The Alphabetary Heraldic
(e) : [anthropology] elder, with respect to the ego; older in relative age; a determinant feature of a kinship dimension. Cf. (f), kin type, (m). Opp. (y).
E : [anthropology] Sp; spouse. Cf. kin types.
e : [LDS] Endowment LDS.
E : [Ogham Q-Celtic] esa.
ē : a long e, equivalent to Epsilon (H).
E : East.
E : endl. : [LDS] Endowed LDS, an Ordinance, certifying genealogical proofs.
e : ex : from, out of.
e- : from, out, forth; exceedingly, up.
E typographeo Clarendoniano : at the Clarendon Press; a typical example of a Latin imprint.
Ē, ē : [Sumerian] closed vowel, one of the three long vowels added after the primal three.
E, e : [Sumerian] open vowel, one of the three primal Sumerian vowels.
E. Fland. : East Flanders; Oost Vlaanderen, Belgium.
E. Loth. : East Lothan, Scotland.
E. Pruss. : [1701 Gm] East Prussia, now a portion northern Germany, along the Baltic Sea; Ostpreussen; the eastern parts of the land of Prussians, ruled by the German Hohenzollern dynasty from 1701.
e.g. : exempli gratia :  for example.
e.p. : editio princeps, prince edition, first edition.
ead. : eadem.
Eagle :  a gold coin worth $10; 247.5 grains of fine gold.
Ealdorman : [Sx] elderman, a royal administrator of a shire or province. Cf. earl.
eam recusavit : he protested in that way.
ear french : to insert one’s tongue into the partner’s ear, as an act of foreplay.
Earinus : Domitian’s cupbearer.
earl : [address] The Right Honourable the Earl of ——; The Right Honorable the Earl of ——; The Earl of ——; [salutation] My Lord; [reference] Your Lordship; [royal address] Our right trusty and entirely beloved cousin; [royal address to a Privy Councillor] Our right trusty and entirely beloved cousin and counsellor. Cf. countess.
earl : jarl [Dn] : [Sx] a title of nobility. Anciently, the title of earl was the highest among the nobles, but today it ranks as third, after duke and marquess, and above a viscount. In Saxon times, earl signified one of the four viceroys who ruled a great division of England. The title of earl is equivalent to count on the continent, so the lady of an earl is called a countess.
earl’s daughter : [formal address] The Right Honorable Lady Mary —— ; [polite address] The Lady Mary —— ; [salutation] Madam; [reference] Your Ladyship. Cf. duke’s daughter, marquess’ daughter.
earl’s eldest son : [address] ——, Esquire, commonly called the Viscount ——, or Baron ——. As it is with the rank of duke, an earl’s eldest son is usually addressed by the courtesy title his family allows him during his father’s lifetime. The heir apparent’s courtesy title derives from familial custom, but has no legal recognition.
earl’s son’s wife : [address] The Honorable Mrs. ——; [salutation] Madam. If his wife happens to belong to a rank superior to her husband, then she will likely be called by her superior title suo jure. Cf. baron’s son’s wife, viscount’s son’s wife.
earl’s wife : countess.
earl’s younger son : [address] The Honorable John ——; [salutation] Sir. Cf. baron’s son, viscount’s son.
earldom : the seigniory of an earl.
earl-marshal : a great officer of state in England expected to know all matters regarding honor and arms; the official in charge of all military solemnities. He commands the College of Heralds.
earmark : a mutilation of the ear; a brand or distinctive notches on the ear of an animal. Cf. brand.
earnings :  average earnings in the United States, approximately $23,400 per annum, in 1993.
earnings :  high earnings in the United States, approximately $57,600, the maximum cap for Social Security calculations.
earnings :  low earnings in the United States, approximately $10,500 per annum and lower, in 1993.
earth : ▽ : ♦ : ä : ⊖⊗ : the sign x meaning multiplication : the signs ⊖⊗ denoting times.
earth : the first of four elements, corresponding to black bile, melancholic humor.
Earth Mother : a cosmogonic figure that is eternally fruitful, and stands as the creatrix of all creatures. The concept is distinct from that of the Mother Goddess. Cf. Mother Goddess.
earthling : an inhabitant of earth, a mortal.
earthquake : An earthquake shook England on 6 April 1580.
earthquake in Constantinople : [ad 525]
Earthquake Mother : Thalli-Yjolta.
Easter Eve : the day before Easter, when a candle is lit at sunset. Lighting of the Paschal taper or Easter Candle on Easter Eve.
Easter : [inter 3/22 et 4/25 per annum] a movable feast that falls between 22 March and 25 April. Easter is the first Sunday after the first Full Moon (14 Nisan) occurring on or next after the Vernal Equinox (21 March), which should regularly fall on some date between 22 March and 25 April, each Julian or Gregorian Year. Victor of Rome decreed in ad 197 that he would excommunicate any Christians who celebrated Easter on 14 Nisan. The Gregorian adjustments have kept this range in place. Cf. Calendar 1752 JC/GC.
Easter Candle : the Paschal taper lighted on Easter Eve. Cf. Easter Eve.
Easter sepulchre : a temporary wooden structure, erected as a recess on the north side of a chancel to represent the burial of Christ during Easter celebrations.
easterling : the native of some eastern country. This is an English term for someone belonging to the Hanseatic League, or the confederation of northern Germanic merchants who lived along the shores of the Baltic Sea. The word connoted commerce and trade, and thus gave rise to the term sterling, as in the phrase ‘pound sterling.’
Eastern Christianity : Cf. religions.
Eastern Orthodoxy : Cf. religions.
eastlandish : lying toward the East.
East-Sexena : Essex.
ebn : [Persian] son of; see also ibn, bin, ben.
ebonics :  a method of teaching English wherein the teacher remains cognizant of the black English idioms popular among American youths. The word was based upon ebony, with an ending similar to phonics and acoustics. Cf. black English.
Eboracum : York.
EC : European Community, the new federation of European countries seated at Strasbourg, France, on the border of Germany.
ecclampsia : convulsion.
ecclesia : church.
ecclesiastical parish : Cf. parish.
echtgenoot : [Du] husband.
echtgenote : [Du] wife.
eclampsia: convulsions of any cause; convulsions associated with childbirth.
eclipse :  the annular eclipse that was visible from the Orkney Islands at about 13:00 hours on 5 August 1263. Hakon IV the Old of Norway set sail from Bergen with his Norse fleet, to punish the King of Scotland, in 1263. When the Norse arrived at the Orkney Islands, they viewed an annular eclipse of the sun.
eclipse : [585 bc] the eclipse that caused a suspension of the battle between the Medes and Persians. This eclipse was confirmed by the Greek astronomer Thales, and modern astronomers calculate that it must have occurred on 28 May 585 bc.
economy : [Gk] the management of a family, the distribution of expenses; frugality, discretionary spending. Cf. money economy; planned economy, collective economy; domestic economy, economy of landed estates and royal households, town economy, territorial economy, national economy; Hauswirt-schaft, Dorfwirtschaft, Stadtwirtschaft, Terri-torialwirtschaft, Volkswirtschaft.
economy based on payments in kind : oikos [Gk], a liturgically organized political group.
economy of landed estates and royal households : Dorfwirtschaft.
ectomorphy : the third physical component, the tendency to be tall, slender, and hypersensitive. Cf. endomorphy, mesomorphy.
-ectomy : [Gk] surgical removal of.
ed. : edition; editor; edited by.
edad : [Sp] age.
Editha : Edith.
editicus : named; allowed.
edition : editio : publication of anything, publication of a book, republication.
editus : [OE law] brought forth; birth of a child
educ. : education; educated at.
educatio : education, disciplina, doctrina, eruditio.
Edward II of England : the monarch who married Isabella and had by her four children, including Edward III. He was best known for his homosexual liaisons with favorites.
Edward II of England and Piers Gaveston : the king and his first lover. His father Edward I was a homophobe, but he happened to like Piers Gaveston. The English at large hated Gaveston, and put him to death.
ef- : e- : from, out, forth; exceedingly, up.
effeminacy : having the qualities of a woman; softness, unmanly delicacy; lasciviousness, loose pleasure.
effeminate : thelydrios, androgynos.
effeminati : effeminate homosexuals; womanly or effeminate men. The word stands as a mistranslation of kadēshim ‘temple prostitutes’ in the Vulgate. Cf. William II Rufus and Tyrrel.
efficere ortus : to give rise to.
