typically when one applies for a passport or driver’s license.
certiorari : to be informed of. Cf. writ of certiorari.
certitude : the measure of confidence one has in the reliability of suppositions and deductions based upon objective evidence. Cf. four degrees of certitude.
cess- : ced- : to go, yield.
cest- : cast-.
Cestria : Chester.
Cestrisria : Cheshire.
cf : complementary filiation.
cf. : confer : compare. Cf. vide, opp.
CG : Certified Genealogist. These postnominal initials are conferred by the Board for Certification of Genealogists.
CGI : Certified Genealogical Instructor.
CGL : Certified Genealogical Lecturer.
CGRS : Certified Genealogical Records Specialist.
Ch : [anthropology] child.
Ch : Chinese.
CH : Courthouse.
ch. : church; child, children; chief.
Ch.B. : Chirurgiæ Baccalaureus, Bachelor of Surgery.
ch.w. : church warden(s).
ch/o : child of.
chace : chase.
chakahaida : [Cashinahua] incestuous marriage.
chalder : chaldron, chaudron; a dry English measure of coals; a heap of 36 bushels of coals; 2,000 pounds of coal. The standard bushel was kept at Guildhall, London. Cf. bushel.
chaldron : chalder.
chamber : chambre : [Fr] apartment in a house, a retired room, a court of justice, a private or secret place.
chamber organ : positive organ.
chamberfellow : one who lies in the same chamber.
chamberlain : camerarius, cubicularius, a household officer, an officer of state; treasurer, receiver of rents and revenues; an attendant on a sovereign or lord in his bedchamber.
chamberlain : chaumberleyn : keeper of the chamber; originally keeper of the treasure chamber (camera) of a prince or state treasurer.
chamberlainship : the term of one’s service as treasurer, the office of a chamberlain.
chambermaid : a maid who dresses her lady and waits in her lady’s chamber.
champion : hero; a man who engages in hand-to-hand, single combat, to defend a cause.
championess : a female warrior.
chan. : chancery.
Chanaan vero genuit Sidonem primogenitum et Heth : And Canaan begat Zidon his firstborn, and Heth.
chancellor : cancellarius : the highest judge of the law.
chancellorship : the office of chancellor.
chancery : scriptorium, a record office for archives public, ecclesiastical, legal, or diplomatic; a high court of equity in England and Wales with functions of common law and jurisdiction over causes in equity.
Chang Taoling : Cf. descendants, tien-shih.
changeling : a bad child whom the devil has placed in the stead of a good child.
changeling : a child left or taken in place of another, an infant switched with another at birth; an idiot, a natural.
chapelry : the territorial jurisdiction of a chapel; a chapel and all its apurtenance.
chapter : a body of canons or prebendaries headed by a dean; a regular assembly of the canons of a cathedral or collegiate church; a meeting of the members of any religious order.
character set :  TrueType; a sequential code expanded beyond ASCII to include additional letters, numbers, and symbols for the construction of character sets.
character set : a predetermined set of characters for the telling of an alphabet or syllabary, counting numbers, and showing icons and symbols of all kinds.
character set : ASCII; a sequential code for assigning the letters, numbers, and symbols in the making of character sets.
character set : Unicode, the sequential code of a character set devised to show the subsets Basic Latin, Latin-1, Latin Extended-A, Latin Extended-B, IPA Extensions, Spacer Modifier Letters, Combining Diacritical Marks, Basic Greek, Greek Symbols and Coptic, Cyrillic, Hebrew Extended, Basic Hebrew, Latin Extended Additional, General Punctuation, Superscripts and Subscripts, Currency Symbols, Letterlike Symbols, Number Forms, Arrows, Mathematical Operators, Miscellaneous Technical, Control Pictures, Box Drawing, Block Elements, Geometric Shapes, Miscellaneous Dingbats, Private Use Area, Alphabetic Presentation Forms. Cf. font.
charge : an armorial ensign; a single badge, beast, decoration, or ordinary shape used as an element in a heraldic design.
charges : honorable ordinaries, subordinaries, and common charges.
Chari-Nile language group : Cf. Barea, Lango.
charter : charta : written evidence, a writing bestowing privileges or rights; privilege, immunity.
chartulary : cartulary.
chase : chace : an open wilderness occupied by beasts and game for hunting; a tract of unenclosed land used as a game preserve for bucks, does, and foxes. Cf. forest, game, warren.
chastity : castitas : purity of body, freedom from obscenity; freedom from bad mixture of any kind.
chasuble : a sleeveless mantle that a celebrant priest wears over his alb and stole.
chatellany : a district under the domination of a castle.
chattel paper : bills of sale, receipts, anything evidencing personal ownership. Chattels commonly signify one’s daily receipts for cash expenditures, and they are tabulated separately from household accounts. Chattels may be contrasted household accounts by method of payment, because household accounts are normally settled by special means, such as payment in kind. In short, chattels represent a breakdown of the cash account.
chattel slave : a slave purchased or sold as personal property, in contradistinction to a slave born to enslavement.
chaudron : chalder.
chausses : drawers, pantaloons; breeches made of mail or flexible armor.
cheese : [1599 En] The maximum prices for cheese were fixed at between 1½d to 2d per pound, depending on the grade, in August 1599.
cheir- : chir- : [Gk] hand.
