The Alphabetary Heraldic
gladius : sword, penis. Cf. capulus.
Glams. : Glamorganshire, Wales.
glandula : penis.
glans : acorn, chestnut; head of the penis. Cf. balanos [Gk].
Glavorna : Galworna : Gloucester.
glebe : gleba : [Lt] ground, soil, turf; the ariable land provided to support a parish church or ecclesiastical benefice.
Glevum : Gloucester.
Glied : [Gm] degree, rank; limb, member; link; term.
globum : infantry ring
Glocestria : Gloucester.
gloris : HuSi, WiBrWi; sister-in-law.
glos : sister-in-law.
gloss- : glot- : glott- : [Gk] tongue, language.
glossary : glossarium : a dictionary of obscure or antiquated word.
glossolalia :  the speaking in tongues, purportedly through divine inspiration. Cf. Pentecostalism.
glot- : gloss- : glott- : [Gk] tongue, language.
glott- : gloss- : glot- : [Gk] tongue, language.
glōttopoieîn : [Gk] French kissing.
Gloucester : Claudia : Claudia Castra : Claudiocestria : Cleocestria : Clevum : Glavorna : Galworna : Glevum : Glocestria Gloveceastria : Glovernia.
Gloucestershire : Glouc. : Claudiana provincia : Gloucestresc.
Gloucestresc. : Gloucestershire.
Gloucs. : Gloucestershire.
Gloveceastria : Glovernia : Gloucester.
Glovernia : Gloucester.
gluc- : [Gk] sweet, dulcis, suavis.
glúin : [Ir] generation; one step in lineal descent. Literally the word glúin denotes ‘knee joint.’
gluttony : gloutonnie : [Fr] excess of eating, luxury of the table. Opp. temperance.
glyph- : [Gk] to carve.
Gm : German, Teutonic.
gm. : grandmother.
GN : Good News for Modern Man (1966).
Gn the letter : Y.
gno- : [Gk] to know.
-gnomy : [Gk] knowledge, scientia, doctrina.
goal stone : metae Murciae.
goat : bouc [Fr]. Cf. buck.
goat-god : horned goat, Horned God. Cf. butch.
gobernador : [Sp] governor.
god : [Sx] supreme being; a false god, idol.
God : deus, the personal deity of the monotheistic Jews and Christians. Mainstream Christians rapidly developed a tritheism called the Trinity to represent the heavenly God as the father, the earthly Jesus as his annointed son, and the Holy Spirit, or the faith and spirituality that binds the two. The Holy Spirit is an abstraction for prayer, or the Christ’s power to telepathically communicate with his father, as well as for instances of God’s divine grace or inspiration, so it has no human form and is most often represented by a luminescent dove. The Spirit acts as an agent of transportation that provides earthly incarnations and revelations, and facilitates ascensions to heaven. Thus, God and the Christ form a metaphor for paternity, filiation, and genetic heritage, whereas the Spirit serves as an analogy for fealty, obeisance, and benevolence, or the abstract and interpersonal qualities that characterize the feudal relationship between a lord and his vassal.
God : divinity outside the world; divinity in the afterlife. Cf. ancestor veneration.
god husband : koyemshi.
god messenger as the trickster : Hermes [Gk], Mercury [Lt]. His name combines with a female name to make hermaphrodite, and ceremonies celebrating the trickster normally involve transvestism. Cf. heaven, Uranus.
god of falsehood : Juppiter.
god of fertility : Priapus.
god of fire : Hephaestus; Vulcan, Volcanus.
god of fire and forging : Hephaestus [Gk], Vulcan [Lt].
god of gardens : Priapus, Silvanus. Cf. Mithra and the Bull.
god of homosexuality : Chin [Maya].
god of love : Cupido, Amor.
god of love and beauty : Aphrodite. Cf. Hermes.
god of marriage : Subigus.
god of prophecy, music, and medicine : Apollo [Gk, Lt].
god of rhymes : Eshu, Afrikete.
god of the fire-stick : Ferula.
god of the sea and earthquakes : Poseidon [Gk], Neptune [Lt].
god of the sky : Zeus [Gk], Jupiter, Jove [Lt].
god of thunder : Shango [Macumba], Uranus [Lt], Ouriganos [west Af], Oya.
god of trade and travel : Hermes [Gk], Mercury [Lt].
god of war : Ares [Gk], Mars [Lt].
god of war : Mars.
god or goddess of thunder : Afrikete.
godchild : an infant someone sponsors at baptism, promising to ensure the infant’s Christian education. Opp. godparent.
goddaughter : a girl for whom one becomes a sponsor at baptism.