-efy : to make.
-egate : -igate : to make.
egens : destitute, poorer than poor; destitute man, a very poor man; inopis, tennuis.
egg bank :  a repository for frozen eggs. A technological breakthrough in 1997 allowed doctors to freeze a woman’s egg for later fertilization and implantation. The procedure was proved feasible in October 1997, and suggests that there will be egg banks in the future, to complement sperm banks. Cf. sperm bank, twins born of frozen eggs.
egg donor : genetrix. Cf. parent genetic.
eggs :  the maximum price for eggs of the best quality was fixed at 2d for 7 eggs in August 1599.
Egidius : Giles.
egnosan : [Gk] a verb describing Lot’s incest with his two daughters. Cf. know.
ego: [anthropology] the proband, subject, or index person in a pedigree or description. All kinship terms are ego-centric terms of address and terms of reference, so the ego is customarily represented by a darkened triangle or circle. Cf. proband, propositus. Opp. alter, referent.
ego : [Gk] I, the first person pronoun.
ego- : [Gk] I.
ego : outer reality, consciousness. The ego is said to have two aspects, namely (1) persona, or the paternal ego-ideal that poses as the ego’s social mask, and (2) anima, or the maternal woman-ideal. Cf. alter ego, superego. Opp. id.
ego’s mother : link woman.
ego-centric kin reckoning : genealogical reckoning based upon the relatives of a single proband or ego. Opp. genealogical numbering.
ego-ideal : the positive counterpart of the negative and destructive superego.
Egyptian : hieroglyphics, the ancient logo-syllabic phonography of Egypt. Egyptian gave rise to several syllabic writing systems called the West Semitic syllabaries, including Ugaritic, Phoenician, Hebrew, and Aramaic.
Egyptian chlorosis : hookworm.
Egyptian chronology : [4240 bc, vel 2780 bc] time based on the Sothic cycle of about 1,460 years, which began and ended at each reconciliation of the civil year with the astronomical year. If the 1st Sothic cycle started in 4240 bc, then the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Sothic Cycles should be dated 2780 bc, ad 140, 1600, and 2160. If the 1st Sothic Cycle actually commenced later, in 2780 bc, then the numbering of the cycles would need to be adjusted downward by one degree. Cf. year 1 Menes.
Ehefrau : [Gm] Wi; wife.
Ehemann : [Gm] Hu; husband.
eheu : [Gk] (on inscriptions) alas! woe!
Ei : Eire, Irish.
ei ferch : [We] Da; daughter; his daughter. Cf. ferch, girl, nic.
eight-class system : [obsolete] eight-section system.
eight-section alliance system : Aranda of Australia.
eight-section system : Aranda system, a four-line alliance system wherein each line is subdivided into two sections. Cf. four-section system.
eightsome : octad; a collection of eight persons or principles.
eigne : aisne : [Fr] the eldest or first born.
Einhard : the author of the life of Charlemagne. He was a member of Alcuin’s Circle. Cf. Alcuin’s Circle.
Einwohner-Meldeamt [Sz] : citizen’s registration office.
eíspnēlas : [Doric masculine] inspirer; older lover. The Spartans considered the relationship between the eíspnēlas and aïtas to be conjugal. Cf. erastēs, philētōr. Opp. aïtas, erōmenos.
eius : his, hers; of him.
eiusdem mensis : the same months.
ej. : ejus.
ejectment : expulsion, eviction; a legal writ by which the inhabitant of a house or the tenant of an estate is commanded to leave.
ejus : his, hers; of him.
ejus soror : his sister.
-el : little.
Elagabalus and Zoticus : Ph & Er; Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Heliogabalus (regnavit 218-222) and his athletic lover from Smyrna. His relationship prompted him to decree that any man seeking an office at the imperial court had to have the sponsorship of a philetor.
elders : people who claim credit and reverence by virtue of their advanced ages; ancestors; rulers of the people; Presbyterian laymen allowed to govern the church.
eldest son by the principal wife : po-tsu. Cf. yu-tsu. Opp. mung-tsu, shu-tau.
eldest son by the secondary wife : mung-tsu. Opp. shu-tau.
Eleanora : Eleanor.
Eleazar genuit Finees et Finees genuit Abisue : Eleazar begat Phinehas, Phinehas begat Abishua, ...
elector : he who may vote in chosing any officer; a German prince who participates in electing the German emperor.
electoress : electress : the wife or widow of an elector.
electrical appliances : Cf. bronze.
electron :  an elementary particle of an atom. An electron has a negative charge of electricity of about 1.602 x 10-19 coulomb. The electron represents matter, whereas its partner the positron represents antimatter. Whenever matter disappears, energy arises, and whenever energy ceases, matter appears. It is the convergence and divergence of electrons and positrons that mark the transformations from matter to energy, and from energy to matter. Cf. positron.
Elegba : Afrikete.
elementary family : Hu & Wi & Ch; nuclear family; a group comprised of a husband, his wife, and their natal child or children. A couple bereft of children does not belong to this category. Cf. nuclear family.
elementary kinship term : a basic word defining a relationship that cannot be reduced into any component elements. Among our English kinship terms, mother and nephew are examples of elementary kinship terms. Cf. derivative kinship term, descriptive kinship term, kin types, kinship term.
Elements : the four elements, namely earth, air, fire, water.
Elena : Ellen.
eleven degrees of honor : Cf. degrees of honor.
ELISA : a common laboratory test used to detect the presence of antibodies in a serum. The test is often used as a primary screening test, the results of which may be confirmed by some secondary test providing greater accuracy. Cf. immunoflorescent assay, western blot test.
Elisabetha : Elizabeth, Isabella.
elixir of life : aurum potabile, the tincture of gold used by alchemists to settle imbalances in the bodily humors, and thereby cure diseases and increase longevity. Even today, the Chinese and Japanese esteem a clear brew or sake that features floating flecks of gold leaf. Cf. philosopher’s stone.
Elizabeth : mother of John the Baptist.
ellis : a measure of cloth
Ellis Island : [1892-1943] an island near New York City where immigrants first landed. Its predecessor facility was Castle Garden. The Dutch called it Oyster Island, but others called it Bucking Island and Gibbet Island. Samuel Ellis owned it in the 1870s, and it was from that time that it acquired its present name. New York sold Ellis Island to the federal government for $10,000 in 1808, and it was used thereafter mainly as a fort and powder magazine. When Castle Garden was closed in 1892, Ellis Island became the chief immigration station for the U.S., and it was used for that purpose from 1892 until 1943. The place remained functional as a detention center for deportees and aliens of uncertain status from 1943 to 1954. Ellis Island was incorporated as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, and reopened to visitors during the Bicentennial celebration of 1976.
elope : [Sx] to run away, break loose; escape from law or restraint. In archaic usage, this verb referred to the action of a wayward wife, but its meaning changed to signify a young maid escaping from home for a clandestine marriage.
elopement : [Sx] runaway match; clandestine marriage, a union lacking license or parental consent; departure from just restraint.
elst : eldest.
elugeo : to continually mourn, to lament the entire time. Cf. elegy.
elxa : [Yuma] a shaman male. Cf. kwe rhame.
emancipation : deliverance from slavery, the act of setting free.
emancipator : one who provides release from any confinement.
emasculation : castration; effeminacy, womanish qualities.
embassy : embassage : a public message, a solemn message.
embryo :  the development of a human being from the time of implantation to the end of the eighth week after conception.
embryo : an unformed child in the womb. After formation, the child is called a fetus.
embryogenesis :  the formation and development of the embryo.
embryonic development : the third period of prenatal change that precedes fetal development. Cf. fetus, individuation.
Emegir : literally the princely tongue; the main dialect of the Sumerian language.
Emelina : Emily.
emerald anniversary : 55th year of marriage; symbol of the fifty-fifth wedding anniversary.
emert. : emeritus, retired with honor.
emetchi : [Cherkessian] those who count by the mother; a reference to the Amazons of Scythia.