Cherokee : [NC, KY, AL, IA, KS, OK] a native tribe that presumably derived its name from the Creek tciloti ‘people of different speech.’
Cherokee shamans lesbian : the Beloved Women, who served as warriors, leaders, and council members.
Cherubim : the second highest choir of angles, among nine.
Ches. : Cheshire.
Cheshire : Cestrisria.
Chester : Cestria : Dena Victrix : Deuna : Deva : Devana : Devania : Divana : Karlegion. Cf. Legio VI Victrix.
Chester Herald : one of six secondary heralds.
Chesterfield :  Lord Chesterfield’s Act, Act 24 Geo II, cap. 23. Lord Chesterfield initiated the act that universally reformed the Anglo-Scots calendar. The Act declared that throughout all the dominions of the British Crown, the date 31 December 1751 os/ns Julian should be followed directly by 1 January 1752 gc Gregorian, establishing 1 January as the new Anglo-Scots New Year, and the Gregorian Calendar (gc) as the new official calendar. This was the first time in British history that all of the calendar systems converged, including both civil and ecclesiastical systems. Cf. gc, jc, Gregorian Calendar, Julian Calendar, Era of Incarnation, Venerable Bede, Year of Incarnation, January Year, Annunciation Year, Lady Day.
Chestria : Chestrum : Chester.
chevage : chiefage.
chevalier : cavalier : knight, a gallant strongman.
chevron : [Fr] one of the honorable ordinaries in heraldry.
Cheyenne : [WY, OK, TX] red talkers; a tribal name meaning ‘red talkers’ among the Sioux. The place name Cheyenne appears in Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, and Colorado.
chez piercé : pierced chair, a Victorian commode; a private water closet concealed in a large ottoman.
chi fu me : [Ch] adoptive parents. Cf. birth parents, pun shung fu me.
Chi Shing : flag surnames; a class of Manchurian surnames used in China. Cf. Chinese surnames.
Chia Pu : [Ch] Generation Book; Family Table Book; the name registry of a Chinese family. A Chinese family association designs its register mainly to trace the hereditary line of descent through males, and to regulate the use of generational middle names, or pai-ming. It is customary for the Family Association to revise and update its Generation Book every thirty to fifty years. Genealogist should beware that a Family Table Book might include adoptive sons, and that Taoists and Buddhists sometimes create fictive, religious affiliations among people having no blood relationships to one another.
chicken : checon : the farm fowl. We have examples of a chicken costing 4d, and a capon costing 2-1/2d in 11 Hen VIII (1519). Cf. capon, checon.
chief : military commander; achievement, mark of distinction. Chief in heraldry refers to the upper third of the escutcheon.
Chief Bard : Penkerdd [We]. Cf. bard, ollave.
Chief Poet : Tugen [Ir]. Cf. bard, ollave.
chiefage : chevage : [Fr] a tribute by the head.
chiefdom : sovereignty.
chiefly styles : the style of the name of a Scottish laird, which often includes a territorial reference, e.g. Drummond of Megginch. Cf. Scottish titles.
chieftain : chefetain : [Fr] leader, commander, head of a clan.
chieftainry : chieftainship : headship.
chilblains : frostbite, sores made by frost; a painful sore or swelling on the foot or hand caused by exposure to the cold.
child : Ch.
child molestation : paidophthopos : sexual abuse of a child or underage adolescent. Sexual crimes against children are commonly perpetrated by men. Similar allegations against women must always be scrutinized, because women rarely molest children for sexual purposes. A mother of four admitted to bearing the child of a 13-year-old boy in 1997, and her case became public by reason of sheer rarity and novelty. Cf. witchhunts.
childbearing : the act of bearing children.
childbearing age : the age range of 12 years to 45-50 years, during which a woman is usually fertile and menstruating. Menopause is the natural secession of ovulation, which normally occurs when a woman reaches her late 40s, so the theoretical limit of natural childbirth is fixed at 50 years of age. In California in late 1996, a woman 63 years of age carried a fetus to term, and thereby established a world record; however, the egg she incubated had been fertilized in vitro and artificially planted in her womb.
childbed : the state of a woman in labor.
child-bed fever : puerperal fever, septicemia, blood poisoning during pregnancy.
childbirth : the time or act of bringing forth.
childhood : [Sx] the state of children. We commonly think of childhood as the time of life between infancy and puberty. English common law defined civil maturity at 21 years and older, calling any earlier years civil infancy, and therefore childhood has sometimes been defined as the state of a child, or infancy.
childless : without offspring.
children of disclaiming peers :  heirs apparent and presumptive to a peerage that has been disclaimed by its holder. The Peerage Act of 1963 did not establish any law respecting the styles and precedence of the children of peers who have disclaimed their peerages for life. Furthermore, the Home Office has declined to clarify this issue by requesting the issuance of a Royal Warrant. Upon the recommendations of the Norfolk Herald Extraordinary and the Lord Lyon King of Arms, the Earl Marshall has allowed such children to determine for themselves what styles and precedence they wish to claim. The child of a disclaiming peer may likewise disclaim any styles and precedence. If the child of a disclaiming peer wishes to retain his courtesy title and precedence, the Earl Marshall will allow that child to retain his styles and precedence. Cf. daughters of a peer decedent.
chimera : chimaera : [Gk] a she-monster in Greek mythology; a fire-breathing she-goat; a fabulous creature having a lion’s head, a goat’s body, and a serpent’s tail.
chimerical :  imaginary, fantastical.
chiminage : chemin : a toll for passage through a forest.
