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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


I : [Ogham Q-Celtic] jaichim.[1]

Ī : II : a long i.

ī : ii : a long i.

i- : it- : to go.

I : J : the letters I and J were intially orthographic variants of the same letter.  Dr. Johnson alphabetized his Dictionary (1755) with a single section for words commencing with either letter.  Whenever the genealogist has trouble reading some abbreviation, notation, or word containing either letter, he should substitute the other letter to see if the alteration yields a modern spelling.  For example, the notation iij stands for Roman numeral III and means three (3), and vj means six (6).

I : the pronoun of the first person; myself.

i. : ilegitimo : [Sp] illegitimate.

I. of Man : Isle of Man.

I. of Wight : Isle of Wight.

I.D.N. : In Dei Nomine.

i.e. : id est : that is.

I.-et-L. : [Fr] Indre-et-Loire.

i.f. : ipse fecit : he himself did it.

i.h. : iacet hic.

i.q. : idem quod.

I.T. : Indian Territory.

I.U.D. : J.U.D.

-ia : -y : [Gk] quality of.

-ia : -y : quality, state, condition.

iacent : dormant.

iaceo cum : to lie with.  Cf. dormio cum, maneo.

iaceretur : it might be dormant, it might be lying on the ground.

iacet : he lies down, it is dormant.

iacet hic : i.h. : here lies; a tombstone inscription.

iäkäs : [Fi] old, aged.

iam defuncti : now deceased.

Iansa : [Macumba] Oya; the queen of wind and rain.[2]  Cf. Oya.

-iasis : [Gk] disease, morbus.

-iasis : [Gk] diseased condition.

iatr- : [Gk] physician, medicine.

ib. : ibidem : in the same place.

ibid. : ibidem : in the same place.

ibidem : Ibid. : ib. : in the same place; the same book, chapter, and page, just cited.

ibique Edmundum ejus filium in heredem adoptavit : thereupon he adopted as his son and heir Edmund.[3]

-ible : -able : -ibilis : -bile : able to be, worthy to be; able to.

ibn : [Ar] son of.  Cf. ben, bin, ebn.

-ic : -ac : -tic : [Gk] pertaining to.

Ic : Icelandic.

-ic : -icus : -ica : -icum : pertaining to.

-ic : -tic : pertaining to.

-ica : -icus : -icum : -ic : pertaining to.

ichthy- : [Gk] fish.

-ician : [Gk] specialist in.

icon- : [Gk] image.

icon : logograph, pictograph; logogram, pictogram.  Cf. smile icon, ass-icons.

iconoclast : [Gk] a breaker of images.

iconography : [Gk] a description of pictures, statues, or monuments.

I-coo-coo-a : [Sioux, Sac, Fox] a man dressed in female dress “as he has been all his life,” who figures as the honored guest during an annual or semi-annual feast.[4]  Cf. American shaman feasts.

-ics : -tics : [Gk] art, science, or study of.

ictus : blow, strike.  Stroke.  Cf. apoplexia.

ictus gladiatorius : sword strike.

ictus sagittarum : arrow strike.

-icum : -icus : -ica : -ic : pertaining to.

-icus : -ica : -icum : -ic : pertaining to.

-id : tending to.

id : the collective unconsciousness, symbolized by the sea; a Freudian term.  The id is the innermost ego or self that constitutes the unconsciousness or soul (anima), and is equated with the Moon.  This inner self partakes of the inner reality that generates love and hate, and serves as the seat of instinctive drives and psychic powers.  Cf. ego, alter ego, superego.  Opp. ego, outer reality.

id est : i.e. : that is.

Id. : Idus, Ides.

ide- : [Gk] thought, idea.

idem —— ac : the same —— as.

idem —— atque, et, que : the same —— as—and ——.

idem —— cum : [+abl] the same as.

idem —— que : the same —— as.

idem —— qui : the same —— who, the same —— as.

idem —— ut : the same —— as.

idem : also, at the same time, at once, both, yet.

idem : also, at the same time, at once, both, yet; same; the same as just mentioned or cited.  Cf. vide, i.e., id est.

idem … ac : the same … as.

idem … atque, et, que : the same … as —— and ——.

idem … cum [+abl] : the same as.

idem … que : the same … as.

idem … qui : the same … who, the same … as.

idem … ut : the same … as.

idem quod : i.q. : the same as.

identification of proband : Cf. genealogical numbering.

idi- : [Gk] one’s own, peculiar.

idiom : [Gk] phrase, phraseology; a mode of speaking peculiar to some language or dialect.

idiot : [Gk] fool, changeling.

-idium : [Gk] little.

Idleness : mother of corruption.[5]

idler : sluggard, a lazy person.

idol : idolum : an image worshipped as god; one loved or adored or honored.

idolater : idololatra : one who pays divine honors to images; a great admirer; someone who worships for God something that is not God.

idolatress : idololatra : she who worships idols.

idrosis : heavy or extraordinary perspiration.

iecur : liver.

ieuaf : ieuengaf : [We] youngest.

-ific : making.

-ify : to make.

ig- : ag- : act- : to do, drive.

-igate : -egate : to make.

IGI : International Genealogical Index, published by the Church of the Latter Day Saints of Jesus Christ (LDS).

IGI Event : LDS Event, normally the record of an individual’s inception, or marriage.  Inception includes Birth, Christening (Chr), and Adult Christening (Adult Chr).  The IGI Marriage (M) records often complement the records of inception, as do contemporaneous events, such as a Miscellaneous (S) date, Census (N) date, or Will (W) date.  Death (D) records tend to be scarcer than the rest.

IGI Record : a typically configured IGI Record consists of the individual’s Name (Sex), followed by Event, Date/Place, LDS Ordinances, and Batch and Source Information, and sometimes supplemented with the symbolic asterisk (*), at-sign (@), ampersand (&), number-sign (#), and other symbols and brackets (<>).  If the IGI Records shows an LDS Endowment (E) or an LDS Sealing (SP or SS), then the record ought to show the name of a Father, Mother, Relative (Rel), or Spouse juxtaposed to the proband’s name.

igitur Abia confortato imperio suo accepit uxores quattuordecim, procreavitque viginti duos filios et sedecim filias : But Abijah waxed mighty, and married fourteen wives, and begat twenty and two sons, and sixteen daughters.[6]

iglesia : [Sp] church.

ign. : ignotus : unknown.

ignaro : [Lt] a contemptuous term for a blockhead.

igne combusta : injured or died from a burn or scald.

igni- : fire, pyros [Gk].

ignobility : want of magnanimity.

ignoble : ignobilis : of mean birth; not noble; not belonging to any illustrious race; worthless; undeserving of honor.

ignobleness : want of dignity, want of splendor.

ignominy : ignominia : infamy, shame, disgrace, reproach.

ignomy : ignominy.

ignoramus : a foolish fellow, a vain pretender.

ignoramus : we ignore this; the first word of a rejected indictment.  If a grand jury is impaneled to investigate a crime, but cannot find sufficient evidence against a defendant, they reject and return the bill of allegations by writing ignoramus ‘we ignore this’ at the top, and the defendant is released.

ignotus : ign. : ignote, unknown; of low birth.

Ihara Saikaku : [natus 1623] a Japanese author famous for his stories about all kinds of sexual adventures, both heterosexual and homosexual.

II the letter : Y.

ikä : [Fi] age.

ikäinen : [Fi] aged.

il : [Sp] the definite article, masculine singular; an article with the same function as ‘the’ and le [F]

-il : -ile : pertaining to.

il- : in-, en-, em-, in, into, on, upon, against.

il- : in-, un-, not.

-il : little.

il. : in-law.

i-l. : in-law.

-ile : able to be.

-ile : -il : pertaining to.

ilei pondera : a circumlocution for testicles.[7]  Cf. pondera.

ilex: the great scarlet oak.

iliac : iliacus : relating to the lower bowels.

Ilithia : the midwife, the good weaver.

ill : evil, sick, disordered, not in health.

Ill. : IL : Illinois.

ille : he, she, it; the aforesaid, that one; the same one.

illegality : against the law.

illegitimacy : Homer and Helidorus said that reedlike hair on one’s thighs was a symbol of illegitimacy.

illegitimacy : the state of bastardy; some birth from a polluted source, symbolized by the budding lotos or lotus; some birth from mire, compared to the reeds that grow along the Nile shore.  While viewing the budding lotus, Isis realized that her brother-husband Osiris had committed adultery with Nephtis.  The lotus symbol is ubiquitous in Asian art, and normally serves as the seat or dias for a Buddha or Bodhisattva.

illegitimate : illégitime [Fr] : illegittimo [It] : begotten unlawfully, begotten out of wedlock; natural; not genuine.  Cf. nothus.

illegitimate children : [1851] Ch; bastards.  The number of illegitimate children born in England in 1851 was 42,000, and many were the bastards of prostitutes.  Cf. prostitutes in London.[8]

illegitimation : the state of someone born out of wedlock; the want of genuineness.

illegitimus : [Sp] illegitimate.

illiberal : illiberalis : ignoble, not munificent, not ingenuous; sparing, mean, homely, conservative.

illiberality : parsimony, niggardliness; meanness of mind, meanspirited.