-emia : [Gk] condition of the blood.
emigrant : one who departs from his country; one who leaves his country to settle in another. Cf. immigrant.
emigration : change of habitation.
emigration record : a record of someone leaving his country. Cf. bondage, certificate of conformity, passenger list, transportation.
emolument : profit, advantage.
emorior : to die, perish, cease; an emphatic form of morior.
empalement : the punishment of empaling; impalement, a conjunction of coats-of-arms; pale-ways.
emplastrum : plaster.
employment : business, the object of industry, the object of labor.
employment categories :  The Labor Bureau of Castle Garden found jobs for immigrants, and divided them into three categories, namely (1) common or agricultural laborers, (2) mechanics, and (3) house servants. It processed 25,400 immigrants in 1873, and of this number, 14,400 worked as laborers, 7,000 became house servants, and 3,500 found jobs as mechanics.
emulator : rival, competitor.
emulatress : she who desires to equal or excel.
En : English.
embalming : [1997 Am] preparing a corpse for viewing at a wake held in a funeral home. A reasonable cost for this service was $150 in 1997, but certain funeral monopolies charged as much as $400.
English Style : es : English Style Julian Calendar, which featured 25 March as New Year Day. Cf. English Old Style.
es : English Style Julian Calendar.
English Old Style : vide Old Style.
English Incarnative : EI : [700/12/25-1338/12/25 En] English reckoning of the Dark Ages and medieval times, which ran 1 year behind Julian reckoning (JC). From about ad 700, and later in the time of the Venerable Bede (floruit 1150), the English regarded New Year as 25 December, whereas continental countries took New Year to be 25 March. Thus, the Julian Calendar (JC) ran ahead of the English Incarnative (EI) by one year-date, e.g. 1338 JC versus 1337 EI. Cf. calendar, Era of Incarnation.
EI : English Incarnative.
en bas âge : [Fr] in infancy.
enamorado : one deeply in love.
Enaree : [400 bc] a class of effeminate transvestite male priests and diviners in Scythia. The Enaree used a simple variation of divination by rods, wherein they would cut away the inner bark of a lime tree, divide it into three pieces, and then keep twisting the three pieces around their fingers during prophesy. The Enaree claimed to have learned this method directly from Aphrodite Urania. Cf. divination by rods, fagus.
enate : growing out from something; relative on one’s mother’s side. Cf. cognate, uterine. Opp. agnate, patrilineal.
enatic relatives : matrilineal kinsfolk, uterine relatives; male or female relatives descending from a common ancestress. Cf. cognatic relatives. Opp. agnatic relatives, patrilineal relatives.
enation : enatus : an outgrowth from the surface of an organ.
encapsulate : to enclose between protective sheets of polyvinyl acetate.
encaustic tiles : tiles painted with pigments mixed in beeswax and resin, and then fired to preserve the application.
-ence : -ency : -ance.
Encolpius : Cf. Giton and Encolpius.
endearment : the cause of love, the means by which anything is held dear; the state of being loved.
endenize : to make free, enfranchise. Cf. denizen.
endenizen : to make free, to naturalize.
endl. : endowment LDS : a Gedcom tag, an Ordinance of the Church of Latter Day Saints.
endodeme : an endogamous local group without any rule of descent. The term can be used to describe certain clans in Ireland or the Philippines, wherein proximity of residence sometimes binds people together stronger than kinship ties. Cf. deme.
endogamous : requiring or tending to marriage within a cognatic descent group. Opp. exogamous.
endogamy : a rule of marriage that requires a husband to take his spouse from within the local, kindred, or status group to which he belongs. This kind of marriage was a norm in biblical times, but the rule does not apply to Christian marriage. Christians have endogamous unions within the same class, race, or religion, but generally disapprove of endogamy within the same lineage. Opp. exogamy.
endomorphy : the first physical component, the tendency to be soft, rounded, and plump. Cf. mesomorphy, ectomorphy.
endow : indotare : to enrich with a portion, to supply with external goods.
endowed : ornatus.
endower : one who enriches with a portion.
endowment : wealth bestowed to any person or use, the bestowal or promise of a dower; the appropriation of revenue; gifts of nature.
Endowment LDS : endl. : an LDS Ordinance certifying the relationship of a sealing parent (slgp.) to a sealing child (slgc.), ornaturus. The Mormons make an genealogical endowment (ornaturus) to seal a child to his or her parent, or to seal spouses in union.
enectus : put to an extremely violent death, killed off, tortured to death. Cf. nectus, interfectus.
energy : energia :  effort, vigorous exertion of power; usable power. Einstein equated energy with mass times the speed of light squared (E=mc2), and thus laid the foundation for modern physics. Cf. antimatter, matter.
Enero : Enro : [Sp] January.
enfant : [Fr] Ch; child.
enfeoff : feoffamentum : to invest with dignities and possessions.
enfeoffment : the act of enfeoffing; investiture with dignities or possessions; the deed or instrument by which one is invested with possessions.
Eng. : England, English.
engagement : obligation by contract, motive; the act of engaging, impawning, or making liable to debt; fight, conflict, battle.
engagement ring : the ring a prospective groom presents to his future bride as a token of betrothal or espousal. It is customary for the groom to present his bride with a second ring, or wedding ring, when their union is finally solemnized with nuptial rites. If the groom breaks his promise to marry, then he forfeits the engagement ring, and his former betrothed spouse is permitted to keep the ring as her own. If the prospective bride does not consent to the marriage, she may decline her suitor, but she must return to him the engagement ring, as a token of her sincerity in rejecting the groom.
engender : engendrer : [Fr] to beget between different sexes; to produce, form, bring forth.
engenderer : one who begets.
England : mother of parliaments.
English :  the Anglo-Saxon language that arose in England prior to the Norman Conquest (1066) and eventually replaced Latin and French as an international language.
English :  the international language, a hybrid language of Germanic origin that now comprises large vocabularies of Greek, Latin, Germanic and Romance words. Its predecessors were Middle English (ME) and Old English (OE). As the administrative and judicial language of the British Empire, which has been gradually dissolving since 1949, English rapidly replaced French as the ‘international’ language. Translators and linguists from Britain and America have greatly strengthened the language by providing it with comprehensively accurate systems for transliterating foreign languages into the English alphabet, thereby making it a versatile medium for expressing almost any earthly concept regardless of the concept’s original orthography (alphabet, syllabary, or logograph). The two major dialects are British English [En] and American English [Am]. British English lexicography largely derives from the dictionary compiled by Dr. Samuel Johnson, and speakers of the language are concentrated in Great Britain and the subcontinent of India. American English lexicography began with the work of Noah Webster, remains preëminent in scientific and technical fields, and has sizable populations of speakers in North America and the Philippines.
English ascendency : a phrase customarily used to denote the dramatic rise of English influence and domination in Ireland. After Henry VIII established the Pale around Dublin, and commenced his plantations, the Ascendency ensued, and lasted from the sixteenth century to the twentieth. The English ascendency endures in Northern Ireland, and remnants of English fortunes may be witnessed throughout the island.
English method : the sexual practice of rubbing one’s male genitals against the body of another male, especially between the oiled or sweaty thighs and against the pernineum; a sexual practice so called due to its purported prevalence among adolescent schoolboys in England. Cf. frottage.
English sounds : some 46 sounds that can be distinguished in English, which roughly comprise two sets: 25 consonants, and 21 vowels.
English sounds : the sounds of the English language, expressed with the 26 letters of the English alphabet. Including all of the vowel variants, English has approximately 40 sounds, and English speakers typical vocabularies of perhaps 40,000 words.
engrosser : regrator, retailer. Cf. regrator.
Enheduanna : [floruit 2300 bc] a poetess of Sumer, now the Tigris-Euphrates valley of modern Iraq. Enheduanna held the highest civil office, that of high priestess of the moon in the city of Uruk, and wrote long poems exalting the goddess Inanna as the highest of the Sumerian gods. She considered herself to be the spouse of Inanna. Cf. Inanna, pili-pili.
enke : [Dn, Nw] Wi; widow.
Enkel : [Gm] ChSo; grandson.
Enkelin : [Gm] ChDa; granddaughter.
enkemand : [Dn] Hu; widower.
enkemann : [Nw] Hu; widower.
Enkidu : the male wild god, lover of Gilgamesh. Cf. Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Opp. Gilgamesh, the male human hero.
ennead : ninesome.
enni- : ann- : annu- : year.
ennoble : ennoblie : [Fr] to raise someone from commonalty to nobility; to dignify, aggrandize, exalt, raise, elevate, magnify; to make famous or illustrious.
ennoblement : the act of raising to the rank of nobility; elevation, dignity.
eno. : enough.