Chin : [Maya] the Mayan founder of sacred homosexuality, and his priesthood that manned the temples.
china : 20th year of marriage; symbol of the — wedding anniversary.
Chinese : Hanzi, Zhongwen; the logo-syllabic phonography of China. Chinese logographs are still used today, by perhaps one-fifth of mankind. Mainland China has developed a new set of simplified characters since the 1950s, and has complemented the traditional script with a simplified system for romanization called pīnyīn. Taiwan has retained the old forms. Buddhist scholars used Sanskrit and Chinese to invent two syllabaries for Japanese, as well as one alphabetic phonography for Korean. In modern times, Korea has largely dropped the use of Chinese logographs, preferred its alphabetic system called Hangul. The Japanese use a hybrid writing that consists of (1) Chinese logographs, (2) the hiragana syllabary, (3) the katakana syllabary, and (4) alphabetic romanization called rōmaji.
Chinese exogamy : Cf. Chinese surname.
Chinese kinship : [200 bc-ad 1000] a volatile period of kinship definition, when ancient systems were replaced with uniform systems.
Chinese kinship : [ad 300-600] the Dark Ages of Chinese history, when the territories north of the River Yangzi were overrun by barbaric people from the steppes. This infusion caused the Chinese to migrate southward, and resulted in a gradual transition from the shìzú sib organization to the ménfá system. Lowie held that Chinese kinship was generational, or a bifurcate merging system. T.S. Chen and J.K. Shryock called Chinese kinship bifurcate collateral. Kroeber perceived Chinese kinship as having originally been a non-descriptive classificatory system, which was later made precise and descriptive, by the later addition of descriptive terminologies. Morgan viewed Chinese kinship as a composite system, having both classificatory and descriptive elements, and he compared it to the Malayan and Turanian systems.
Chinese kinship : [ad 618-907, Táng Dynasty] a period in which kin terms stabilized, and were codified.
Chinese kinship : a kinship system that has always been based upon lineal sibship and sib exogamy, and which has evolved from an ancient sib system (cóngfă), into medieval sib organization (shìzú), into modern sib nepotism (ménfá).
Chinese name : the personal name of a Chinese, which usually consists of three elements, namely (1) Shing, the surname or clan name, (2) Pai-ming, the generation name, and (3) Shih-ming, the given name. Cf. shing, pai-ming, shih-ming.
Chinese surname : [2852-2738 bc, Fúxī] the collective or common name of an exogamous family in China. Emperor Fúxī, Fushi, or Fu-Hi, decreed that his people should all adopt surnames, and that consanguineous people using the same surname should never marry one another. This decree provides evidence of exogamous surnames, and we therefore suspect that Chinese surnames must be the oldest surnames in the world. The English did not adopt surnames until the Norman Conquest (ad 1066).
Chinese surname classes : [2852-221 bc, Fúxī through Zhōu Dynasty] the three classes of surnames used by the prehistoric Chinese, namely (1) shih, a hereditary title granted to a man by his lord, king, or emperor, (2) shing, a patrilineal surname acquired at birth by both men and women, and (3) ming, a common name used by family of low status. Over time, the names of the nobility and gentry gradually merged into the single class shing, such that ancient shih and ancient shing both came to be commonly called shing, and both came to be used as patrilineal surnames by both men and women. The usage of ming likewise evolved, but the ming changed to resemble a first name, prename, or forename, rather than a surname. The Chinese and Japanese today use the terms conjoined, such that mingshing or meisei represents a person’s full name, or his surname (shing) and postname (ming).
Chinese surnames : [ad 1644-1911 Ch Qīng] flag surnames; Chi Shing surnames. The Manchurians divided themselves into eight sections, or eight flags, and adopted ‘flag surnames’ corresponding to the section to which they belonged. When transliterated into Chinese, some Manchurian names became rather long, multi-character surnames. As they assimilated and merged with the Chinese, the Manchurians gradually modified their names, and often reduced their transliterated names to the first character only. Some confusion arose near the end of the Qīng Dynasty, when fathers tended continue using multi-character names, whereas their sons started to adopt Chinese-style, one-character names, because outsiders were apt to regard a Manchu father and son as perhaps belonging to different families.
Chinese surnames : [ad 907-1125 Ch Liáo] Fu Shing surnames; two-character or multi-character surnames; surnames of non-Chinese foreigners who immigrated into China from the north and west from the Liáo Dynasty onward. The Liáo people had formerly been called Chi Tan, or Tartars. Other categories of foreigners included the Chin (early Manchurians), Yuan (Mongolians), Hsi Hsia (Westerners), and tribes such as the Tang and Shiang.
Chinese surnames : [ad 960-1279 Ch Sóng] surnames derived from names of northern foreigners, or the Tai Pei. Such surnames include Miao, Chi Tan (Tartars), Hsiung Nu (Hungarians), Shen Pei (Koreans), T’o Chueh (Turks), Huei Ho (Mohammedans), Sha To (Persians), T’u Fan (Tibetans). The surnames Ch’ih, Chieh, and Ch’iang belong to this category, but have never been assigned to a tribe of northern foreigners. Cf. Tai Pei.
Chinese surnames : family names of non-Chinese foreigners, who either (1) adopted existing Chinese surnames, or (2) adopted as a new surname some Chinese character not previously used as a surname.