Illinois : [IL] literally men; a tribal name in Illinois; a place name in Arkansas, Oklahoma, California, and Oregon.  Cf. American shaman transvestites.

illiteracy : the inability to read and write; want of learning.

illiterate : illiteratus : unlearned, unlettered; rude, barbarous.

illness : evil, sickness, malady, disorder; wickedness; badness or inconvenience of any kind.

illuminator : one who decorates books with pictures at the beginning of chapters.

im- : in-, en-, em-, in, into, on, upon, against.

im- : in-, un-, not.

-im : -nim : [Hb] a plural suffix denoting a group or class of individuals.  Cf. Cohanim.

imbastardize : to condemn as being a bastard.

imbecile : imbecilis : weak, feeble, lacking strength in body or mind.

imbecility : feebleness of body or mind.

imbecillitas : weakness, failure to thrive; impotency, a ground for divorce.

imbiber: one who drinks or sucks.

imitator : one who copies another.

immaculate conception : spiritogenesis, maternal generation through the fertilization of a male spirit in altered form.  In the form of a dove, the Holy Spirit impregnated Mary.  Matthew and Luke both provided extensive paternal lineages for the Christ, through his father Joseph, so it is confounding to try and reconcile those biblical expositions with the Roman doctrine of a fatherless, immaculate conception.  The mother of Siddhartha Gautama was purportedly impregnated by an elephant’s trunk, and therefore, her childbirth is commonly believed to have been immaculate.  However, the Buddhists attach no particular dogma to the legend.  Cf. spiritogenesis.  Opp. parthenogenesis.

immemorial : past the time of memory; so ancient that the inception or incident cannot be traced.

immigrant : one who has moved into a foreign country intending to settle there.  Cf. demigration, migration, transmigration.  Opp. emigrant.

immigrants to America : [1877] German immigrants, who sometimes sailed directly to New York from Hamburg or Bremen, but sometimes left from Liverpool, England.  Germans who sought departures from Liverpool would often cross the North Sea by steamer to Hull, and then travel across England by railroad, to Liverpool.[9]  Cf. voyage.

immigrants to Castle Garden : [1873] Some 267,000 immigrants disembarked at Castle Garden, New York, in 1873.  Some 96,000 remained in New York, and some 24,000 settled in the East.  Around 99,000 immigrants continued onward to the West and Northwest, 44,000 settled in the Middle States, and 2,000 traveled to the South.[10]

immigrants to Castle Garden : [1874] 149,584 immigrants.  Those intending to settle in New York were 52,444, more than 1/3rd of the total.  Those bound for the West and Northwest were 56,615, and those going to the Middle states were 22,630.  Settlers in the East numbered 12,237, whereas 3,506 immigrants went to the South, and 2,152 went to Canada.[11]

immigrants to Castle Garden : [1875] 99,093 immigrants.[12]

immigrants to Castle Garden : [1876] 113,979 immigrants.[13]

immigrants who died en route : [1846-1877] After the famine of 1846, approximately 98,000 contract laborers sailed from Ireland to Canada in steerage class, but about one in four, or some 25,000 persons, died aboard ship.  When the Leibnitz sailed from Hamburg in 1868, it carried 500 contract laborers, but more than 100 laborers died en route to America.  By the late 1870s, the mortality rate in steerage class had been reduced to merely 1.66% or roughly 2 percent.[14]

immigration : entering, passing, or migrating into a place.  Cf. emigration.

immigration bonds : [1847-1876 NY] The owners and agents of ships arriving at New York were required to post a bond of $300 for each steerage passenger, for that was the rate fixed by the state of New York from May 1847 and until 20 March 1876.  The $300 bond was intended to indemnify any municipality or county against spending any public funds to support the immigrant for the first 5 years of his residency.  Cf. head-money.

immigration to New York : [1847-1870] some 297,000 persons who immigrated to New York from May 1847 to January 1870.  The combined value of their personal property and their capital value as laborers amounted to some $5 billion.

immigration to the U.S. : [1874] the rate of total immigration into the United States in the year 1874 was about 300,000 persons per year, whose combined value in personal property and labor capital amounted to some $4 million annually.

immoderation : excess, intemperance, want of moderation.

Immodest Companions of Good Birth : [1985-1997, named 1991] a mixed fellowship of heterosexual and homosexual relatives, who perform their annual rites at Lake Berryessa, CA, on or around 18 June.  The name derived from a translated phrase in Quintillian.

immodesty : impudence, indecency, want of modesty or delicacy.

immolation : the act of sacrificing.

immolator : one who offers in sacrifice.

immolavit diis Damasci : he sacrificed unto the gods of Damascus.[15]

immortal mother : Cf. Mater Dolorosa.

immune system : the body’s system for protecting itself against foreign and invading microörganisms as well as cancerous cells.  The organs that maintain and operate the immune system are the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils, and bone marrow.

immunity : [1400] the quality or state of being immune; the ability to resist a disease by somehow preventing the development and replication of a pathogenic microörganism or by counteracting its effects.  This concept enjoyed considerable popularity in the fourteenth century, when there were so many devastating outbreaks of the Black Plague, and Daniel Defoe wrote antecdotes about remedies and immunities offered in London during the Great Plague (1665).  However, there was no practical way to incite immunity until the cow-pox vaccine was invented, sometime prior to 1755.[16]  Dr. Edward Jenner demonstrated in 1798 that a human could be innoculated with the cow-pox vaccine and derive from it immunity against smallpox.

immunity : immunitas : [1400] freedom or exemption from taxation; exemption from liability or military service.  Opp. community.

immunization : [1892 Fr] the endowment of immunity by vaccination against viral infection.  The work of Louis Pasteur and other scientists in the late nineteenth century commenced this common practice.  Standard immunizations available today include innoculations against Hepatitis B, Diptheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT), Oral poliovirus (OPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), Chickenpox or varicella, and Tetanus-diptheria (Td).

-imony : -mony : quality of.

imp : [We] son, offspring, youth, progeny; scion, graff, sucker; a puny devil, a subaltern devil.

imp : to artificially attach a feather to a hawk’s wing to replace one that has broken.  Cf. hawks.

Imp. : Imperator.

impairment : injury, diminution.

impale : to conjoin on one escutcheon the arms of oneself and one’s wife; to vertically divide a shield into halves and charge each half with a different coat-of-arms.  The verb carries a sexual nuance, and is used in a suggestive manner, e.g. le Strange impaling Lewkenor, where Lewkenor is the wife.

impalement : a conjunction of coats-of-arms; pale-ways; the practice of combining a man’s ensigns armorial with those of his wife, sometimes by quartering the shield, sometimes by dividing the shield half, and sometimes by other methods, such as imposing a lozenge over the center.  Cf. empalement.

imparity : imparitas : inequality; difference in rank or excellence; disproportion.

impartible : communicable; to be bestowed or conferred; the property of something that cannot be divided, such as a single object or parcel of real estate.

impatronization : the absolute possession, mastery, or seigniory of something.

impeachment : impediment, obstruction, hinderance; imputation, reproach; public accusation.

impedimento : [Sp] impediment.

impendium : compound interest.  Cf. compendium, usura.

imperial : imperialis : pertaining to an emperor or monarch; monarchical; royal.

imperium : supreme command.

impetus : violent impulse, passion, force; physical abuse, a ground for divorce.

impiety : impietas : contempt for the duties of religion; the expression of irreligion; irreverence to God; a wicked act.

impignoration : the act of pawning or pledging something.

implantation : [1578] the planting of a plant seed; the transplantation of a plant to some alien soil; the attachment of an embryo of placental mammal to the uterine wall.

impleo : to inseminate.

impostor : pretender; one who cheats by assuming some fictitious character.

imposturage : imposition, cheat.

imposture : impostura : fraud, cheat supposititiousness.

impotence : impotency : impotens : incapacity of propagation; the inability of a man to have an erection; disabled by disease or nature; wanting power or force; imbecility, weakness.

impotent : impotens : weak, feable; incapable of sexual excitement.

imprecation : imprecatio : curse, a prayer intended to work evil.

impregnate : to fill with youth; to make pregnant or prolific.

impregnation : fecundation.

imprimatur : let it be printed; a word which once appeared at the beginning of books; a licence to print.  Sir Roger L’Estrange, Licenser of the Press, sometimes withheld such a licence to John Milton, and thereby provoked Milton to write his famous tract on freedom of expression, named Areopagitica.

imprimis : in the first place, chiefly, especially.

imprint: the designation of the place in which a work was printed; the name or pseudonym of a publisher.  One publisher may subdivide his production into several imprints.

improbation : the act of disallowing.

improbity : improbitas : dishonesty.

impropriate : devolved into the hands of laymen.

impropriation : exclusive possession; alienation of the possessions of the church.

impropriator : a layman who has possession of the lands of the church; one who seizes to himself.

impropriety : improprieté : [Fr] unsuitableness, disrepect, unfitness; want of justness.

impudicus : shame­less; unchaste, lewd, incontinent.

impuissance : [Fr] impotence, inability; weakness, feebleness.

impurity : impuritas : act of unchastity; want of holiness or sanctity; baseness; feculent admixture.[17]

in —— memoriam : in memory of ——.

in- : en-, em-, in, into, on, upon, against.