Enro : Enero : [Sp abbreviation] January.
Ens. : Ensign.
enseveli : [Fr masculine] buried.
ensevelie : [Fr feminine] buried.
ensiger : swordsman. Cf. armiger, milites.
ensign :  an English junior officer paid 2s per day in France.
ensign : enseigne : [Fr] the standard or flag of a regiment; badge, mark of distinction; the officer who carries the flag. Cf. arms, standard.
ensigns armorial : any or all of the shapes, beasts, and insignia shown on a person’s escutcheon. In its broadest sense, the phrase may be applied to all or part of a man’s entire achievement or hatchment. Badges, devices, and other such decorations are seldom shown on the escutcheon, and might not even appear in the achievement, but they too might be included among one’s ensigns armorial, especially if they are used as some heraldic mark unique to the person.
enslave : to deprive someone of liberty, to reduce to servitude, to make someone into a slave or bondman.
enslavement : the state of servitude, slavery.
enslaver : he who reduces others to the state of servitude.
-ent : -ant.
entablature : a superstructural part of a classical building that is supported by columns.
entendido : [Catalan] gay.
enter- : [Gk] intestine.
enteré : [Fr masculine] buried.
enterée : [Fr feminine] buried.
enterrado : [Sp] buried.
enterrado al curato del pueblo : [Sp] buried at the parish of the town.
enterrado en el cementerio : [Sp] buried at the cemetery.
entomb : entomber : [Fr] to bury, to place into a tomb.
entombment : burial.
entrapment : a police deception designed to entice another into confessing the practice of some vice, such as prostitution. Entrapment is a typical method for criminalizing and punishing consensual behavior.
entrepot : [1758 Fr] an intermediate point of trade and transshipment.
entry : record entry, index entry; a line item or single record in a list or register. Entries often appear in chronological order, unless they have been deliberatedly rearranged into alphabetical order for ease of reference. Original register entries were sometimes written within separate blocks on the same page, to facilitate alphabetization during some later transcription. Historians sometimes transcribe lists and registers exactly as they were written, and sometimes prepare indices keyed to original pages and sections, instead of the pages as published, so a researcher needs to exercise care when consulting such works. If entries appear grouped but not alphabetized, or if indexed entries cannot be found on a cited page, the reader should scan the whole page, or all the pages of one section, to find object of his search.
entry fine : finis duplex. Cf. copyhold.
enubere : (of a woman) to marry out of her station.
enubo : to veil oneself, to marry and leave her father’s house; to marry well; to marry a husband of higher rank.
enumerator : census taker; one who counts something, one who prepares a list.
enuptio : marriage outside one’s rank.
enutrio : to nourish, bring up.
enzyme: a protein that catalyzes a specific chemical reaction.
eo : there, thither; so far.
eo : to go, walk.
Eocene epoch : year 53 million bc.
eodem : to the same place or purpose.
eodem die : the same day.
eodem tempore : simul, at the same time.
-eous : -ious : -ous : full of.
Ep. : Episcopus.
epact : Julian epact, based upon the old Metonic Cycle of 6,939.75 days, instead of the later Gregorian cycle of 6,939.9 days.
epact :  Gregorian epact, based upon the revised Metonic Cycle, corrected to 6,939.9 days.
epact : lunar correction of the epact. Gregorian astronomers determined that an error of 1 full day would occur in the epact cycle every 312½ years, and that the accumulation of errors would cause an eight-day (8) difference every 2,5000 years. Therefore, the Gregorian planners determined to moving the epact numbers ahead by one (1) day every 300 years for seven years (7 x300 =2,100 years), and then moving it ahead once more after 400 years (2,100 +400 =2,500). This procedure made the Gregorian Calendar much closer to the real tropical year than the Julian Calendar had ever been, and was called the lunar correction.
epact : solar correction of the epact. The astronomer Christopher Clavius (1537-1612) studied the lunar correction of the epact, and determined that it would eventually disrupt the correspondence between the epact numbers and the true ages of the Moon. Therefore, Clavius proposed that the epact should be moved backward, or reduced by one day, at each ordinary centesimal year, three of which occur every 400 years.
epact : Gregorian epact over the Gregorian centesimal leap year 1600 : [1596-1614 gc] 1, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 29, 10, 21, 2, 13, 24, 5, 16, 27, 8, 19.
epact : Gregorian epact over the Gregorian centesimal leap year 2000 : [1987-2000 gc] 1, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 9, 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, …
epact : Gregorian epact over the Gregorian centesimal common year 1700 : [1692-1701 gc] 1, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 29, 9, 20, a series of just 11 years.
epact : Gregorian epact over the Gregorian centesimal common years 1800 & 1900: [1797-1815 & 1892-1910 gc] 1, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 0, 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20, a series of 19 years.
epact : Julian epact : [1587-1605 jc] 1, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 9, 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20.
epact : [circa 1576] a series of 19 numbers that links the date 1 January the New Year to the number of days the New Moon preceding has aged. Specifically, the Epact makes a lunar sequence of numbers in a range from 1 to 30, namely 1, 12, 23, 4, 15, 26, 7, 18, 3, 11, 22, 3, 14, 25, 6, 17, 28, 9, 20. The key numbers in this sequence are eleven (11) and thirty (30). Eleven (11) days represent the difference between a lunar year of 354 days, and a solar year of 365 days (365 -354 =11). During the first and second years of an epact cycle, the number advances by 11 days (1 +11 =12 +11 =23), but in the third year the result of this progression reaches thirty-four (34), which is beyond the range of 1-30 days. Therefore, 30 days are subtracted from the result, to keep the system in line with the solar month of roughly 30 days. Cf. Calendar, Golden Number, Solar Cycle, Dominical Letter, Roman Indiction, Julian Period. Cf. centesimal year.
epaidophthoresen : [Gk] to seduce a boy.
epallelon synoysion : [Gk] mutual intercourse.
Epaminondas and Pelopidas : Ph & Er; a Greek general and his younger lover. Epaminondas was a statesman who led an army to break the hegemony of the Spartans. He saved the life of Pelopides during a battle in 385 bc.
ephebe : adolescent.
ephebophile : a lover of adolescents. Cf. androphile, gynecophile.
ephebophilia : paidophilia, a sexual attraction to adolescents. This is mainly a male obsession, very rare among women. Opp. androphilia, gerontophilia.
Epicharmus of Sicily : [circa 540 bc-circa 450 vel 443 bc] Epicharmus of Syracuse : the linguist who added to Greek the 2 letters Theta and Chi (Θ, Χ), letters 8 and 22. Some accounts tell us that he invented instead Psi and Pi (Ψ, Π), letters 23 and 16. Epicharmus was born on the island of Cos, and became a protégé of Simonides of Ceos, or Simonides of Syracuse (556-469 vel 467 bc). Cf. Th.Ch., Ps.Pi.
epidemic : [1556 En] The harvests of 1555 and 1556 were ruined, and then followed by an influenza epidemic, called the Great Dearth of 1556, that seemed to decimate the population of England. F.J. Fisher surmised that 20% of the population died, but the Cambridge Group of Population Studies considered a sampling of 404 parishes, and concluded that the death rate was much lower, about 5.5%. Cf. influenza epidemic.
Epiphania : the Sabbat leader in Italy.
episcopacy : episcopatus : the government of bishops, the church government established by the apostles. Cf. prelaty. Opp. Presbyterianism, Congregationalism.
Episcopalianism :  Prelaty; the rule of Bishops, as opposed to the rule of the Pope; adherence to the established church in England; the Church of England and its derivative religions, namely the Church of Scotland, Church of Ireland, Church of Virginia, et cetera. Opp. Papism, Roman Catholicism.
episcopus : ep. : eps : epus : bishop.
Episcopus Sodorensis : Bishop of Sodor and Man.
epistolary : relating to letters, suitable to letters, transacted by letters.
epistulam ad hominem dare : to write a letter to a person.
epitalamium : [Gk] a nuptial song, a compliment paid at marriage.
epitaph : [Gk] a tomb inscription; a poetic verse or descriptive saying engraved on a gravestone or tomb, written to memorialize the decedent. Epitaphs may often be found on prominent wall plaques in churches and cathedrals, and sometimes appear on statues and paintings, and in such cases might be placed remotely from the decedent’s grave. Some epitaphs are lengthy Latin records of the person’s accomplishments. By the eighteenth century, few people could properly write formal epitaphs in Latin, and therefore certain scholars of great fame, such as Dr. Johnson, were importuned to compose elegant sentences for that purpose. James Boswell recorded many examples of fancy epitaphs written for famous people.
epitaphian : pertaining to an epitaph.
epitaphium : funeral oration.
epithalamy : a nuptial song.