Chinese surnames : surnames adopted by noteworthy foreigners in China. Examples include Hsung, Li, Lung, Ma, Nan, Pang, Si, and Tang. Western celebrities in China included Marco Polo (Ma), Matteo Ricci (Li Ma Tou), Jacobus Pantoja (Pang Ti Wo), Sebastian de Vries (Hsung San Pa), Nicholas Lombardi (Lung Wha Min), John Adam Schaal (Tang Juo Wang), Ferdinand Verliest (Nan Huai Jen), Jules Aloui (Si Ju Lue).
Chinese surnames : surnames derived from no fewer than 18 sources, namely (1) dynasty name, (2) feudal territory, such as Kiang, Whang, Chin, Gin, (3) political subdivision or county, such as Hong, Chei, Fan, Lin, (4) town, such as Yin, Su, Mou, Shan, (5) hamlet or shiang, such as Pai, Lu, Pang, Yen, (6) crossroad or way station or ting, such as Mi, Tsai, Owyang, (7) topographical names indicating directions of the compass, such as Tong-Shiang, Hsi-Men, Nan-Yeh, Pei-Kuo, (8) name or ming of some historical personage, such as Fu, Yu, Tang, Chin, (9) social name or tsu of a male, such as K’ung, Fang, Kung, Tong, (10) kin term or ts’u, such as Mung ‘first brother,’ Chi ‘last brother,’ Tsu ‘grandfather,’ Mi, ‘grandfather-in-law,’ (11) tribe name or clan name or tsu, such as Ching, Tso, So, Chang, (12) civic titles or kuan ‘officer,’ such as Shih ‘historian,’ Chi ‘librarian,’ K’ou ‘policeman,’ Shuai ‘general,’ and Ssu-Tu ‘civil official,’ (13) title of nobility, or chueh, such as Whang ‘emperor,’ Wang ‘king,’ Ba ‘grand duke,’ Hou ‘duke,’ (14) occupation or chi, sucha as Wu ‘magician,’ Tu ‘butcher,’ Tau ‘potter,’ Chiang ‘builder,’ (15) name of an object or plant, or shih, such as Chu ‘carriage,’ Kuan ‘hat,’ Pu ‘grass,’ Fu ‘flower,’ (16) posthumous name of an emperor, or shih, such as Wen ‘The Good,’ Wu ‘Military Leader,’ Chuang ‘Polite One,’ Min ‘Kindly One,’ (17) diminutive or shi of a parent or ancestor’s name, such as Wong-Tsu ‘king’s son,’ Kung-Sun ‘duke’s grandson,’ Yuan-Po ‘eldest son of Yuan,’ Shen-Shu ‘third son of Shen,’ (18) name of taint, called e, a contemptuous or derisive name indicative of some disgrace, taint, or demotion in the past, such as Fu ‘poison snake,’ Mang ‘rebel,’ Ching ‘branded felon,’ Shiao ‘owl.’
Chinese surnames : two-character family names; Fu Shing names. When Emperor Fushi issued his decree that all families adopt surnames, it was commonly agreed that a Chinese family would use but a single character to express its name. Over time, and especially with the influx of foreigners, many families adopted two-character or three-character names. The Chinese still tend to prefer single-character surnames, but usually will transcribe foreign surnames with a string of phonetic characters used to emulate the pronunciation.
Chippewa : [MI, WI, MT] unified voice; a tribal name said to be related to the Ojibwa adji-bwa ‘voice’ and ‘puckered, gathered up.’ The name has been used for rivers and lakes in Michigan and Wisconsin, as well as places in Montana.
Chippewa shaman : a-go-kwa. According to one account, a group of colonial travelers once scorned, insulted and belittled a Chippewa shaman they encountered.
chir- : cheir- : [Gk] hand.
chirograph : [Gk] indenture; a deed with a counterpart; a document engrossed twice upon the same parchment and then cut through the middle and made into indentures for each counterpart. Cf. indenture.
Chirurgiæ Baccalaureus : Ch.B. : Bachelor of Surgery.
chivalry : chevalerie : [Fr] knighthood, a military dignity, the qualifications of a knight; the tenure of land through knights’ service.
chlor- : [Gk] green, yellowish-green; chorine.
chloro- : [Gk] green, viridis, virens.
choir : [Sx] a band of singers, the singers in a divine service, the place in a church where the choir stands.
chol- : [Gk] chole- : bile, gall.
chole- : chol- : [Gk] bile, gall.
cholera : jaundice, cholera.
cholera infantum : summer diarrhea that infants sometimes experience in the first summer after having been weaned from breast feeding.
cholesterol : the fatty substance found in all animal tissue.
chondr- : [Gk] cartilage.
chore- : [Gk] dance.
chorography : [Gk] the art of describing particular regions, a selective gazateer outlining the residences of the members of a family. A chorographical table aspires to something greater than topography, but less than geography.
choupan : [Chukchi] a male of 16 years, who is encouraged to dress as a woman, assume womanly rôles, and invite a husband to live with him in his dwelling.
choupan : [Inuit] shaman.
chr. : chris. : christened.
chresasthe : [Gk] a verb describing Lot’s incest with his two daughters. Cf. know.
Christ : the Anointed One. Cf. Cosmic Christ.