Goddess : divinity inside the world; divinity in this life. Cf. contemporary respect.
goddess as a trinity : Diana the Huntress, Phoebe the Moon, and Hecate, Queen of Darkness.
goddess incestutous : Maia.
goddess of charity, childbirth, and the young : Artemis [Gk], Diana [Lt].
goddess of childbirth : Genitura.
goddess of deflowering : Pertunda.
goddess of enchantment : Moon.
goddess of fire : Hestia [Gk], Vesta [Lt].
goddess of justice : Maat of Egypt; Dike of Greece.
goddess of love : Aphrodite Urania, Venus.
goddess of love and beauty : Aphrodite [Gk], Venus [Lt].
goddess of manumission : Feronia, the great nature goddess.
goddess of messages : Iris.
goddess of midwifery : Ilithia.
goddess of order : Eunomia.
goddess of peace : Eirene.
goddess of sensual pleasure : Libertina, Venus.
goddess of the dark of the moon : Hecate.
goddess of the earth : Terra, Isis, Ops.
goddess of the fire-stick : Arani, a lesbian goddess.
goddess of the harvest : Demeter [Gk], Ceres [Lt].
goddess of the hearth : Vesta.
goddess of the rainbow : Isis.
goddess of the sky : Hera [Gk], Juno [Lt].
goddess of the underworld : Hecate. Cf. Scáthach.
goddess of vulgar love : Venus.
goddess of wind and rain : Iansa [Macumba].
goddess of wisdom and prudence : Athena, Athene [Gk]; Minerva [Lt].
goddess spinster : Kumari.
goddesses of justice : Dike, Maat.
goddesses of storms : Dike.
Godefridus : Godfrey.
Godf. : Godfather.
godfather : [Sx] the sponsor at the baptismal font.
godfather : compadre [Sp].
Godfrey : Godefridus.
Godm. : Godmother.
godmother : matima, a woman who stands as sponsor during the baptism of an infant.
godparents : cuis susceptores, those who lift up the child; typically two sponsors at the baptism of an infant, who pledge to ensure the child’s welfare and Christian education, especially in the event the child becomes an orphan. Godparents are usually close friends of the natal parents, but are sometimes blood relatives. Cf. compadrazgo, compadre, infans, sponsor.
gods : [Dn] landed estate.
gods and goddesses as homosexualities : Aphrodite, Dike, Gaia, Hermes, Uranus. All of these goddesses and gods have loaned their names to homosexual terminology.
gods and goddesses of marriage : Hymen, Subigus, Pertunda.
gods of thunder : Uranus, Oya.
Gods Olympian : the 12 Olympian gods who figure principally in Graeco-Roman mythology, namely the Greek gods and goddesses Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hermes, Athena, Hephaestus, and Hestia. The equivalent Roman gods are Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Ceres, Apollo [Gk & Lt], Diana, Mars, Venus, Mercury, Minerva, Vulcan, Vesta.
godsib: an old English kinship term purported to have given rise to the English gossip.
Goidelic alphabet : Ogham alphabet. Cf. alphabet.
Goisfridus : Geoffrey.
golden anniversary : 50th year of marriage; symbol of the fiftieth wedding anniversary.
Golden Number : a number between one (1) and nineteen (19) that signifies one specific year in one Metonic Cycle. To calculate the Golden Number for the year of the Metonic Cycle, take the probandic year (YYYY), add one (1), and divide by nineteen (19) years, such that 1975+1/19 =104+0. Note the remainder, because that number becomes the year of the Metonic Cycle. When the remainder is zero (0), the year is reckoned to be the 19th year. Thus, we may reckon that both 1975 and 1994 (1994+1/19 = 105+0) were each the 19th year in two, successive Metonic Cycles, because both of the sums (year-dates plus one) can be evenly divided by 19, leaving no remainder. Accordingly, the year 1997 (1997+1/19 =105+3) may be reckoned as the 3rd year of the Metonic Cycle. Cf. Callippic Cycle, Metonic Cycle.
goldsmith : goldesmithe, a jewelry dealer selling gold and silver items.
Gomorra : Gomorrah:  a biblical place name, popularized and associated with homosexuality in Peter Damiani’s Liber Gomorrhianus (1054). Cf. Saint Peter Damian.
Gomorrhans : Sodomites.
gon- : [Gk] angle, angled figure.
gon- : [Gk] generative, reproductive, sexual.
gon- : gen- : gene- : [Gk] to be produced; to originate, produce.
gonē : Mo; childbearer. Cf. gynē.
good breeding of children : euteknia.
good women :  Stephen Bourbon, Inquisitor of France, attested to the presence of male wanderers of the night who cross-dressed as women, and were nicknamed the ‘good women.’ Cf. transvestism.
goodman : Hu; householder, husband. In some communities, goodman was prefixed to an individual’s name in the same manner as Mister is today, as a courtesy title. A goodman ranked below a gentleman, in class roughly equivalent to the yeomanry.
goodwife : Wi; the female correlative of goodman.
goos : goose.
goose : goos : the fowl, valued at 5d in 1519.
gor hendaid : [We] PaPaPaFa; great-great-grandfather, second-great-grandfather, grandfather in the 4th degree.
gor wyr : [We] ChChSo, SoSoSo; great-grandson.
gor wyres : [We] ChChDa; great-granddaughter.
gorget :  a steel collar added to improve a suit of armor.