Epizephyrion : the Locrian colony in southern Italy that held Aphrodite or Zephyritis to be their godmother.
Epizephyroi : the stinking Locrian men, who engaged in goat herding and performed all of the dirty work that the Locrian women refused to do.
epoch : the date of a memorable event, used to commence an era or age. Cf. ad, auc, mt.
eponymous ancestor : the common ancestor after which a unilineal descent group is named.
eponymous figure : a common ancestor from whose personal name a people takes its collective, ethnic appellation, ethnicon, or national name. E.g., Eber, Abraham, David.
épousa : espoused, betrothed, e.g. épousa en 1445 Marguerite de Durat.
épouse : [Fr] wife.
époux : [Fr] husband.
epus : [contraction] episcopus, bishop.
equ- : equal, even.
equality : the same degree of dignity; evenness, uniformity, equability; likeness with regard to any quantities or qualities held in comparison.
equals : pares. Cf. primus inter pares.
equery : equerry : escurie : [Fr] a grand stable for horses; an officer charged with the care of horses.
eques : cavalryman, horse soldier, knight.
eques Romanus : Roman cavalryman. Cf. equites.
equinox : vernal equinox, spring equinox.
equinox : one of two days of the year when the daylight and nighttime equalize, and comprise the same period of time, 12 hours. The Japanese call such a day o-higan, and regard it as a Buddhist religious holiday. Cf. autumnal equinox, vernal equinox. Opp. solstice.
equinox : autumnal equinox, fall equinox.
equis et armis : horse and arms.
equitatus : cavalry.
equites : cavalry, cavalrymen, horse soldiers, knights. The horsemen formed a distinct class in the Roman commonwealth, ranking above the plebs but below senate. Thus, the knights of medieval Europe had the same social position as the Roman cavalry. Opp. homines.
equity : æquitas : justice, right, honesty, impartiality; the rules and decisions established by the Court of Chancery.
equivalence : sameness; a terminological equivalence of kin terms.
equivalence rules : Cf. rewrite rules.
equivocation : [1598-1606] the continental Jesuit practice of hiding the truth by dissimulation, when giving testimony under oath. Father Robert Parsons was the chief propagandist for the mainland Jesuits, and he defended equivocation in A Brief Apology or Defense of the Catholic Ecclesiastical Hierarchy (1602).
equuleus : rack, the trestle on which a slave was seated for the purpose of dislocating his limbs by windlasses and weights. Cf. fidiculae.
equus : horse.
-er : a suffix signifying the inhabitant of a place, e.g. Londoner, New Yorker.
Er : eromenos, the younger male lover; a primary kin term for an androphilic spouse in same-sex mateship. Cf. antianeira (An), hetaera (He). Opp. philator (Ph).
er- : erot- : [Gk] love.
-er : -tor : -sor : doer, agent, the one who.
era : a primary division of prehistoric time, ranging from 10s of millions of years, to billions of years; a span of time shorter than an aeon, but longer than a period. Cf. Cenozoic, Mesozoic, Paleozoic, Proterozoic, Archeozoic, year 6 billion bc, year 10,000 bc.
era : æra : the time of any particular date or epoch.
Era of Incarnation : [700-1338, 1150-1338 En] the only era for year-date reckoning known to the English before 1339. The English reckoned their New Year as 25 December, whereas the Continentals of this time (1150-1338) determined to change their New Year to 25 March. As a consequence of this disparity, the English consistently reckoned their Christian years as one year behind the Continental reckoning, e.g. 1150 En JC : 1151 JC, 1152 En : 1153 JC, et cetera. Cf. Venerable Bede.
erastēs : erastes : [Gk masculine] Ph; older lover; the wooer during the courtship of a boy. During courtship, the wooer is called erastēs, and he acquires the status of philētōr after the boy accepts him. Cf. eíspnēlas, philētōr. Opp. aïtas, erōmenos.
erastes particeps : older male partner.
erenagh : [Ir] a hereditary custodian; a word perhaps derived from irenarch [Gk]. Cf. irenarch.
Ereshkigal : [Sumer] the goddess of the underworld realm of death and transformation, who danced with the moon goddess Inanna when Inanna descended into the underworld. Cf. Enheduanna, Inanna.
erexerat : he erected, he was elevated, rose in dignity, was promoted.
erexit magnam turrim : he erected a tall tower.
erg- : urg- : [Gk] work.
ergi : nið, niðdikning.
ergo : therefore, wherefore; now, then.
Erichthonius : an eponym for a Trojan, once used as a reference to Ganymede.
erm : ermine, a fur with black spots on white
erne: eron : [Sx] a cottage, place of retirement.
erogamy : alliance or marriage between two men, or two women, a nuptial practice seldom permitted by Christian churches in the second millennium, but which remains common among Uranians. Cf. same-sex marriage, mateship.
erogenous zones : a bodily surfaces that tend to become especially sensitive during sexual play, including the gential region, perineal region, inner aspects of the thighs, soles of the feet, anus, buttocks, certain areas of the abdomen, the rib cage, inner aspects of the upper arms, breasts, certain areas of the neck and throat, ears, lips, the inner surfaces of the lips, and eyelids.
erōmenos : eromenos : [Gk masculine] Er; beloved, younger lover. Cf. aïtas, parastatēs. Opp. erastēs, philētōr.
eromenos particeps : younger male partner.
Eros : [Gk] Cupid [Lt] : god of lusty love.
Erōs : alias Phanes, the power that formed the world by uniting the separate, dualistic elements. The concept of eros came to signify same-sex love, but in its broadest sense it denoted lustful or carnal love in general, either heterosexual or homosexual. The word never appeared in the Bible. Erōs was son of Aphroditē, and became the boy god who incites people to be attracted to others. The ancients depicted him as an adolescent in puberty. The Romans made him pre-puberal. The Renaissance artists made him infantile. Cf. Cupido [Lt], Cupid [En], Dionysos.
erōs : eros : [Gk] desire, love; sexual desire and love; carnal love. This word traditionally connotes lusty engagements outside marriage, and especially homosexual liaisons. Although it is indelibly Greek in origin, the word eros never appeared in Greek translations of the Bible. The Christian exclusion of eros was apparently deliberate, because the word has always been used extensively in non-biblical Greek, and is today quite commonly used throughout the world. Its modern meaning pertains to all kinds of sexuality. Cf. koi [Jp], three components of love. Opp. philia, storgē.
erot- : er- : [Gk] love.
erōtēs : loves.
err- : to wander.
errata : errors; the title of a list of typographical errors and their corresponding corrections that customarily appears near the front or back of a book, and might sometimes appear as a loose sheet, inserted or glued.
erratum : error, mistake.
erythr- : [Gk] red.
-esce : to begin.
escheat : escheoir : [Fr] any lands or profits that fall to a lord within his manor, either by forfeiture or by the death of a tenant having no heir. Treason, criminality, or the failure to pay rent or taxes are typical grounds for an escheat.
escheat : to pass into a superior’s possession by default, due to forfeiture or the absense of heirs. Lands and properties sometimes escheat to the crown, or to some state in the United States.
escheatage : the right of succession to an escheat.
escheator : an officer who oversees the escheats of the king in a particular county.
escuage : [Fr] scutage, service of the shield.
escuage certain : a fixed sum of money which the tenant is obliged to pay his lord in lieu of providing military service in person.
escuage uncertain : the military service that a tenant owes his lord, either as a matter of loyalty or as pertaining to the maintenance and defense of a castle. Cf. castleward.
escutcheon : shield. By extension, the word escutcheon may refer to the coat-of-arms, or the particular ensigns armorial, that decorate its surface. The broad surface of a military shield provided an ideal device on which to depict or display heraldic shapes and colors. As heraldic art evolved, it became customary to use a shield as the centerpiece for a heraldic achievement or hatchment. As lines of descent and marital alliances became more complicated, the heralds began to marshal or juxtapose two or more family ensigns on the same shield. The particular shapes of escutcheons are known to have been typical of discernable periods in history, and therefore a researcher may sometimes estimate the time period in which the escutcheon was used or first drawn. Heraldic artists will sometimes utilize the historical shapes when designing new achievements.