Christen : to assign a Christian name to an infant or devotee at a baptism; to receive or initiate a new member into the visible church of Christ, through baptism.
Christening : the ceremony of baptism.
Christian marriage : a prescribed form of institutionalized marriage that stresses serial monogamy and patrilineal descent, but absolutely disallows all variant forms of marriage, including all biblical marriages, and provides for the illegitimization or bastardization of any children born of non-Christian unions. Sexual migrations among Christians are based upon the negative prohibition of incest, and do not depend upon any biblical or positive rule of exogomy. Christian marriages tend to be endogamous only with respect to social class, race, or religion, but tend to avoid as incest any endogamous relations between members of the same lineage. Western marriages based on the Christian model are radically different from other marriages in the world. Non-Christian marriages tend to be based upon positive social institutions that simply require endogamy or exogamy, and that distinguish parallel cousins from cross cousins to preserve the integrity of unilineage. Cf. Danish marriage, institutionalized marriage, prescribed marriage, same-sex marriage.
Christianity : a predominant Euro-American religion divided into three main groups, namely Roman Catholicism, Anglican Protestantism, and German Lutheran Reformationism.
Christianity as legal religion : [ad 313] Constantine recognized Christianity as a religion, and appointed Christians to his government in ad 313.
Christianity as state religion : [ad 390] Theodosius I declared Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire, and banned all other religions in ad 390. He made luxuria or homosexuality a capital offence the same year.
Christian-name : prename, forename, a religious name chosen at baptism. The Christian-name is usually a reference to one’s patron saint, not oneself, and therefore a man can adopt the middle name Maria in France. Cf. Buddhist names, Taoist names.
Christina of Sweden : [1626-1689] Christina, Queen of Sweden (regnavit 1632-1654), who was purportedly raised as a boy by her father, and abdicted rather than marry a man. Christina’s gynecophilic lover has been identified as a countess who served her as lady-in-waiting. Christina was the daughter of Gustavus II Adolphus, and succeeded him under a regency of five chief officers in 1632. She secured the 1649 election of her male cousin Charles Custavus as her successor, and then abdicated in 1654. She settled in Rome as a patron of men of letters, and after her death, Pope Alexander VIII purchased her library. Cf. libaries.
Christopherus : Christopher.
chrom- : chromat- : [Gk] color.
chromat- : chrom- : [Gk] color.
chromosomal elements : the parts of one chromosome that act as reference points during mitosis, or chromosomal replication. A somatic chromosome has a centerpoint or centromere that attaches to the spindle when the cell is preparing to divide. Each end of the chromosome has a telomere, or end-cap, that serves as a final marker or terminus during replication of the base pairs of DNA. The centromere serves as a guidepost to ensure that the DNA sequences are properly copied and distributed when a new chromosome forms.
chromosomal sex : the proper sex of a child as determined by its chromosomes. Each human cell contains two chromosomes that jointly determine sex. Females have a pair of X chromosomes, whereas males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. These letter designations X and Y are not arbitrary, for they roughly correspond the physical shape of each chromosome. Cf. Turner syndrome.
chromosome :  a DNA double helix; a large molecule, in the nucleus of a cell, that consists of a long strand of nucleic acids, and has a structure that causes its surface to have the shape of a screw; one of several nuclear molecules that collectively embody the genetic code of a living cell. A single chromosome represents several thousand discrete genes, surrounded by the proteins that feed them. A single gene consists of a discernable series of base pairs of DNA, so a single human chromosome must have about 100 million base pairs of DNA. A fixed number of chromosomes determines the sexes and genetic characteristics of a species. The nucleus of each human cell properly contains precisely 46 chromosomes, and each chromosome has certain discernable features and functions that permit scientists to name each one by number. Forty-four of these chromosomes occur as identical pairs of somatic chromosomes, or diploid chromosomes, and carry genes for characteristics, so they are identified with only twenty-two numbers, as chromosome 1 through chromosome 22. The final two chromosomes determine sex, and are called monoploid or haploid chromosomes. As a pair, the two haploid chromosomes might be said to constitute the twenty-third pair of chromosomes, but they are monoploid instead of diploid, and are dissimilar to one another (X & Y) in males only. Disruption in the pairing and number of chromosomes results in various mutations and disorders. For example, an irregular trisomy in chromosome 21 will endow the cell with an extra and unwanted chromosome, making a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the normal 46 chromosomes, and lead to mongoloidism, or Down’s syndrome.
chromosome :  an artificial chromosome made with synthetic DNA.
chron- : [Gk] time.
chrono- : [Gk] time, tempus, dies, saeculum, ævum, ætas.
chronographiæ domorum Extraneorum : timelines of Strange houses.
chronographic watch : a timepiece showing four or more functions on its face, such as the dates, phases of the moon, et cetera.
chronography : the description of past time, relating historical events to the doctrine of time.
Chrostyde : 14 September : Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, In Exaltatione S. Crucis. Also, Feast of Saints Cornelius and Cyprian.
chthonial : feminine, of root origin. This adjective has been used to describe cultural elements that are matriarchal, inclusive, creative, cavernous, and centripetal. The chthonial stands for unrest in limited space. Cf. paideuma. Opp. tellurian.
chthonic : [1882 Gk] earthen.
Chukchi shaman : choupan.
chumship : a fast friendship between adolescents. Cf. age-mate, mateship.
church : [Sx] a collective body of Christians, a catholic or universal church, a body of Christians adhering to one particular opinion or dogma; ecclesiastical authority or power.