-in : -ine : [Gk] chemical substance.

in- : un-, not.

in capite : in a tenure held directly of the king.

In Dei Nomine : I.D.N. : in the name of God.

in dorso : on the back, on the reverse of a page.

in dorso obversus : on the reverse.

in extenso : completely, without abridgement.

in folio : secundo, on sheets folded once, on sheets folded in half; in Halbbogengröße.  Cf. folium.

in litt. : in literis : in correspondence.

in loc. cit. : in loco citato.

in loco citato : in loc. cit. : in the place cited.  Cf. ibid., idem.

in mem. : in memoriam : in memory of.

in nomine dei : I.N.D. : in the name of God, in God’s name.

in nomine individuæ Trinitatis : in the individual names of the Trinity.

in partibus Scotie :  in Scottish parts.[18]

in situ : in place.

in utero : before birth.

in verbo veritatis : on his word of truth.

in vices : by taking turns.  Cf. inque vices.

in vitro : in glass, in a test-tube; testing or production in a test-tube, rather than a living organism.  Opp. in vivo.

in vitro fertilization : Cf. reproductive technologies.

in viva : [fem] in vivus.

in vivo : in life, in the body of a living organism.  The expression refers to testing or production in the body of a human or animal subject, rather than a test-tube.  Opp. in vitro.

in vivus : at birth.  This phrase is used to say an infant died at birth, as opposed to having been stillborn (non vivus).  Opp. non vivus.

inaffable : discourteous, sour, reserved.

inalienable : [Fr] impossible to alienate or grant to another.

inamiable : unpleasant.

inamiableness : the want of amiable qualities.

inamorato : innamorato [It] : one in love.

inane : inanis : empty, void.

Inanna : the Sumerian goddess of the moon, equivalent to the goddess Ishtar in neighboring countries.  Inanna took delight in the love of her own vulva, called the ‘boat of heaven,’ and also delighted in her marriage to the shepherd king.  She traveled to the underworld of death and transformation, and there engaged in a dance with the goddess Ereshkigal.[19]  Cf. Enheduanna, Ereshkigal.

inauguration : investiture by solemn rites.

inborn : innate, naturally implanted.

inbox : a box containing incoming letters, and tasks to be accomplished.  Cf. letterbox.  Opp. outbox.

inbred : hatched or generated within, produced within.

-inc : -ink : -ing : [Du] typical suffices in Dutch surnames.

inc. : incomplete.

incagement : confinement in a cage.

Incarnation : Era of Incarnation.

incendit : he set fire to, he burned.

incensor : an inflamer of passions; an kindler of anger; one who incites others to violence.

incepit facere castrum et munitionem juxta manerium suum : he commenced building a cas­tle and fortification next to his manor.[20]

incertus : uncertain, unknown.

incest : Fa=Ph & So=Er; the father-son incest that Hittites forbade.[21]

incest : incestum [Lt] : inceste [Fr] : Mo=Wi & So=Hu, Si+Wi & Br=Hu; copulation or sexual indulgence with persons belonging to prohibited degrees of relationship; unnatural or criminal conjunction.  The prohibition of incest forms a fundamental criterion for kinship systems throughout the world.  Societies create many real, assumed, and artificial bonds of kinship that bar sexual relations between the relative members, and any related couples who violate the chastity required of their relationship are deemed to be incestuous.  The prohibition of incest usually pertains to close relatives standing in some prohibited degree to the ego or proband, such as parents, uncles, aunts, siblings, and children, but it also applies to adoptive and fictive relationships, and it survives even after an adoption has been formally dissolved.  Cf. chresasthe, mismating, status unchastity.

incest prohibition : incest taboo, a rule or set of rules that forbid the ego from having sexual relations with particular relatives.  The incest prohibitions are strongest for close relatives, and they diminish in seriousness as the genealogical distance between the ego and the relative grow more remote.  Incest rules are sometimes based upon exogamous patrilineal descent groups, but the ego is normally prohibited from having sex with especially close relatives, such as his mother, even though she stands outside his patrilineal descent group.  Anglo-American incest rules are based upon degrees of relationship.  Generally, incest rules are egocentric, whereas the rules of exogamy and endogamy are based on social groups.  Cf. endogamy, exogamy, marriage rules.

incest taboo : incest prohibition.

incestous sons : Uranus, son and husband of Gaia; Damuzi, son and lover of Ishtar;[22] Murcia’s demon son.

incestuous couples : Clodia and Clodius Pulcher (Si=Wi & Br=Hu);[23] Murcia and her demon son (Mo=Wi & So=Hu); Gaia and her son Uranus (Mo & So=Hu).

incestuous marriage : [Cashinahua] chakahaida, a union disallowed by the marriage rules of the Cashinahua in southeast Peru.  A man is forbidden to marry his Mo, FaSi, MoMo, FaMo, Si, Da, SiDa, and ChDa.

incestuousness : state of incest.

inch : [Ba] one-twelfth of a foot.

inchoate : begun, entered upon.

inchoate marriage : puerile or juvenile marriage contracted before adolescence and before the ages of consent.

inchoation : inception, beginning.

inchoative : [1631] initial, formative; at the beginning of a state of betrothal and matrimony.  In feudal times, youngsters as young as six years of age were contracted to marry, and such marriages had an inchoative period between the marriage contract and the attainment of puberty.  A female spouse could exercise her right of consent at twelve years of age, whereas the male spouse could exercise his at fourteen years.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

incl. : included, inclusive.

inclusive reckoning : a method of reckoning that counts the days preceding a feast as constituting the feast’s ‘week’ Sunday to Saturday.  In Tudor times it was customary to reckon a particular week from the Sunday preceding a cardinal event.  The first week of January started in December, on the Sunday prior to 1 January, or on Sunday 1 January itself.  When counting the longer periods of 7-day weeks with respect to one particular day, it has always been customary to start the week from the prior Sunday, not the following Sunday.  This might be termed ‘inclusive reckoning’ instead of ‘exclusive reckoning.’[24]  The preference for inclusive periods is widely accepted among chronologists and programmers even today, and therefore the researcher should always assume that a cardinal week started before the cardinal day.  Furthermore, the genealogist should not be flustered when he sees a record from the fifty-third (53rd) week or fifty-fourth (54th week) of a given year.  The Julian years were always common or leap years (365 or 366 days), but the weeks reckoned from Lady Day 25 March often overlapped the previous and following years.  Cf. first week.

incoëxistence : the quality of not existing together.

incognito : [It] in a state of concealment, in disguise.

incognitus : unknown.

incoherence : incongruity, looseness of material parts; want of cohesion or connection; inconseqence of argument.

incola : inhabitant.

income : revenue; the produce of anything.

income : gist, a donation of some food or beverage to the household by a visitor or guest; other income.  Cf. gist.  Opp. store.

income : store, a farm product or commodity taken from the manor house stores.  Cf. store.  Opp. gist.

income tax : [1799] a tax on the net annual income of an individual or business.  Great Britain temporarily adopted income taxation at the end of the eighteenth century to reverse a fiscal emergency caused by exhorbitant cost of warfare and imperialism.  The United Kingdom began using it for peacetime revenue in 1842, at a time when burdensome tariffs were being lifted.  By the time the United States ratified Amendment XVI in 1913, most countries of the civilized world had commenced assessing tax on personal income.  Income taxes effectively redistribute wealth, and therefore enable and facilitate democracy, by tending to equalize the social strata, and by nominally preventing an abnormal ascendency of plutocrats and aristocrats.  Understandably, the most vehement opponents of income taxation have always been the very wealthiest members of society, such as William Randolph Hearst I and Stephen Forbes.  Proponents of the income tax have included such worthies as Thomas Paine.

incompertus : unknown.

incompetency : inability, want of adequate qualification.

inconnection : want of just relation or connection.

inconsiderateness : thoughtlessness, negligence, inadvertence, carelessness.

inconstancy : want of steady adherence; mutability of affection or temper.

inconstant : inconstans : wanting perseverance; changeable, mutable; infirm in resolution; not steady in affection.

incorporation : a union of diverse elements in one mass; adoption, union, association; the formation of a body politic.

incorrigibility : depravity beyond redemption.

incorruptibility : incorruptibilité : [Fr] insusceptibility to corruption.

increase : produce, generation, progeny; the state of waxing; augmentation; the state of growing more or greater; that which is added to the original stock.

increate : not created.

incubation : incubatio : pregnancy in progress, the act of sitting upon eggs in order to hatch them.

incubative : [1721] formative; during pregnancy, during incubation; in the initial stages of development; while sitting on eggs to hatch them with the warmth of one’s body.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

incubus : an evil spirit that lies on a person asleep; a demon who has intercourse with women while they are sleeping; a pretended fairy or demon,[25] one who oppresses or burdens someone like a nightmare.  Cf. succubus.

incumbency : the state of keeping a benefice or office; the act or state of lying upon another.

incumbent : one who holds an office or ecclesiastical benefice; rector, vicar, curate.

incunabula : books printed before 1501.

incunabulum : [1861] a printed book of great antiquity, impressed prior to 1501.

Ind. : IN : Indiana.

Ind. : Indian; native American.