Eshu : [female] Afrikete, Elegba; a lesbian goddess in west Africa.
Eshu : [Macumba] the trickster coyote, the bawdy provocateur of the crossroads. Cf. Pompagira.
Eshu : [male] a cigar-smoking trickster god who poses as the counterpart goddess for same-sex encounters imitative of heterosexuality. Eshu is the west African correlative of Pompagira in Brazil. Cf. Pompagira.
Eshu : [Yoruba] the rhyme god; the equivalent of the old god Afrikete, the seventh and youngest son of Mawulisa. When a woman depicts Eshu, she straps upon herself a straw phallus, and chases other women as a man would pursue them. Cf. Afrikete, Elegba.
esi-isä : [Fi] ancestor.
esikoinen : [Fi] firstborn.
Esk : Eskimo.
Eskimo : Inuit.
Eskimo system : lineal terminology. Opp. Hawaiian system, generational terminology.
esp : especially.
esperance : [Fr] hope.
esplanade : the empty and grassy space between the glacis of a citadel and the first houses of a town.
esposa : [Sp] Wi; wife.
esposo : [Sp] Hu; husband.
espousal : adoption, protection; the act of betrothal or espousing.
espousals : sponsalia : the act of contracting or affiancing a man and woman to one another.
espouse : espouser : [Fr] to contract or betroth another; to marry, wed; to adopt, take to oneself; to maintain, defend.
espouser : one who maintains or defends a point.
Esq. : Esquire.
esquire :  an armigerous man, permitted to display armorial bearings, but not yet knighted. As knighthood was a costly and rigorous occupation, many men entitled to knighthood never consented to be dubbed, and therefore came to constitute a large upper-middle class of country squires. As a squire usually enjoyed hereditary tenancy, he was often an esquire by birth, and sometimes by creation, but would purposely decline the dignity of knighthood.
Esquire : [1580-1681] a title that heralds should only allow to (1) the heir male of the younger son of a nobleman, (2) the heir male of a knight, (3) those who represent a long lineage of ancestors styled Esquire, (4) a county sheriff or Justice of the Peace, who must relinquish the title Esquire when King’s commission ceases, (5) certain of the King’s servants, such as Officers of Arms and Sergeants of Arms. These guidelines were established by Robert Glover the Somerset Herald in 1580, and refined by William Dugdale in 1681.
Esquire : [1761-1820] a person authorized by George III to bear the title Esquire. George III expanded the list of persons eligible to be styled Esquire, such that it now includes: (1) Royal Academicians, (2) Companions, (3) Commanders, (4) Officers and Members of Orders of Knighthood and Chivalry, (5) Sergeants at law, (6) Queen’s Counsel, (7) Deputy Lieutenants and Commissioners of Lieutenancy, (8) Commissioners of the Court of Bankruptcy, (9) Masters of the Supreme Court, (10) whosoever the Sovereign grants arms with the title of Esquire, (11) persons styled Esquires by the Sovereign in their patents, commissions, or appointments, (12) officers having the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Navy, Captain in the Army, or Flight Lieutenant, or any higher rank.
Esquire : Esq. : literally shield bearer, an untitled gentleman who owns property, a man next in precedence to a knight. Cf. milites.
Esquire : scutarius, literally shield-maker, shield bearer; a personal attendant on a knight. Anyone belonging to the military ranks could aspire to be created an armiger, or one who bears coats-of-arms, and men could inherit the right to bear arms, so practically anyone of social stature could aspire to be ranked as an esquire.
esquire, meanings of :  (1) personal attendant on a knight, (2) apprentice knight, (3) lord of a manor, (4) squire, someone ranking nearly so high as a knight in function and privilege. As a social class, the esquires tended to hold judicial offices and government offices at the palace. Many esquires were “annexed to the dignities of judges and barons of the benches and courts of justice.” Esquires served as advocates and procurators for the sovereign, sergeants at the coif, sheriffs, escheators, and sergeants-at-arms, and thereby broadly distinguished themselves as officers of the law courts. It became customary for the eldest son of a baron to be styled an esquire, as well as the eldest son of a peer, and the eldest son of a knight. Esquire was the entry rank into the knightly and noble classes. With the rise of the class of gentlemen in the seventeenth century, the gentry expanded to include more and more armigerous gentlemen, and therefore the lower limit of armorial houses started to become less certain. Even after the invention of gentlemen, yeomen, and husbandmen, the esquires have always stood at the forefront of their class, next to knighthood.
esquire, meanings of : [1997 Am] attorney, lawyer. The title Esquire was originally sexist, and could only be suffixed to the name of a man, but female lawyers in America likewise deserve the title, despite its masculine connotations.
esquire’s helmet :  a helmet with its visor closed. English heralds determined in the seventeenth century that an esquire’s helmet should always be drawn in profile to the dexter, but the rule has often been broken, especially if the frontal view seems to better accommodate the crest. The Scottish heralds sometimes decorate the visor with gold.
esquires, four sorts of :  armigerous men, or men entitled to bear coats-of-arms, divisible into four classes, namely esquires by (1) creation, (2) birth, (3) dignity, and (4) office, according to Sir John Fearn’s Glory of Generositie (1586).
essarts : assarts : land brought into cultivation by grubbing up roots.
Essene Sacred alphabet : Cf. alphabet.
Essex : East-Sexena : Essexa : Estsexa : Exexa.
Est : East.
est. : established, estate.
estate in litigation : an estate somehow contested, or left by an intestate decedent having no heir apparent. When some contest emerges, or when an owner dies without a testament, it becomes the duty of a probate court to determine a settlement of the estate, and to perform an administration for the estate. If the estate cannot be settled upon an heir or several heirs, the situation might give cause for an escheat. Cf. escheat.
Estates : Cf. Fee; Entails; Tenant; Remainders; Reversion; Dower; Curtesy; Term.
estd : [contraction] estimated.
esthe- : aesthe- : [Gk] to feel, perceive.
estover : allowance, such as an allowance of dead wood.
estral cycle : estrus cycle :  the time between the commencement of estrus or heat in a female mammal and the beginning of her next period of heat.
estrange : estranger : [Fr] to alienate, withdraw, keep at a distance; to alienate from affection; to withhold; to divert from the original use or possessor.
estrangement : alienation, distance, removal.
estrus: estrum : oestrus :  heat; a recurrent state of sexual excitement during which a female mammal is likely to accept a male mate and conceive.
Estsexa : Essex.
et : [Fr] a name element meaning ‘and.’
et : and; a common conjunction variously abbreviated with the ampersand (&), the plus-sign (+), and even the seven-sign (7) in Tironian shorthand. Cf. -que.
et Ahisar praepositus domus, et Adoniram filius Abda super tributa : And Ahishar was over the household: and Adoniram the son of Abda was over the tribute.
et al : et alia : and female others. This abbreviation is typical of a deed index.
et al. : et alii, et aliæ, et alia : [suspension] and others, and other places; a fairly common abbreviation used to replace a series of author names or litigant names, or any other unlisted names. The phrase may signify ‘and elsewhere’ in the sense that the given citation has been widely supported by many authorities, too numerous to list.
et alia : [neuter] and others.
et aliæ : [feminine] and others.
et alii : [masculine] and others.
et en eut deux fils : [Fr] and had by her two sons. Cf. ex ea, ex qua.
et ex : et exor : et uxor : and wife.
et exor : et ex : et uxor : and wife.
et seq. : et seqq. : et sequentes, et sequentia.
et sequentes : [masculine] and following.
et sequentia : and following.
et succedit avum ejus : and he succeeded his grandfather.
etux. : et uxor.
et uxor : et ex : et exor : and wife.
et uxor : et ux. : and wife.
ĒTA (Ηη) : Ēta : the long e, one of four cardinal letters (A.B.H.M.).