Church of England :  Episcopalianism.
churching : a church reception for a mother; a festive ceremony whereby a congregation receives a woman back into church membership after childbirth. Childbirth consituted a period of pollution and defilement, so Christians promulgated rules stipulating how many Sundays a pregnant woman must be barred from church attendance. Thus, celebratory churching was mainly a female rite of passage, and it served as an occasion of prayers, blessings, and thanksgiving. Cf. menstruation.
chwaer : [We] sister.
Cia an col atá agat leis? : [Ir] What is the blood relationship you have with him?
cicer : penis.
ciclaton : [Persian] literally scarlet; a variety of red silk.
cid- : cad- : cas- : to fall, befall.
cid- : cis- : to kill, cut.
-cidal : kill.
-cide : kill. Cf. amiticide, homicide, infanticide, matricide, neonaticide, parenticide, parricide, patricide, puericide, regicide, sororicide, stillicide, suicide, tyrannicide, uxoricide, vaticide, vulpicide.
-cild : [OE] son of a noble family.
cinædi : bachelors.
cinædus : [Gk] the rider in homosexual intercourse.
cinaedus : bachelor pederast. This term was fairly positive, because homosexuals often used it proudly and defiantly to characterize themselves, and it carried none of the derogatory implications of sodomite. Cf. sodomite.
cine- : kine- : [Gk] to move.
cingulum : the military belt of a knight or gentleman.
cingulus : surrounding wall.
cinquepace : the galliard dance.
cion: scion : [Fr] a sprout, a shoot engrafted on a stock; an offspring of the family.
cip- : cap- : capt- : cept- : to take, seize.
cipit- : capit- : head.
cir. : circa, circum.
circ. : circa, circum.
circa : c. : ca. : cir. : about, near to; around the year.
circulus : the corona of the glans.
circum- : around.
circumcision : female circumcision; the ritual removal of the foreskin of the female clitoris. Although this practice is virtually unknown in the United States, it persists as a tribal ritual in Uganda, and several other countries. Doctors presently believe female circumcision to be wholly unnecessary, and detrimental to health, and therefore Uganda has commenced an educational campaign to change local customs.
circumcision : the rite of cutting off the foreskin; the ritual removal of the foreskin on a male penis, or the foreskin of the female clitoris. In the United States, 60% of all males are subjected to neonatal circumcision, whereas no females are circumcised. The religious practice purportedly predated Judaism, but the patriarch Abraham adopted the practice and made it institutional as an enduring mark of patrilineal descent. Medically, the procedure is wholly unnecessary, and probably detrimental, because it eliminates from the penis approximately 15 square inches of tissue that would normally provide stimulation during copulation.
circumstance : circumstantia : something relative to a fact, the adjuncts or appendants of a fact; accident; something adventitious; incident, event, condition, state of affairs.
circus : [Lt] sports arena, an open space or arena for sports, with seats provided for spectators.
circus factions : the Blues and Greens. In Rome and Byzantium, circus spectators divided themselves into two opposing factions that sat on opposite sides of the stadium. The Blues and Greens were sometimes violent toward one another. Justinian was a Blue, and he expended much energy persecuting Greens.
cis- : cid- : to kill, cut.
cistron :  a segment of DNA that specifies a functional unit, such as an enzyme or protein. A cistron contains two heterozygous but closely linked, recessive mutations, which find expression in the phenotype when they appear on different chromosomes, but which find no expression when they appear on the same chromosome. Cf. operon.
citadel : citadelle : [Fr] fortress.
cities named for female generals : the Ionian cities of Anaia, Elaia, Gryneia, Kyme, Latoreia, Myrine, Mytilene, Pitane, and Smyrna.
citizen : civis : a freeman of a city; an inhabitant of a city, a member of a state. A citizen was a simple townsman, but not a gentlemen. Plato believed that the ideal city should consist of 5,000 citizens, or about 20,000 people in total. In Greek and Roman times, the ratio of free citizens to non-free dependants was approximately 1:4 or 1:5. Cf. polis. Opp. denizen.
citizenship : the freedom of a city.
cito : soon, before long.
città : [It] city.
city : cité : [Fr] a large town, a large collection of inhabitants and houses, a corporate town; borough, bishopric seat, a place prominent enough to deserve a bishop and a cathedral. Cf. borough.
ciudad : [Sp] city.
Ciuitate : [Lt] city.
-cium : -ce : action, the result of action.
civ. : civil.
civicus : civic, civil; pertaining to a Roman state.
civil codes :  the comprehensive legal statutes adopted by various nations, such as Denmark in 1683, Norway in 1687, Sweden-Finland in 1734, Prussia in 1791, France in 1804, Austria in 1811, Kingdom of Italy in 1865, Germany in 1875, Japan in 1898, Switzerland in 1907-1912, and Turkey in 1926. The Code Napoléon (1804-1875) became an important milestone in civil law. The revised German Civil Code was passed in 1898, took effect in 1900, and served as the model for Japanese civil law. Opp. common law.
civil law : law for the regulation of private matters; a legal system that derives mainly from common law, but which legislative statutes sometime change. Civil law is contradistinctive to ecclesiastical or canon law. Cf. canon law, common law, statute law.