Ind. Ter. : Indian Territory.

indagator : examiner, enquirer, searcher.

inde : thence; from there; from that place; thereupon; then; from that time, from that time forth.  If inde is juxtaposed with a date and follows the name of a parish, one may infer that it means that the extant parish records (tabulæ) of that place start from the given year <yyyy>.  Cf. inde <yyyy> tabulæ.

inde : [ad 600] therewith; de ea re, about that thing, concerning that thing.

inde <yyyy> tabulæ : parish records from the year ——.[26]  Such an expression may be placed in parentheses to indicate when a place’s extant parish records begin, e.g. Attleborough, Norfolk (inde 1552 tabulæ).[27]

indebtment : the state of being in debt.

indecency : indecence : [Fr] what is contrary to good manners; something unbecoming.

indecorousness : indecency, impropriety of conduct.

indefeisible : indefaisible : [Fr] irrevocable.

indemnification : security against penalty or loss; reimbursement of loss.

indenization : the act or patent by which someone is made a free citizen.  Cf. naturalization.

indenize : to make free.

indenizen : denizen : inhabitant, someone admitted to residence in a foreign country, an alien admitted to the rights of citizenship.  Opp. citizen.

indenizen : to naturalize, to make free.

indent : to contract, to make a compact.

indenture : a contract or covenant with counterparts.  It was once customary to write a contract two or more times on the same parchment, and then to separate the counterparts with wavy cuts so as to demonstrate they were separated from the same paer.  The word indenture refers to the wavy cuts that resemble interlocking teeth.

indentured servant : [1607-1819] indented servant; a white European, usually British, who traveled to the Colonies under agreement to be bound in servitude for a number of years, up to a maximum of seven (7) years.  Adults usually served for terms of 3-6 years, but children and teenagers remained bound until they came of age.  Often such servants indentured themselves in ex­change for commutation of a prison or death sentence.  This class of persons was so large that it once actually competed with both free labor and slavery.  Upon arrival, each indentured passenger was sold at public auction to the highest bidder, and he was thereafter obliged to pay his debt for passage to his new owner.  Such transactions were customary, but there was no difference between serving and slavery, so most such migrants indentured were actually slaves for a limited period.  Indentured servitude often caused families to separate upon arrival, for the contract buyers took their servants to different locations.  If family members died en route to America, the transportation cost for the decedent was charged to the surviving members, causing their terms of servitude to lengthen.  The U.S. Congress outlawed the practice of selling contract labor, aiming to encourage the immigration of higher classes of people, and therefore the last ‘sales’ of immigrants occurred in Philadelphia in 1818 and 1819.[28]  Cf. steerage passengers, Sabbatical year.

independence : freedom, exemption from control, self-reliance; the state wherein external entities have no power.

Independents : [1644] sectarians belonging to the English movement that arose in the late sixteenth century and advocated congregational autonomy.  The Independents formed a major political force during the Cromwellian times (1649-1660), and became one of the four Old Dissenter sects that refused the Act of Uniformity (1662).  The name Independents did not survive, for the main body of sectarians founded Congregationalist movement, and smaller groups joined the Baptists and Friends (Quakers).  Cf. Baptists, Congregationalists, Dissenter sects, Friends, Quakers.

Independents and Presbyterians : Cf. Presbyterians and Independents.

indevotion : irreligion, want of devotion.

index : indice : [Fr] signification, sign; the hand that points to anything such as a path or hour; the table of contents to a book.  An index and a table are two aspects of the same kind of line-item record.  Cf. table.  Opp. body text, narrative.

items unpriced : The Hunstanton Household Accounts appear to include 4 types of items that were never priced, namely (1) items of Gist, (2) items of Store, (3) game killed with the crossbow, gun, goshawk, or the greyhounds, and (4) items paid in kind for Rent, such as a Rent Capon.[29]

item : index entry; a line-item or row in a table of records.  An item in the Hunstanton Household Accounts, usually includes the (1) date, (2) payor, (3) payee, (4) beneficiary, (5) commodity or service, (6) quantity, (7) price per unit, and (7) total amount.  The Accounts rarely tell the source of the money, so the reader assumes the money was disbursed from the privy purse.  Cf. index entry, record, privy purse.

index entry : item; one line-item or row in a table of sentences or data; a record or statement of a particular transaction.  An index entry may be an item or line-item in household accounts, or a row of a spreadsheet, or a lexicon entry in an alphabetized list.  An index entry is thus the narrative form of a table row.  The entry often includes the (1) headword, with inverted precedents, and historical dates in parentheses, (2) the dates and places of use, noted in square brackets ([—]), (3) semblatives or variants, the alternative and variant spellings of the headword, (4) definititions and narratives explaining the headword, (5) comparatives or confer (Cf.), and (6) opposites (Opp.).  The comparatives and opposites (Cf., Opp.) are lists of parallel or indirect references.  The word vide ‘see’ is different, in that it provides a direct reference or cross reference to another term.  Cf. confer, headword, item, narrative, oppositus, record, table row, variants, vide.

index person : ego, proband, propositus; the subject or individual central to an Ahnentafel, diagram of kinship, genogram, or pedigree.  Anthropologists use the term ego, whereas German genealogists use the term proband.  The term propositus stands for the common ancestor or progenitor at the head of a descending pedigree.  Cf. ego, proband, propositus.

Indian : an obsolete appellation for a native American.  The term is today considered by many to be a pejorative misnomer, but its use persists nonetheless, and may sometimes be seen in combinations, such as Amerind, the name for the largest family of native languages.  As there happen to exist ample resources for identifying tribes and languages, the genealogist may easily use authentic terminology in narratives, such as Powhatan or Cree or Cherokee in place of Indian.

Indian Territory : Ind. Ter. : I.T. : the old name of Oklahoma; terminus of the Trail of Tears; the large reserve for the infamous exile of native Americans.

indican in the urine : poisonous or toxic material seeping out of one’s system through the urine.  Cf. porphyria.

indicter : one who accuses or indicts.

Indiction : [ad 313] a cycle of orderly tributes spanning a period of fifteen years, instituted by Constantine the Great.  To commemorate Constantine’s victory over Mezentius, the Council of Nice decreed that years would no longer be reckoned by four-year Olympiads but by fifteen-year Indictions instead.  Reckoning by Indictions commenced on 1 January 313.

Indiction Cycle : a cycle of 15 years, which was fixed by Emperor Constantine the Great in ad 312, and which officially commenced on 1 January ad 313.  Cf. cycles.

indidem : from the same place.

indifférencié : [Fr] bilateral descent; cognatic, ambilateral, ambilineal, or non-unilineal descent.

indigene : indigena : a native.

indigenous : native to a county; produced or born in a region.

indigent : indigens : poor, needy, in want.

indignation : indignatio : the anger of a superior; anger intermingled with disgust or contempt.

indignity : violation of right combined with insult; insult upon injury; contemptuous injury; contumely.  Cf. divortium ob indignitatem.

indio : [Sp] native.

indios bárbaros : barbaric natives, uncivilized Indians.

indios de la nación : [Sp] Indians of the nation; Aztecs.

indirect dowry : dower.

indiscretion : inconsideration, imprudence.

indiscrimination : want of discrimination.

indispose : indisposer : [Fr] to make unfit; to disincline, make averse; to disorder slightly with respect to health; to make unfavorable.

indisposition : disorder, tendency to sickness; a slight disease; disinclination, dislike.

individuation : progressive individuation, the eight stages of developmental change that characterize the maturation of a human being.  The 4 periods of prenatal change are (1) gametogenesis, (2) ovulation, fertilization, morula-blastocyst formation and implantation, (3) embryonic development, and (4) fetal development and birth.  The 4 periods of postnatal change are (5) infancy and early childhood, (6) middle childhood, (7) prepuberty, and (8) adolescence.[30]  Cf. ages of passage.  Opp. recessive individuation.

individuation : regressive individuation; the four periods of change that demarcate the life of a fully developed human being, namely (1) adulthood, (2) middle age, (3) late middle age, and (4) death.  Each period is divisible into two phases called inhalation and exhalation, making eight stages of dissolution.[31]  Cf. ages of passage.  Opp. progressive individuation.

indivisible : what cannot be further divided into smaller parts.  Cf. impartible.

indoctrination : information, instruction.

indolence : laziness, inattention, listlessness, freedom from pain.

inducement : that which persuades or allures to anything, motive to anything.

inducer : persuader, one who influences.

induction : inductio : entrance, introduction; the act of handing over possession to someone establishing a church; enlistment into the military.

inductor : a person who inducts another into a benefice.

indulgence : kindness, fondness; forbearance, tenderness; liberality; a grant of the Roman church; a release of temporal penalties for sin.  A religious indulgence may be either partial or plenary.

indult : indulto : [It] privilege, exemption.[32]

industry : industria : assiduity, diligence, hard work.

indweller : inhabitant.

-ine : -in : [Gk] chemical substance.

-ine : pertaining to.

inebriation : intoxication, drunkenness.

ined. : ineditus.

ineditus : ined. : unpublished; not make known.

inequal : inæqualis : unequal.

inequality : inæqualitas : difference of station or rank, difference of comparable quantities; unevenness.

inescutcheon : canton; a small coat-of-arms or badge blazoned upon one’s personal coat-of-arms to show the bearer’s order of baronetage.  Cf. Baronetage, Badge of Ulster, Badge of Nova Scotia, Badge of Baronets of the United Kingdom.

inextinct : inextinctus : not quenched, surviving.