éta : [It] age.
eternal flame : the fire kept constantly lighted to provide the community with a continuous source for fire. The eternal flame of Troy was transported by Æneas to Rome, where it was entrusted to Vesta and her virgins. As late as the 1850s in America, the pioneers retained the custom of keeping a fire constantly lit, even long after the invention of matches. The same custom was noted among the native tribes Chippewa and Natchez. Cf. Vesta.
ethn- : [Gk] race, cultural group.
ethnic categories : [1973 Am] the five categories adopted by the U.S. government to denote the major ethnic and/or linguistic groups in the United States, namely Native American, Asian/Pacific Islander, White, Black, Hispanic. These categories are not racial, because they include Hispanic, which category may denote blacks, whites, native Americans, and mixed bloods. There might have been some sound rationale for this system in the 1970s, but the system is widely regarded as problematic in the 1990s, because so many people belong to more than one category.
ethnic identities : the classification of people by racial origin and ethnic background. Spanish has approximately twenty-three terms used to specify particular admixtures of Spanish, native, and black bloods. Cf. mestizo, mulato, one-drop law, racisim, zambo.
ethnicity :  the categorization of a person by his land of origin, ancestry, or linguistic group. Migrations, interracial marriages, and employments overseas are examples of modern phenomena that are rapidly making ethnicity into an anachronism. However, demographers and politicians persist in inventing new categories and subdivisions, such as Aleut, Asian, Black or Afro-American or African-American, Cambodian, Chinese, Cuban, Eskimo, Filipino, Guamanian, Indian (or Asian Indian), Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Latino, Mexican or Mexican-American or Chicano, Native Amerian (formerly American Indian), Pacific Islander, Puerto Rican, Samoan, Vietnamese, and White. This list of 21 categories of Americans seems to be excessive and misleading.
ethnicon : an ethnic appellation based upon the prename of an eponymous figure such as Eber, or Abraham. Cf. eponymous figure.
étient : [Fr singular] was extinct, e.g. le rameau … étient en 1763.
étients avec : [Fr plural] were extinct with, ended with, e.g. … les Seigneurs de Grozon … étients avec Catherine.
Etruscan matriarchy : It is said that Maecenas the Etruscan could give no account of his paternal ancestors, but could recite perfectly the lineage of his mother. Cf. flaminica, flamen dialis.
Etruscan tribes : Cf. Quirites, Rome.
eugium : [brothel slang] cunnus.
eunuchs : the castrated “eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven’s sake” praised by Jesus the Christ in Matthew.
eunuchs : [India] The number of eunuchs living in India in 1998 was reported to be 750,000.
Euripides and Agathon : Ph & Er; the playwrite and his lover, who were respectively 72 years of age and 40 years when they met.
Eurus : the East wind.
eury- : eurys- : [Gk] wide, broad.
Euryalus : Cf. Nisus and Euryalus.
Eurypyle : [1760 bc] the Amazon queen who captured the Amorite capital of Babylon in 1760 bc.
eurys- : eury- : [Gk] wide, broad.
euteknia : [Gk] good breeding of children.
evagation : evagor : the act of wandering; excursion, ramble, deviation.
evangelism : the promulgation of the Gospel.
evangelist : [Gk] a writer of the history of Jesus the Christ; any promulgator of Christian laws.
Eve : [115,000 bc] genetic Eve. Archaeological and anthropological findings, as well as evidence of mitochondrial DNA distribution, have demonstrated that all humans probably descended from a single woman called the genetic Eve, who must have lived in South Africa about 117,000 years ago, around 115,000 bc. Recent fossil finds of a human footprint on a South African beach have confirmed the prehistoric presence of such a human ancestor. Cf. first mother, out-of-Africa theory.
Eve : mother of mankind.
Eve of May : 30 April, the evening before May Day, 1 May.
event : a calendar engagement or observance; a modern, neutral term for sabbath, feast, Saint’s Day, date, or day. We conceive of an event as comprising the morning, afternoon, or evening of one specific date falling on a given day of the week. Cf. calendar subdivision, pensum, task.
Even of November : All Hallow E’en, 31 October, the evening before All Saints’ Day.
Everwyk : York.
every man by his own camp and every man by his own standard : the slogan used by the children of Israel when they pitched their tents.
evidence : any item or presentation whatsoever a person exhibits or gives to an authority or court as a measure of truth. The collected evidence in one case might consist of despositions, testimonies by witnesses personally appearing in a courtroom, certificates and documents, material objects, and contraband items that might have been seized.
evito : to kill.
evolution : evolutus : evolution of columns; the act of unrolling or unfolding; the motion made by a body of men when they change their postures or draw up into formation.
evolution : social evolution; the concept that certain social institutions and kinship systems reflect distinctive stages of social evolution. The anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan proposed three such stages, namely savagery, barbarism, and civilization. More recent anthropologists believe that kinship systems are more malleable, and do not necessarily change in progressive and irreversible directions.
ewe : a female sheep after its third shearing. Cf. crone, sheep.
ewyllys diweddaf : [We] last will and testament.
ewyrth : ewyyythr : [We] PaBr; uncle.
ex- : [Gk] outside, exter, externus.
ex : e : from, out of.
ex- : e- : from, out, forth; exceedingly, up.
ex asse heres : sole heir, universal heir.
ex ea : by her, from her.
ex eo : by him, from him.
ex his omnibus natu minimus : youngest of all in age. Cf. natu.
ex infimo genere natus : born of lowly parents. Cf. nobili genere, loco natus.
ex jure : de jure, by right; rightful, rechlich.
ex lib. : ex libris : from the library of.
ex parte materna : on the mother’s side, in the maternal line.
ex parte paterna : on the father’s side, in the paternal line.
ex qua genuit : by whom he begat.
ex qua genuit filios : by whom he begat children. The masculine plural of filius implies that the children included sons, but this might not always hold true, because the plural and masculine expression was formulaic, and was sometimes applied in any case, without regard to the actual number and sexes of the children. Cf. ex quo habuit liberos.
ex quo habuit liberos : by whom she had children. This expression was formulaic, and sometimes did not reflect the real sexes and number of the children, for it might be applied to a mother who had only one child, even though the word liberos is plural. The phrase in which the wife is the subject happens to be completely synonymous and parallel to the expression ex qua genuit filios, wherein the husband is the subject. The divergent verbs and nouns connote that the female merely ‘had children’ habuit liberos, with adopted surnames, whereas the male ‘progenerated’ a son, genuit filios, related to with males sharing the paternal surname.
ex regia prosapia regni Daciæ oriundus fuit : it sprang from the royal lineage of the Dacian king.
ex utero : after birth; after childbearing.
examination : investigation, search, inspection, interrogation. Cf. test.
exarch : [Gk] viceroy.
exarchate : the dignity of an exarch.
exc. : except, excepting; exchange; excellency.
excellent degrees of honor :  earl, marquess, duke, and prince. Cf. degrees of honor.
excerpt : extract; a selected passage or fragment transcribed from a record or book.
excessus : departure; death.
exchange : currency exchange managed by royal agencies. The exchange of English coins for foreign coins was reserved as a royal prerogative, and therefore Henry I established the first royal exhange. Edward I established exchanges at important trading centers, such as York, Dover, and Canterbury, and caused them to display in public the rates of exchange. After the fourteenth century, another exchange was established at Calais, and the Tower of London served as the central office for all the exchanges. The crown eventually sold licenses to private merchants who wished to profit from fluctuations in currency exchange rates. Many account books for the exchanges still survive.
exchange : sister exchange of two types, namely the restricted exchange of bilateral cross cousin marriage, and the generalized exchange of unilateral cross cousin marriage. Cf. bilateral, matrilateral, patrilateral cross cousin marriages.
exchange, reciprocal : A > < B; giving and taking brides, to and from the same opposing spouse-exchange group. Cf. moieties.
exchange, symmetric : X > A > Y; giving brides to one group, but taking brides from another; spouse exchanges with donor affines and donee affines. Cf. hūnyīn.
excheat : escheat.
excheator : escheator.