civil marriage : [1653-1660 En] the first attempt at civilizing marriage in England, initiated by the Act of 1653, “How Marriages shall be Solemnized and Registered, as also a Register for Births and Burials.”
civil marriage : [1785 Am] the fundamental right to civil marriage and registration, theoretically established by Amendment I of the U.S. Constitution. The Virgina Statute of Religious Liberty (October 1785) provided the first practical step for reformation.
civil marriage : [1789 Fr] the right of civil marriage that the people of France acquired through revolution, and codified in the Code Napoléon (1804).
civil marriage : [1837 En] the second attempt at civilizing marriage in England, which commenced with the “Act for Registering Births, Deaths, and Marriages in England” in 1833, and was institutionalized in the Act of 1837. General registration commenced at Somerset House on 1 July 1837.
civil marriage : [1855 Sc] the institution of civil marriage in Scotland that commenced on 1 January 1855.
civil marriage : [1864 Ir] the beginning of civil marriage in Ireland, which occurred on 1 January 1864. Irish marriage registration was divided between Eire and Northern Ireland in 1922.
civil parish : Cf. parish.
civil registration : government recording of births, marriages, and deaths, designed to replace Anglican registration. The Commonwealth first established civil registration, in the years 1654-1660. The General Register of Births (1743-1837) provided dissenters with a central register in London. General registration commenced in England on 1 July 1837.
Civil Rights Acts : a series of civil rights bills passed by the U.S. Congress in 1866, 1875, 1957, 1960, 1964, and 1968, and supplemented with the Civil Rights Restoration Act (1988).
civis : citizen. Opp. hostis, peregrinus.
Cl. : Cavalry.
cla- : [Gk] to break.
Clack. : Clackmannanshire, Scotland.
claddwyd : [We] buried.
claim- : clam-.
claims to peerages : Anyone claiming entitlement to a peerage may present his Petition to the Crown. Claims to peerages sometimes arise, respecting a (1) dormant peerage, (2) abeyant peerage, or (3) a peerage whose succession is in dispute. The claimant presents his Petition to the Home Secretary, who forwards the documents to the Attorney-General. Once the Attorney-General has reported the Petition to the Sovereign, he refers the matter to the Counsel for the Crown in Peerage Claims. The Attorney-General may then elect to personally meet with the petitioner and his counsel, before making his report to the Home Secretary. If the Petition continues have merit, the Home Secretary recommends to the House of Lords that it refer the Petition to the Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords. When the Committee of Privileges reaches its conclusion, it reports such to the Sovereign. Cf. abeyance, dormancy.
clam- : claim- : to cry out.
clan : [Am] a coresident group consisting of lineage mates and their spouses; a kin group based on a unilocal rule of residence combined with a unilinear rule of descent, which tends to include some affinal relatives, such as paternal third or fourth cousins, but excludes some consanguineal kinsmen. Cf. sib.
clan : [Am] a matrilineal descent group. Cf. sib. Opp. gens.
clan : [anthropology] lineage, a unilineal descent group with vertical depth. In modern terminology, a clan may be further specified as a patriclan, patrilineage, matriclan, or matrilineage, and may be further subdivided into segments. Cf. conical clan, segment, sib.
clan : [En] an exogamous descent group composed of two or more lineages, and linked by same-sex ancestors. Two or more clans comprise a phratry. Cf. lineage, moiety, unilineage.
clan : clann : [Ir] family, race; a group of descendants sharing a common male ancestor.
clan-barrio : a clan that inhabits a particular hamlet, village, or ward of a community; a social subdivision of a community.
clandestine : clandestin : [Fr] secret, hidden.
clandestine marriage : a secret wedding that circumvents the conventions of Anglican rites and registration; a dissenter marriage by the license of a nonconforming church, which occurs without the banns of marriage and without Anglican registration. The phrase may also refer to any unlawful marriage, or any marriage outside the prescriptions of Christian churches. Cf. Boston marriage, duolocal residence, same-sex marriage.
clann na beirte dearbhráthar : [Ir] our fathers were brothers; an Irish circumlocution for the English term cousin.
clans : the 30 Sabinian clans of Rome based on the names of 30 Sabinian women, and comprising the Quirites. Cf. Quirites.
clap : gonorrhea.
Clarenceux King at Arms : the second king at arms, named after the Duchy of Clarence; the second of three senior heralds in England.
claret : clairet : [Fr] a French wine having a clear, pale-red color.
class : a tertiary taxonomic class of living beings, among at least seven orders of classification; a category more specific than phylum, but less specific than order. Cf. classification, taxonomy.
class : social or economic class; a classificatory term for a social stratum.
Class I : gentry.
Class II : yeomen and wealthy husbandmen.
Class III : husbandmen.
Class IV : non-farming artisans and craftsmen.
Class V : cottagers.
Class VI : laborers and poor craftsmen.
classification : ranging into classes.
classification : the division of living things into broad and particular categories. Scientific taxonomy customarily requires at least seven orders of classification, such as (1) kingdom, (2) phylum, (3) class, (4) order, (5) family, (6) genus, (7) species. In theory, any individual, living being can be systematically categorized as belonging to some specific classification. Cf. King Philip Came Over for Ginger Snaps, subspecies, stirps, superfamily, variety, race, stock, strain, breed.
classificatory father’s brothers : Fa =FaBr =FaFaBrSo =FaFaFaBrSoSo, where the same term is used for both father and paternal uncle, as well as for patruel cousins male; Fa ≠FaBr =FaFaBrSo =FaFaFaBrSoSo, where different terms are used to distinguish the genitor from his classificatory brothers.
classificatory kinship terminology : a system that assigns the same terms to same-sex collateral alters, on the basis of same-sex sibling equivalence. Opp. descriptive kinship terminology.
classificatory relationship terminology : classificatory kinship terminologies.
classificatory terminology : [obsolete] generational terminology.