Inf. : Infantry.

inf. aet. : infra aetatem : under age.

infamous : infamis : openly censured, publicly branded as guilty.

infamy : infamia : notoriety of bad character, public reproach.

infancy : infantia : the initial period of life, often held to be the first seven years, 0-6 years.  Common law held that infancy represents a far longer period, forming the first part of life,[33] prior to adulthood, or the time of 0-20 years.  English law fixed civil majority at 21 years, and then defined civil infancy as any age below that, for legal purposes.  Under common law, infancy may be divided into three stages:  (1) 0-6 years, when an infant is conclusively presumed to be incapable of crime; (2) 7-13 years, when a child’s incapability of crime becomes a rebuttable presumption; and (3) 14-17 years or 14-20 years, when a youngster may be tried in juvenile court.

infancy and early childhood : Cf. individuation.

infangthef : [Sx] a liberty or privilege granted to certain lords to adjudicate the case of any thief captured within the lord’s fee.

infans : infant, during infancy; speechless, muted; childish.

infans cui quis in baptismo sponsor extitit : a sponsor stood for each infant being baptized.  Cf. godparent, sponsor.

infant : infans : a child from the time of its birth to its seventh year; 0 through 6 years of age; infante [It].

infanta : [Sp] a princess of the royal blood in Spain.

infanta : infante : [Sp] Da; female infant.

infantes expositi : abandoned children.

infantia : infancy.

infanticide : infanticidium : the act of slaughtering infants; the slaughter of the innocents by Herod; a slayer of infants.

infantile : infantilis : pertaining to an infant.

infantile debility : marasmus.

infantile spinal paralysis : polio.

infantry : infanterie : [Fr] the foot soldiers of an army.

infatuation : the state of feeling sexual attraction to one person in particular.

infection : infectio : contagion, poison, taint.

infecund : infæcundus : infertile, unfruitful.

infecundity : barrenness, want of fertility.

infelix : poor, unfortunate, pitiable, wretched.  Cf. miser, miserandus.

infeodation : infeudation.

infeoff : enfeoff.

inferior : lower in value or excellency; lower in station or rank; lower in place.

inferior pars : feminine genitalia.

infidel : infidelis : pagan, miscreant, unbeliever, one who rejects Christianity.

infidelity : infidelitas : disbelief in Christianity, want of faith.

infidelity : infidelitas : an act of unfaithfulness to one’s spouse.  Infidelity included ‘single adultery,’ or volitional sexual intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman, which was not categorized as criminal adultery (i.e. double adultery) by Hebrews, Romans, and some Americans.  Cf. adultery, single adultery.

infima pars : feminine genitalia.

infirm : infirmus : disabled, weak, feeble, unstable; irresolute.

infirmity : infirmité : [Fr] weakness, disease, malady; a failing or weakness of sex, age, or temper.

infix :  a medial word; a base, or root word, that occurs in the middle of a word, as opposed to the beginning (prefix) or end (suffix) of it.  Cf. prefix, suffix.

inflected language : Cf. language.

inflorescence : flower cluster, flower-bearing stalk; the arrangement of flowers on a stem or stalk.  Inflorescences include the monochasium, simple or compound; dichasium, simple or compound; umbel, simple or compound; capitulum; spike; corymb; raceme; panicle.

influentia : influence, the ethereal fluid that planets presumably exude so as to cast an astrological influence over human beings.

influenza epidemic of 1918 : Spanish flu; the greatest pandemic in human history; a virulent and deadly flu that caused pulmonary edema and death within two to four days of contagion, now known to have been spread by swine.  More than one-half million Americans died, and the documented death toll worldwide exceeded 21 million.  Historians suspect that the actual death toll might have reached 40 or 50 million.

influenza epidemic in England : [1556] the Great Dearth of 1556 was a flu epidemic that followed two years of crop failures, 1555-1556.

influenza epidemic of 1957 : the Asian flu that originated in China, and soon spread throughout the world.

influenza epidemics in North America : outbreaks of the flu that occurred in the years 1647, 1655, 1697-1698, 1732, 1737, 1747, 1756-1757, 1761, 1772, 1781, 1789-1790, and 1802.[34]

info. : information.

infra : below, under.

infra ætatem : inf. aet. : under age.

-ing : a typical English ending that commences with the vowel I, and ends with the nasalized letter G, \ng\ : Ŋ : ŋ : the agma, the eng; the \ng\ sound, as in long.

-ing : -ink : -inc : [Du] typical suffices in Dutch surnames.

ingenerate : ingeneratus : innate, inbred, inborn.

ingenerate : ingenero : to beget, produce.

ingenite : ingenitus : innate, inform, native, ingenerate.

ingenuus : ingenuous; born free, as opposed to having been manumitted (libertinus); freeborn, not of servile extraction.

inghean inghine : [Ir] DaDa ≠SoDa; daughter’s daughter; a descriptive Irish equivalent of the English classificatory term granddaughter.[35]

inghean mhic : [Ir] SoDa ≠DaDa; sons’ daughter; a descriptive Irish equivalent of the English classificatory term granddaughter.[36]

ingrave: to bury, begrave.

ingravidate : gravidatus : to impregnate, make prolific.

inguem : mentula.

inguinis : sexual organ; a term used 6 times by Ovid.

inguinis arma : penis.

inh. : inherited.

inhab. : inhabitant.

inhabitation : abode, place of dwelling; the state of being inhabited.

inhabitavit : inhabited, occupied, dwelled in.

inhabiter : dweller.

inhabitress : a female inhabitant.

inhalation : regressive individuation by the principles of inner reality.  Cf. alter ego, ego, id, superego.

inherent : inherens : innate, naturally conjoined; existing in something; being inseparable from something.

inheritable : obtainable by succession; transmissible by inheritance.

inheritance : impartible inheritance; passing possessions to a single heir.

inheritance : lateral inheritance; passing possessions to brothers until the last of the generation dies.

inheritance : partible inheritance, passing possessions to a plurality of heirs.

inheritance : patrimony; hereditary possession; the receipt of possession by hereditary right; the transfer of real and personal property, either partible or impartible, from one generation to the next, normally by established rules of inheritance, such as primogeniture, ultimogeniture, and gavelkind.  The rules for inheritance are codified into law, and may only be defeated by testamentation.  Rules pertaining to wives and children are the most stringent, and sometimes cannot be changed or limited through testamentation.  Cf. succession.

inheritance : post-mortem inheritance.

inheritance : pre-mortem inheritance.

inheritance : systems of patrilineal inheritance.  In medieval England, the vertical systems of inheritance were called gavelkind (to all sons), primogeniture (to eldest son), and ultimogeniture (to youngest son).  Cf. gavelkind, primogeniture, ultimogeniture.

inheritance : types of inheritance, namely unilineal and cognatic, vertical and lat­eral, impartible and partible.

inheritance and succession : primogeniture, by the eldest child.

inheritance and succession : ultimogeniture, by the youngest child.

inheritor : heir, one who receives by succession.

inheritress : heiress, a woman who inherits.

inheritrix : heiress.

inherse : to enclose in a funeral monument.

inhibition : a writ issued by a superior court, ordering a lower judge to stop the proceedings of a certain case.

inhospitality : discourtesy to strangers, want of hospitality.

inhumanity : inhumanité : [Fr] barbarity, cruelty, savageness.

inhumate : inhume : inhumo : to bury, inter.

inhumation : burial, sepulture.

iniquity : iniquitas : crime, wickedness, injustice, unrighteousness.

initial gender rôle : the imposed or assigned gender identity of an infant who later experiences gender confusion or ambivalence.  The terminology refers to the original sexual identity of a transsexual or transgeneral person.

initiation : initiatio : admission, reception; the entrance of any novice into some art or state.

initiatus : initiated.

initiatus est sacro baptismate : he was initiated by sacred baptism.

injury : injuria : unjust hurt or damage; mischief, detriment, annoyance; reproachful appellation, contumelious language.

injustice : injustitia : wrong, iniquity.

-ink : -inc : -ing : [Du] typical suffices in Dutch surnames.

inlander : dweller in some region far from the sea.

inlandish : native.  Opp. outlandish.