Exchequer Rolls : the fiscal accounts of the sheriffs and sheriff deputies who collected rents and fines in England.
excise : accijs [Du] : excisum [Lt] : tax, duty, toll, fee; a tax levied upon various commodities by acts of parliament. Excise taxes have been levied upon a wide array of goods and procedures, including tobacco, gasoline, travel, and official documentation. Excise taxation is essentially unfair and burdensome, because it imposes an equal assessment per item, irrespective of the payer’s wealth and ability to pay. Objection to the Stamp Act became a central motive for the War of the American Revolution, and opposition to excise taxes led to the innovation of income tax. Cf. poll tax.
exciseman : an officer or customs official who inspects luggage and cargo to determine what excise duty must be paid.
excrement : excrementum : the useless, noxious, and corrupted material which the body expels from its natural passages.
exec. : executor.
execution : performance, practice; the final act of the law in civil causes by which possession is given of a body or goods; capital punishment; destruction, slaughter; cruel and unusual punishment.
execution for treason : the English custom of punishing traitors by drawing and quartering. Cf. draw and quarter.
executioner : he who executes; he who inflicts capital punishment.
executioner pay : the regular pay of an executioner, supplemented by any bonus that has been promised him for the job, as well as by a tip or gratuity the condemned was expected to pay him. It was customary for the executioner to appropriate to himself the condemned person’s clothing, and there were times when the condemned paid his executioner an extra amount of money, so as to save his clothes for his heir and family to keep. The diarist Pepys paid one shilling to stand on a carriage wheel for an hour, as he watched the pompous exhibition of Colonel John Turner in 1662. Turner’s end was theatrical, filled with pronouncements, retorts, and jeers, and Turner ostentatiously paid the hangman extra money for his clothes. The Constable usually demanded payment for public punishments, and executions were especially grand events that occasioned much gift giving and ceremony, often amid a teeming crowd of onlookers.
Executive Outcomes : [1995-1996] the largest mercenary army in the modern world, headquartered in South Africa. Executive Outcomes claims to contract its services only to legitimate governments that do not suppress or fight their own people, and do not engage in conflicts with neighboring states. The organization claimed to be active in five states in 1996, but refused to reveal the names of its clients. It claims to apply its skills chiefly against terrorist organizations, but it was deeply involved in the civil war in Sierra Leone in 1995.
executor : exec. : the personal representative of a testator; a man charged with settling the affairs of someone deceased; one who ensures that the provisions of a testament are each fulfilled. The executor is often the son, stepson, son-in-law, or foster son of the deceased, and is normally nominated by the decedent in his last will and testament. If the nominated executor is unable or unwilling to settle the estate, and if no alternative executors have been named, then the probate court will appoint an administrator to serve in place of the executor. Cf. administrator.
executor : executer.
executorship : executership
executrix : executrice : [Fr] a woman entrusted to perform the will of the testator; the female equivalent of an executor.
executrix-dative : a female heir or coheir appointed to administer the affairs of her related predecessor.
exeo : to go away, go out; to escape; to pass away, die; to end.
Exexa : Essex.
exhalation : progressive individuation by the principles of outer reality. Cf. alter ego, ego, id, superego.
exhalo : to exhale, breath out; to evaporate; to expire, die.
exheredate : exhæredo : to disinherit.
exheredation : disinheritance.
exheres : someone disinherited.
exile : exilium : banishment; the person banished.
existens in bello cum Henrico 8 contra Francos : he was in the war with Henry VIII against the French.
exogamous : requiring or tending to out-marriage, or marriage outside a unilineal descent group. Opp. endogamous.
exogamous surname : Cf. Chinese surname.
exogamy :  a rule of marriage that requires a spouse to marry outside the local, kin, or status group (clan or sib) to which he or she belongs. Exogamy naturally results in the fusion of two lineages, and it is normally based upon a division of society into two moieties. Thus, exogamy is a positive prescription that endorses and approves exogamous unions. The Christian model of marriages does not qualify as exogamy, because sexual migration among Christians depends upon the negative prohibition of incest. Cf. hypergamy. Opp. endogamy, ramage.
exogenous : produced or originating outside the body.
exoleti : [Gk] active male prostitutes. Cf. aresenokoitai, drauci, catamiti, succubus.
exoletus : page, grown older; an active male prostitute. Cf. succubus.
exor: [contraction] executor.
exoratus votum virginitatis : he obtained by entreaty a vow of virginity.
exorcism : a religious ceremony supposed to drive away evil spirits; the form of abjuration.
exorior : to arise, originate; to begin.
exors : [contraction] executors.
exox. : executrix.
expansion rules : Cf. rewrite rules.
expeditatio : to have the ball of one foot cut out. The forest charters ruled that big dogs (mastivi) kept near forests had to be crippled in this fashion so as to protect travelers.
expensum : expense. Cf. dispendium, compendium.
expenditures: expensæ, expenses; outlays; the costs of an enterprise; the supply of grain needed to support a company of persons.
expenditures of Americans : nine categories of outlays made by a typical American, namely federal taxes (28%), householding (17%), state and local taxes (12%), medical care (11%), food (10%), miscellaneous costs (9%), transportation (7%), recreation (5%), and clothing (4%).
expire : to emit a breath, to die, breathe the last; to perish, fall, be destroyed; to conclude, come to an end.
expositi : abandoned children, exposed children.
expositus : abandoned boy, exposed child.
expuesto : [Sp] abandoned.
exrexerat sepultem in filii sui Roberti memoriam : he erected a tomb in memory of his son Robert.
exscribo : to copy, transcribe.
exsequialis : of or belong to funeral procession.
exspiro : to exhale, expire, breathe out; to cease, die.
exstinctus : extinct. Cf. obsoletus.
extended family : a household consisting of two or more nuclear families linked by consanguineal ties. This phrase normally denotes a vertical extension of the nuclear family, whereby the 2 generations of the nuclear family are extended to 3 or more generations. A lateral grouping of two or more nuclear families belonging to the same generations is called a joint family. Cf. compound family, joint family, stem family.
extended family : The Iban of Borneo divide themselves into longhouses of some 200 people each, and subdivide the longhouses into perhaps 35 families, who separately reside in private rooms (bilek). The family room is normally a nuclear family, or an extended family some three or four generations deep.
extinction : suspension of peerage due to the absence of heirs.
extorsit : he extorted from the town.
extract : a quotation or selection from some written source.
Extraneae gentes : members of the Strange family
extraordinary : extraordinarius : different from common order and method; eminent, remarkable; more than common.
extra-parochial district : a special district lying outside the borders of a parish, and therefore subject to some authority independent of the parish.
extremum munitus : he was administered last rites.
exx. : executrix.
eyas : niais : [Fr] an unfledged hawk, a young hawk taken from its nest soon after birth.
eyas-musket : niais-mouchet : [Fr] sparrow-hawk; the smallest variety of hawk, unfledged, and robbed from its nest soon after hatching.
eyasses : the plural of eyas; young and unfledged hawks.
Eyr : Écuyer : [Fr] riding-master.
eyre: eye : [Fr] the court of itinerant justices.
 According to Duald Mac Firbis, bard of the O’Briens. Roderick O’Flaherty, Ogygia. Graves 1948, edition 1966: 116-117.
 Debrett’s Peerage, 1990: 60.
 Webber edited by Parsons, 1947: 202.
 Webber edited by Parsons, 1947: 224.
 Sheldon, Varieties of Human Physique. Eglinton 1964: 481.
 Freud. Eglington 1964: 481.
 Scribner’s Monthly, 1877/9: 14.5. EGH 1997/9-10: 18.
 Herodotus. Grahn 1990: 206.
 Sheldon, Varieties of Human Physique. Eglinton 1964: 481.
 John Bright (1811-1889), Birmingham, 18 January 1865.
 A favorite expression of Thomas Raghet. Gurney, 564.14.
 Caius Julius Hyginus, Fables, 277. Graves 1948, edition 1966: 224-225.
 Horace. Grahn 1990: 220.
 Brian de Breffney 1982: 191.
 Hesiod. Eglinton 1964: 251.
 Grahn 1990: 124, 125.
 Shakespeare, quoted by Johnson.
 “The Sovereigns, Titles and Dignities,” Debrett’s Peerage, 1990.
 Debrett’s Peerage, 1990: 63.
 Smith 1897: sub Vesta.
 Horace. Diner 1965: 248.
 Matthew, 19.12. Boswell 1980: 158.
 Milton, Paradise Lost, 1.34.
 Lévi-Strauss 1967: 352.
 Boswell 1988: 359.n128.
 Elizabeth Strang née Boswell, vel Elizabeth Bothwell, was executrix-dative for her unmarried cousin John Bothwell, 2nd Lord of Holyroodhouse, RENN 19.#3111 uxor, priusquam 4.1111. Paul 1904: 4.431.
 McLennan 1865. Parkin 1997: 175.
 Schusky 1972: 62-63.
 Varro, 5.183.170-171.
 Freeman 1958. Parkin 1997: 173.