Claudia : Claudia Castra : Gloucester.
Claudiana provincia : Gloucestershire.
Claudiocestria : Gloucester.
-cle : -cule : little.
Cleocestria : Glouchester.
cler. : clericus, clerk
clerical marriage : Cf. marriage, Saint Peter Damian.
clerical marriage : Cf. marriage.
clerk : clericus : clergyman, scholar, a man employed as a writer, a petty writer in some public office. A clergyman was known as the Reverend from the eighteenth century onward. Cf. notary, recorder, register, registrar.
Clevum : Gloucester.
client : [Fr] one who applies to an advocate for counsel.
client : one who seeks the support, protection, and countenances of a patron; he who benefits by the donation of a patron. Opp. patron.
clitorectomy : the surgical removal of the clitoris. Cf. intersexual.
clitorid type : a woman with intense sexual desires. Opp. uterine type.
clitoris : a small organ at the anterior or ventral part of the female’s vulva. The clitoris provides stimulation for the female in a manner homologous with the male penis. The flesh that forms the clitoris of a woman is the same flesh that manifests itself as the penis of a man. In a female-to-male change of sex, the surgeon uses the clitoris to construct the semblance of a penis. Cf. genitals, landica, penis.
clk. : clerk
cloak :  A short velvet cloak embroidered with beads, with a hood cape, was purchased for £4 about 1592.
Clodia : alias Lesbia. Clodia married Metellus (obiit 59 bc), and became a wealthy widow. She is often held to have been the lover of Catullus, but she importuned Catullus to translate the poetry of Sappho for her, so many think that Catullus paired himself with Clodia for the purpose of sexual adventure rather than sexual love. His translation of Sappho prompted Catullus to use Lesbia as a nickname for Clodia. Cicero publicly accused Clodia of having committed incest with her brother Clodius Pulcher, and some believe that her brother was actually interested in mating with some of Clodia’s partners. Clodia was also the object of scandal in a trial held in Rome while Catullus was absent.
Clodius Pulcher : the incestuous brother of Clodia. Br=Hu & Si=Wi & Cc & Ct.
cloister : cloyster : claustrum [Lt] : a religious retirement, monastery, nunnery, convent; a peristyle, piazza.
clone :  an individual grown from a single somatic cell of its parent and therefore genetically identical to its parent; the asexually produced progeny of an individual. Geneticists in Scotland successfully cloned a sheep for the first time in 1996, and the European parliament passed an act to prohibit the cloning of humans.
clone : a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single common ancestor.
clos- : clud- : clus- : to shut.
closet : a small, private room; a private repository of curiosities.
closet queen : closet homosexual; one who hides his sexual proclivities.
cloth : clothes : [Sx] anything woven for dress, dress, raiment, habit; tablecloth; canvas for painting; bedspread.
clown god : trickster.
club : clwppa : [We] an association of persons subject to stated rules; the dividend of a tavern reckoning.
clud- : clos- : clus- : to shut.
clus- : clud- : clos- : to shut.
clys- : [Gk] to wash.
Cnaeus Plancius : the Roman charged with having taken a male lover into the country to have sex with him. When Cicero defended Cnaeus Plancius, he said of male prostitution, Quod non crimen est “this is not a crime.”
cnwc : [Celtic] hillock, as in Knuckin, the local pronunciation of the diminuative, Knockyn, meaning ‘little hillock.’ Cf. cerrito [Sp].
 According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens. Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia. Graves 1948, edition 1966: 116-117.
 Varro’s ‘On the Latin Language,’ M. Terenti Varronis de Lingua Latina, 5.57.54-55.
 Nonnos, Dionysiaca, translated by le Comte de Marcellus in 1856. Eglinton 1964: 474.
 Ptak 1995, edition 1997: 107.
 Leland: 4.I.156. Douglas 1964: 146.
 Bacon, quoted by Johnson.
 Gurney 1833: 422.4-5.
 Harrison 1948: 1646.
 Milton, quoted by Johnson.
 Kensinger 1984. Parkin 1997: 176.
 Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9: 14.5. EGH 1997/9-10: 14.
 Denis de Rougemont. Eglinton 1964: 479.
 According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens. Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia. Graves 1948, edition 1966: 116-117.
 Graves 1948, edition 1966: 245.
 JRM. The editor’s practice.
 MORL 12:11112,11112,11.
 I Paralipomenon, 1.13. I Chronicles, 1.13.
 Chatellany of Knockin, HL: 363.
 Allen. Grahn 1990: 60.
 Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu, “Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese Race,” 1915.
 Kiang Shao Chuan Kang-Hu, “Genealogy and Family Name Origins of the Chinese Race,” 1915.
 Gurney 1833: 421.3.c.
 Murdock 1949: 66. Schusky 1972: 90.
 Firth 1951: 53. Schusky 1972: 90.
 L’Estrange, quoted by Johnson.