-in-law : [1600] La; a suffix denoting affinity rather than kinship or blood relation.  This suffix has a considerable history and presently enjoys fairly popular use, but it dates from the sixteenth or seventeenth centuries, and is therefore a relative new term of affinity.  Extremely old charters and testaments seldom show any differentiation for kindred versus affined relatives.  A testator in the thirteenth century normally referred to his affined and adoptive relatives by the same kinship terms he used for relatives of the whole blood, probably because marriage and adoption were regarded to be permanent and irreversible acts.  Grantors, testators, and scribes certainly knew the difference between affinity and kinship, and sometimes tried to record it by appending certain phrases and explanations such as ‘by marriage’ or ‘my brother’s wife.’  At times, certain confusions emerged, as when a scribe elected to substitute the Latin socrus ‘mother-in-law’ for the concept of ‘sister-in-law,’ perhaps because socrus so closely resembles soror ‘sister’ or sororis.  Cf. politico [Sp].

in-law : [1894] La, HuFa, HuMo, WiFa, WiMo, HuSi, HuSiHu, WiBr, WiBrWi, SoWi, DaHu; a relative by marriage; an affined relation.  This term was newly invented as a back-formation from such specific expressions as father-in-law, mother-in-law, et cetera, and became commonplace in the twentieth century.  Cf. brother-in-law, cousin-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, father-in-law, mother-in-law, relative-in-law, relatives-in-law, sister-in-law.

inlaw : Cf. outlaw.

in-law elimination : the phenomenon created through sister exchange and cross cousin marriage whereby the husband acquires his own cross uncle and aunt as affines, making it unnecessary to regard them also as in-laws.  Cf. cross cousin marriage.

inludo : to humiliate or insult by some sexual act.  Cf. insulto.

in-marrying : endogamy.

inn : [Sx] chamber, house, lodging; a house for travelers; a house wherein students are boarded and taught; a townhouse wherein some important man resides when he attends court.

inn of court : a college of common law.  The inns of court are located in London.

innholder : inhabitant, innkeeper.

innkeeper : one who provides lodging and entertainment for travelers.

innocence : freedom from imputed guilt; untainted integrity; harmlessness.

innominate : not named, without a name.

innuba : unmarried, without a husband; never veiled.  Some have recorded a masculine form innubus,[37] and there might have been some peculiar example of use or conjugation that justified this.  However, the root nubo denotes a bridal veil, so there should and ought to be no masculine equivalent for innuba.  A bachelor or unmarried man is usually called cælebs.

innubo : to marry into.  This verb radically differs in meaning and use from innuba or innupta, even though the spellings suggest similarity.  Cf. connubo.

innupta : unmarried; never veiled.  Cf. cælebs, puella.

ino: indio : [Sp contraction] Indian, native.

inopis : destitute, poorer than poor.  Cf. tennuis, egens.

inpia virgo : shameless girl.  Ovid used this phrase in reference to both a ‘natural’ girl, and then to an ‘unnatural girl’ or homosexual.

inpos : lacking power, powerless.  Opp. pos, potens.

inprolis nundum vir : impubes.

inq. : inquest, inquiry.

Inq.p.m. : inquisition post mortem.

inque vices equitant ac Luna teste moventur : taking turns riding and moving in the Moon’s witness.[38]  This expression was used to describe an act of lesbian passion.

inquilinus : lodger, tenant; someone who dwells in a place not his own.

inquilinus civis Romæ : someone not native to Rome, such as Cicero.

inquisition : Roman Catholic inquisition, a 30-period during which perhaps 9 million persons were burned to death for heresy.

inquisition in Milan : [1370] The Inquisition indicted a woman for belonging to the Society of Diana, in Milan in 1370.

inquisition in Milan : [1384] Sibillia admitted to a secular court and then to the Inquisition that she traveled at night with Signora Oriente, a woman to whom she and other women paid homage.  Penance was imposed upon her, and she was released.

inquisition post mortem : Inq.p.m. : an official inquest after one’s death; a formal inquiry made by a sheriff or some royal officer to determine whether the decedent’s estate needs to be assessed any unpaid fees, prior to an heir’s succession.

inquisitor : an officer of the popish courts of inquisition; someone who persecutes and punishes others for holding religious beliefs contrary to the Roman church.

inquistion in Milan : [1390] Pierina de’ Bugatis admitted traveling at night with Signora Oriente, and confessed to robbing the houses of the wealthy.  Sibillia was investigated a second time, and she explained that her lesbianism had been an innate proclivity, which she had sensed from her childhood.

ins. : insert.

insane : insanus : mad, causing madness.

insania : insanity, want of sound mind.

inscriptiones : titles.

inscriptions : multilingual inscriptions used as keys for translation.  Cf. Behistun Inscription, Rosetta Stone, Zambia Stone.

insecurity : uncertainty, danger, hazard; want of confidence; paranoia.

insertive anal intercourse : Cf. intercourse.

insertive vaginal intercourse : Cf. intercourse.

inside address : Cf. address.

insignia : the distinguishing marks of an office or honor.

in-shore fishing : fishing upon the seashore itself, rather than from it.  This was a form of by-employment performed at low tide through the use of sea lawers affixed in the shallows.  Opp. deep-sea fishing.

insobriety : drunkenness, want of sobriety.

insociable : insociabilis : incapable of connection or union; averse to conversation; quiet, withdrawn.

insolita : strange, unusual, uncommon.

insolvency : bankruptcy, inability to pay one’s debts.

inspeximus : we have inspected it; the first word of ancient charters and letters patent.  Cf. first words.

institution: institutio : establishment, settlement; education; the act of investing with spiritual powers a clerk presented to a rectory or vicarage.

institutionalized marriage : Hu & Wi; a marriage deemed to be wholesome or normative according to some ecclesiastical or civil authority.  In Anglo-American societies, the Roman church dictated the rules of institutionalized marriage until 1534, and the Anglican church dictated the rules until 1837.  Civil law presently defines the rules of institutionalized marriage in the United Kingdom and America, but the practice remains roughly the same as Christian marriage.  Roman, Anglican, and U.S. law uniformly prohibit biblical marriage, and several varieties of non-Christian marriage.  Cf. preferential marriage, prescribed marriage.

Instrument of Disclaimer : [1963] the document that a hereditary peer or peeress must submit to the Lord Chancellor to disclaim his or her peerage, within a fixed period of time.  The period is normally 12 months after coming of age or succession for most successors, or 1 month for Members of Parliament.  The document divests the peer and his wife, or the peeress and her husband, of all right to, and interest in, the peerage, as well as any titles, offices, privileges, or precedence attaching to the peerage.  A disclaimer of peerage pertains only to the living successor and his or her spouse, and therefore does not affect the devolution of the peerage to another heir, after the disclaimer’s death.  Once disclaimed, a peerage cannot be restored to the previous holder, even by Writ of Acceleration.[39]  Cf. children of peers who disclaim their peerages.

insular : insularis : islander.

insulto : to humiliate or insult by some sexual act.  Cf. inludo.

insults : the ceremonial insults of a jocular relationship.  Cf. fuck you.

insurance : an exemption from risk of loss, purchased through the payment of some premium.

int. noct. : inter noctam, during the night

integrity : integritas : honesty, purity of manners; a genuine and unadulterated state.

intemperance : want of moderation or temperance; excessive addiction to some affection or appetite.

intemperate youths : Cf. William Atheling.

inter- : between, among.

inter : between.

inter alia : among other things.

inter alius : among other things.

inter vivos : among surviving sons.[40]

intercalary : [1614] intercalarius, inserted in a calendar; interpolated, inserted between other parts or things.  An intercalary calendar contains some intercalary period, usually one extra day, called a leap day.  Some intercalary calendars contain an entire extra month.

intercalation : intercalatio : the insertion of extra days outside normal reckoning, such as the leap day of 29 February.

interceder : mediator, one who intercedes.

intercourse : insertive anal intercourse.

intercourse : insertive vaginal intercourse.

intercourse : receptive anal intercourse.

intercourse : receptive vaginal intercourse.

intercrural copulation : interfemoral copulation between the thighs.[41]  Cf. comprimo, English method, frig, interfemoral copulation, opprimo, tribadism.

interest : share, participation; usury, money paid for use; any surplus of advantage.

interfector : murderer, slayer.

interfectrix : murderess.

interfectus est : he was slain, killed, murdered, slaughtered.  Cf. occisus.

interfectus in bello : killed in war, killed in action.[42]  Cf. occisus.

interfemoral copulation : intercrural copulation between the thighs.[43]  Cf. English method, intercrural copulation.

interitus : destruction, ruin, annihilation.

interlocution : interlocutio : dialogue, an interchange of speech; hearing, a preparatory proceeding in a court of law; an intermediate act.

intermarriage : familial alliance; connubia as interfamilial alliance; two or more marriages between two families, especially in the same generation; marriage between two families, wherein each takes one and gives another.[44]  Intermarriage was used to cement two families together with bonds stronger than the ordinary bond of a single marriage.  Two or more unions between two sibs would often result in multilineal cousinage, for brothers married to sisters would yield double cousins, and intermarried brother-sister pairs would yield cross cousins.  The practice was surprisingly common, not only among feudal families, but also among colonial and pioneer families in America.  Genealogists often discover that pairs and sets of families migrated together, intermarried, and shared various links and heritages over several hundred years.  Although the concept of intermarriage may be aptly expressed in Latin as connubium, the reader should beware that connubium more often designates ‘marital right’ as the fundamental liberty of a freeman.  Inattentive writers have often used intermarriage as a fancy synonym for simple marriage, or have expanded its meaning to generally designate inbreeding and the consanguineous marriages of cousins, so the genealogist should restrain himself from unwittingly following such deviations.  Cf. cross cousins, double cousins, multilineal cousins.

intermarriage : the intermarriage of two symmetrical sibships.  Cf. sibship intermarriage.

intermarry : to marry persons of each family to one another.

intermigration : the act of moving from one place to another; exchanging one’s place of residence with another.

intermission : intermissio : pause, intermediate stoppage; cessation for a time; rest.

intermitti : abeyant.  Cf. peerage.

internecine strife : civil war; mutual conflict and slaughter between or among people of the same nation or region.

internecinus : [1663] internecine, marked by mutual destruction; involving a conflict within a group.

internection : mutual destruction, massacre, slaughter.  Cf. nectus, enectus, interfectus.

interpolation : something added or inserted into some original matter.

interpositive : [1599] intruding; putting oneself between or among others; introduced to interrupt the parts of an argument.  Such as word as interpositive is convenient for identifying someone interpolated among a set of siblings, whose existence was noted separately from the others, and whose nativity and birth order perhaps remain in doubt.  It is customary to mark an interposition with an asterisk (*), so that the reader will instantly apprehend a difference between the interpositive entry and the others.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

interpretation : interpretatio : explanation, the sense given by an interpreter; exposition.

interpretor : interpres : explainer, expounder, expositor.

interracial marriage : a marriage of two spouses belonging to different races.  Mixed consortia and marriages of whites and blacks have been consummated for a long time, since long before the Emancipation (1863).  Interracial marriages of blacks and whites tended to increase in the 1960s and 1970s.  By the 1980s, the largest group of interracial spouses happened to be that of Asians and whites.

interregnum : the time during which a throne is vacant, between the death or deposing of one prince and the accession of another.  A noteworthy interregnum in England lasted between 1649 and 1660, between the regicide of Charles I and the restoration of Charles II.

interreign : interregne : [Fr] interregnum, vacancy of the throne.

interrogator : one who asks questions.

intersexual : hermaphrodite; an infant having ambivalent genitalia with characteristics of both sexes.  Hermaphrodites represent approximately 1 in 2000 births.  Since the 1950s it has been customary to surgically modify the sexual organs of an intersexual to artificially assign it one sex or the other.  Surgical sex assignment is then complemented by gender assignment to endow the intersexual with a permanent sexual identity.  In 90% of intersexual cases, the surgeons determine to make the hermaphrodite into a female, because female sex assignment is less complicated than creating a male.  If the intersexual’s clitoris has the shape of a penis, the surgeon will usually remove it by clitorectomy, but such a severance results in the complete loss of sexual stimulation.  Modern surgeons attempt to preserve whatever sexual nerves are present.

intersexual rights : the claim that hermaphrodite babies have a natural right to retain their genitalia intact and unaltered, until such time that the intersexual may freely elect sex and gender assignment.  Intersexual infants often loose their sexual sensibilities through surgical sex assignment at birth, and therefore adult intersexuals have many psychological and legal reasons to oppose surgical alteration.

intersexuality : a prejudicial term for homosexuality.

intervenientibus igitur uterinis ejusdem fratribus : through the active intervention of his two uterine halfbrothers.[45]

intestatus : intestate.

intolerance : want of the patience needed to hear the opinions of others, want of toleration; prejudice, bigotry.  Cf. bigotry, sectarian.

intomb : to bury, enclose in a funeral monument.

intoxication : drunkenness, inebriation, inebriety.

intrapartum : during birth.

intro- : within, in.

intruder : one who forces himself into the affairs or company of others without any right or welcome.

intumulatus : entombed.

Inuit : [QUE, Newfoundland, NWT] Eskimo.

Inuit shamans : choupan.

inupta : innupta.

inusitatus : strange, unusual, uncommon.

inv. : inventory.

invalid : invalidus : weak, sick, disabled; having no cogency or weight.

invalide : [Fr] someone disabled by sickness or injury.

inveigle : invogliare [It] : to wheedle, allure, seduce.

inveiglement : seduction, allurement.

inventions : Cf. social inventions.

inventis : [1100-1135 Lt tempus Hen I] foundlings, children found aban­doned, whose parents were denied death benefits by law whenever their act of abandonment could be ascertained.[46]

inventor: contriver, framer; one who devises or produced something new or previously unknown.

inventory : inventarium : inv. : invt. : I. : a catalogue or account of moveables; a list of personal property prepared after the owner’s death.  It is customary for an executor or administrator to make a schedule of a decedent’s personal property by conducting a physical inventory of movables and by examining chattel papers.  The operation is fairly complex, and normally results in a distribution of personal goods, so it often occurs independently of the settlement of immovables, or parcels of real estate.  Inventories constitute highly interesting lists of such things as tools, kitchen implements, clothes, axes and guns, and books, so they provide static pictures of household life, and are often published for that reason.

Invern. : Inverness, Scotland.

inversion : alternitatis, the sex-rôle inversion of sodomy.[47]

inversion : sexual inversion; the prejudicial term for homosexuality, predicated upon the supposition of a third sex.  Cf. subject homoërotic.

invertida : [Sp] the female form of invertido.

invertido : [Sp] inside out; invert; homosexual.

investigator : one who diligently searches out facts.

investiture : the act of giving possession; the right of giving possession of any office, benefice, or manor.

invoice : a catalog of freight stowed in a ship; an account of the items and the prices of goods sent by some agent or factor.

invt. : inventory.

iocari : joer [Fr] : yogar [Sp] : joking.

-ion : act of.

-ion : -ium : [Gk] little.

Ionians : a people that traced its origin to Helena-Selene.  Cf. Helena-Selene.

-iose : -ose : full of.

-ious : -eous : -ous : full of.

ipse fecit : i.f. : he himself did it.

ipso facto : by the act itself.

ipso jure : by and for oneself, an und für sich.

ir- : in-, en-, em-, in, into, on, upon, against.

ir- : in-, un-, not.

Ir. : Ir : Irish.

Ire. : Ireland, Eire.

irenarch : [Gk] a Greek officer charged with preserving the peace.  Cf. erenagh.

IrGael : Irish Gaelic.

Irish famine : [1728] Complete destruction of the potato crop by fungus in Ireland occurred first in 1728.

Irish famine : [1739-1740] The potato harvest was completely destroyed by fungus in the two successive years 1739 and 1740.

Irish famine : [1770] The potato crop was completely destroyed by fungus in Ireland in 1770.

Irish famine : [1800]  The potato crop was completely destroyed by fungus in 1800, and partial crop failures ensued in 1807, 1821-1822, and 1830-1837.

Irish famine : [1839]  The potato crop was a total failure in 1839, and partial failures followed in 1841 and 1844.

Irish famine : [1845-1846]  A parasitic fungus destroyed about one-third of Ireland’s potato crop in 1845, but people survived by living off reserves.  The fungus destroyed two-thirds of the crop in 1846, chiefly in Galway and Mayo, and the especially harsh winter of 1846-1847 contributed to the death toll.

Irish famine : [1845-1851] the span of seven years during which perhaps one million Irish died of starvation, and another one million or so migrated to America and Australia.

Irish famine : [1848]  The potato crop met again with utter destruction by fungus in 1848, and partial failures followed in 1849 and 1851.

Irish money : [1806] the value of Irish currency was less than English currency by one thirteenth (1/13) in 1806, such that one shilling sterling of English currency was equal to Irish 13 pence, and one guinea English was equal to 22s 9d Irish.

Irish namesake conventions : Cf. namesake conventions.

Irish pound : [1806] a unit of Irish currency equal to 18s 5-½d sterling English currency in 1806.

Irish Rebellion : [1641-1649] the revolt of Irish nationalists, against the Anglo-Scots ascendency of Protestants, that commenced in October 1641.  The Irish captured Charlemont, Dungannon, Newry, and Mountjoy.  The Protestants retreated to strongholds at Derry, now Londonderry, Enniskillen, Lisburn, and Carrickfergus.  Some 4,000 to 8,000 people are supposed to have died during the Irish Massacre.

Irish records : [1922] The Four Courts building in Dublin burned with vital records in 1922.  Among the destroyed papers were census returns, wills, and parish records of the Church of Ireland.  Cf. Griffith’s Valuation, Tithe applotment books.

iron, or sugar candy : 6th year of marriage; symbol of the sixth wedding anniversary.

Iroquois system : a bifurcate merging terminology wherein descent is linkage through male and female sex rôles.  The Iroquois system equates fathers with uncles (Fa=FaBr), and mothers with aunts (Mo=MoSi), but keeps cross uncles and aunts distinct (FaSi, MoBr).  It furthermore categorizes cousins distinctly, by equating parallel cousins with siblings (Br=FaBrSo, Si=MoSiDa), but differentiates cross cousins (FaSiSo, FaSiDa, MoBrSo, MoBrDa) from siblings.  A son leaves his father’s family to be raised by his maternal uncle, and he rears his sororal nephew in the same manner, allowing his own son to move into his wife’s family.  Cf. Crow system, generational terminology, Omaha system.

irreligion : impiety, contempt for religion.

irrumatio : sucking, giving head.

irrumatio : to give the nipple to an infant.

irrumation : irrumatio : insertion of one’s penis into another’s mouth; oral copulation, copulation with another’s mouth.

irrumator : sucker.

irrumo : suck; a denominative of ruma ‘teat.’

is- : [Gk] equal.

Isaac and Rebecca : Isaac and Rebecca were the only couple in the Bible who ever lived in heterosexual monogamy, and therefore they have became the sole biblical example of Christian marriage and marital fidelity.  In reality, the Hebrew norm was polygyny, and Isaac’s preference for fidelity to Rebecca was simply one individual’s departure from that Judaic norm.  The Christian notion of monogamy did not even derive from the Bible, for Christians adopted their martial style from indigenous neighbors in southern Italy, around ad 300.  The Roman Catholic Church once admitted to the calendar the feast of the Saints Serge and Bacchus, a pair of homosexual lovers who once stood as Christian models for same-sex monogamy.  The church also promoted once the adoration of Saints Perpetua and Felicity, lovers of the Lesbian kind.  Nonetheless, these two pairs of monogamous lovers belonged to Greco-Roman culture, and did not belong to any Judaic traditions of polygyny.  Cf. Saints Serge and Bacchus, Saints Perpetua and Felicity.  VideMarriage Customs,” in Affinity.

isä : [Fi] Fa; father.

Isabella : Elisabetha, Isabel.

isänsetä : [Fi] PaBr; granduncle.

isäntäti : [Fi] PaSi; grandaunt.

-iscus : -isk : [Gk] little.

Ishtar : the moon goddess equivalent to Inanna in Sumer.

Isiacum : Oxford.

Isidis Vadum : Oxford.

Isis: [28 bc] Augustus Caesar ordered all the statues of Isis removed from the inner city of Rome in 28 bc.

Isis: [ad 19] Tiberius dismantled all the temples of Isis that survived the suppression of Augustus Caesar.

Isis : Goddess of the Rainbow; handmaid of the goddess Hera.  Cf. rainbow of the thundergod.

Isis and Nepthys : Si=An & Si=He; the sister gods said to have a lesbian relationship.  Great Isis rules the heavens above, whereas Nepthys the Basket rules the underworld of departed spirits.

-isk : -iscus : [Gk] little.

Islām : a religion that styles their own beliefs as true religion, but derogates polytheism as completely false religion.  It categorizes as partially true religion the Peoples of the Book, namely Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians.  Cf. religions.

islander : inhabitant of an island, dweller in a country surrounded by water.

-ism : [Gk] belief in.

isoäidinäti : [Fi] PaPaMo; great-grandmother.

isoäti : [Fi] PaMo; grandmother.

isogamy : marriage of spouses belonging to two spouse-exchange groups of equal status.  Cf. hypergamy, hypogamy.  Opp. anisogamy.

isoisä : [Fi] PaFa; grandfather.

isoisän isoisä : [Fi] PaPaPaFa; great-great-grandfather, second-great-grandfather, grandfather of the 4th degree.

isoisän isoisänisä : [Fi] PaPaPaPaFa; great-great-great-grandfather, third-great-grandfather, grandfather of the 5th degree.

isoisänisä : [Fi] PaPaFa; great-grandfather.

isoisänisän isoisänisä : [Fi] PaPaPaPaPaFa; great-great-great-great-grandfather, fourth-great-grandfather, grandfather of the 6th degree.

isolated punctuation marks : colon (— : —), slash (— / — ), hyphen (— - —).  Editors sometimes elect to give distinction to certain punctuation marks, mainly for stylist reasons relating to book design.  Writers have discovered that consistent usage of concise forms versus expanded forms will yield a handy device for filtering sorts when searching for data.

isolated hyphen : a mark used to separate places where the proband has lived, e.g. IL – WI – MI – Japan – MI – NY – PA – CA).

isolated colon : a mark positioned at the midpoint between two words.

isolated slash : a diagonal line positioned at the midpoint between two words, e.g. English / Scottish.

Israel : Cf. Jewish names Israel and Sarah.

issue : [Fr] proles, progeny, offspring, descendants, posterity; the children begotten of a man and his wife;  profits of lands or tenements.  The term often appears in negative expressions denoting the absence of any children or the absence of surviving children.

issueless : childless; want of descendants, having no offspring.

-ist : [Gk] one who believes in.

istius Septimbris : from September, e.g. summa istius Septimbris ‘total from September.’[48]

isti sunt nominati principes in cognationibus suis, et in domo adfinitatum suarum multiplicati sunt vehementer : These mentioned by their names were princes in their families:  and the house of their fathers increased greatly.[49]

Isuria : York.

Isurovicum : York.

it- : i- : to go.

It. : It : Italian, Italy.

Ital : Italian.

Italianate style : [1855-1890] a Victorian style of architecture in America, characterized by strong roof lines, classical elements, and a tower or campanile.

-ite : [Gk] one connected with.

itinerant : [Fr] traveling, wandering, unsettled.

itinerant weavers : Manicheians.  Cf. beguines, Free Spirit.

-itious : tending to.

-itis : [Gk] inflamation of.

-itis : [Gk] inflammation.

Itonic Gate : the gate of the Temple of the Moon.

-itude : quality of.

-ity : -ety : -ty : quality of.

iugulatus : have one’s throat cut, butchered, ruined, destroyed.

-ium : [Gk] part.

-ium : -ion : [Gk] little.

-ium : -y : action, the result of action.

iungo : to join in intercourse.  Cf. coniungo.

iunior : junior.  Cf. iuvenis.

iuniores : younger men, under 45 or 49 years.  Cf. se­niores, maiores.

iunioris : juvenis : youthful, pertaining to youth.

iure hereditario successerunt : they succeeded by hereditary right, they became successors.[50]

iure mariti : by her husband’s right.

iure propinquitas : by right of relationship.

iure suo : in his own right, suo iure.

iure uxoris : by his wife’s right.

ius : common law.  Cf. lex.

ius civile : civil law, the law binding Roman citizenry.

ius dotalitii : dower right.

ius gentium : law binding the world at large, law to which a peregrinus is subject.

ius liberorum : right of children, rights that accrue to the benefit of a pater familias with children.

ius patronatus : right of the patron.[51]

ius primogenituræ : right of the first-born.

ius sacrum : sacred law.

ius trium liberorum : right of three children.[52]

iuvenca : heifer, a young cow.[53]  This word may be used as a metaphor for a young woman suitable or matched for yoking to a bullock (iuvencus) in a team of ‘oxen.’  Cf. animal metaphors, uxor.

iuvencus : a young bullock suitable or tamed for pairing in a yoke with a young heifer (iuvenca) to make an ‘oxen’ team.  This simile serves to make a common animal analogy for marriage.  Cf. animal metaphors, uxor.

iuvenis : young man, young woman, one in the prime of life between the ages of 20 and 45 years, or 28 to 48 years.

iuventas : youth, juvenility; youthfulness, gaiety, brickness;[54] the period often defined as 28 to 48 years, or 20 to 45 years.

iuventatis : juvenile, pertaining to youth.

iuxta : close, perimi [Gk].

-ive : [Lt suffix] tending to.  Cf. genealogical kinship qualification, genealogical adjectives.

-ive : tending to.

ivory : 14th year of marriage; symbol of the fourteenth wedding anniversary.

-ize : [Gk] a verbal suffix.




[1] According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens.  Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  116-117.

[2] Grahn 1990:  120.

[3] Leland, 5.206.

[4] Grahn 1990:  66.

[5] Montaigne, 2.23.330.

[6] II Chronicles, 13.21.  II Paralipomenon, 13.21.

[7] Adams 1982:  51.

[8] Hunt 1956:  336.

[9] Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9:  14.5.  EGH 1997/9-10:  14.

[10] Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9:  14.5.  EGH 1997/9-10:  18.

[11] Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9:  14.5.  EGH 1997/9-10:  18.

[12] Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9:  14.5.  EGH 1997/9-10:  18.

[13] Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9:  14.5.  EGH 1997/9-10:  18.

[14] Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9:  14.5.  EGH 1997/9-10:  15.

[15] II Chronicles, 28.23.  II Paralipomenon, 28.23.

[16] Johnson provided a definition for vaccine.

[17] Arbuthnot, cited by Johnson.

[18] HL:  281.

[19] Grahn 1990:  288.

[20] Leland:  5.11.141.

[21] Boswell 1980:  21.

[22] Diner 1965:  20.

[23] Hunt 1956:  60.

[24] JRM.  Editor’s term.

[25] Bishop Hall.  Johnson, 384.

[26] JRM.  Editor’s usage.

[27] Gurney 1833:  463.6j.

[28] Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9:  14.5.  EGH 1997/9/10:  15.

[29] Gurney 1833:  429.26.

[30] Fabricius 1989:  228.

[31] Fabricius 1989:  228.

[32] HL:  340.

[33] Webster 1806.

[34] Webster 1806:  408.

[35] Arensberg 1968:  80.

[36] Arensberg 1968:  80.

[37] Everton 1971:  190.

[38] Adams 1982:  166.

[39] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  59.

[40] Plucknett 1956:  715.

[41] Eglinton 1964:  484.

[42] Leland, 5.187.

[43] Eglinton 1964:  484.

[44] Johnson.

[45] Furnivall, 1896:  9.

[46] Boswell 1988:  278.16.

[47] John Chrysostom.  Boswell 1980:  376.

[48] Gurney 1833:  427.20.

[49] 1 Chronicles, 4.38.

[50] Leland:  4.I.151.

[51] Leland:  1.1.91.

[52] Boswell 1988:  58.n8.

[53] NEWK 2.11.

[54] Webster 1806.


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