Gorgidas : the founder and one of two leaders of the Sacred Band of Thebes. Cf. Pelopidas.
Gorgons : Gagans : the Libyan amazons who fought another Libyan tribe called the Myrine amazons, during an uprising that disturbed the Atlantean colony, according to Strabo. The 30,000 Myrine horsewomen defeated the Gorgons, but took too many prisoners, and suffered for their miscalculation. Later, Perseus killed Medusa, Queen of the Gorgons. The Gorgons purportedly killed all of the male progeny.
Gosfridus : Geoffrey.
goshawk :  a hawk larger than a crow, which has white stripes above and behind the eyes; a long-tailed accipitrine hawk with short and rounded wings.
goshawks : [1519/9/14] Cf. mewying & kepyng of ye Goshawks.
gosse : [Sw] boy.
Goth : Gothus : Getes : one of the people who inhabit northern Europe, or the modern countries of Norway and Sweden. The name derived from the barbarian Goths.
Gothia : an old name for the Swedish peninsula surrounded by the Baltic Sea.
Gothic : the languages of the Goths, or Swedish and Norwegian. The term was used in contradistinction to Teutonic.
governance : government, management, rule.
government : gouvernement : [Fr] the form of a community as defined by the supreme authority that determines its laws; the established state of legal authority; administration of public affairs.
gown :  A formal woman’s gown was valued at £10 around 1592, or the equivalent of approximately $600 in 1967 currency. This was 10 times the cost of an ordinary, household gown. Cf. suit.
gown :  A plain, gray, woman’s gown for daily work was valued at 20s around 1592.
gown : an especially elegant dress. We have one example of materials purchased for making a gown: tawny velvet, guarded with black satin, costing 3s 4d, and the black cotton lining for same, bought for 3s 9d, in 1519.
gp. : grandparents.
Gr : [anthropology] grand; great.
GR : Gregorian Retrospection. Cf. GC, GR, JP, Gregorian Calendar, Gregorian Retrospection, Julian Period, Julian Retrospection, Retrospection.
gr. : grand-, great-; graduated; grant.
gr.f. : grandfather.
gr.m. : grandmother.
gr/d/o : granddaughter of.
gr/so/o : grandson of.
Graces : the goddesses who weave good things; the Nornes, Fates, and Moira, who correspond to weaving in the past, present, and future.
grad- : gress- : to step, go.
gradation : Cf. ablaut.
-grade : walking.
graduation : an exaltation of qualities; the act of conferring academic degrees.
gradus : degree, stage, step; rank, station, position, post.
gradus affinitatis : degree of affinity. Cf. dispensatio a minori gradu affinitatis.
gradus cognationis : degree of kinship.
gradus consanguinitatis : degree of blood relationship.
gradus prohibitus cognationis : a degree of relationship wherein conjugation and matrimony are deemed incestuous and therefore prohibited; forbidden degrees of relationship; relations ranked so closely to the proband that they can never marry the proband.
Graeco-Persian Wars : [499-448 bc] Ionian Revolt (499-493 bc), Battle of Marathon (490 bc), Campaigns of Thermopylae and Salamis (480 bc), Campaigns of 480-479 bc, Concluding Campaigns of the Persian War (479-448 bc).
-gram : [Gk] thing written.
gramma : [Gk] letter.
grammata : [Gk] letters; the early Greek word for alphabet. Sometime after ad 230, the Greeks adopted the newer Latin word alphabētos.
gran- : grain.
grand- : Gr; a prefix denoting that a lineal relative stands in, or belongs to, the 2nd degree of ascent or descent from the proband, or some degree even more remote, higher or lower. Cf. grandfather, granduncle, grandson, grandnephew.
grand : grandis : great, illustrious, splendid, magnificent; principal, chief; eminent, superior; noble, lofty; conceived or expressed with great dignity. The word is often used as a prefix to express degrees of consanguinity, either ascending or descending.
grand- : great.
grandaevus : old, of great age.
grandam : PaMo, FaMo, MoMo; grandmother; father’s mother, mother’s mother; an old and withered woman.
grandaunt : PaPaSi, FaFaSi, MoMoSi; father’s aunt, mother’s aunt; grandfather’s sister, grandmother’s sister; Großtante [Gm].
grandchild : ChCh; the son or daughter of one’s son or daughter; barne-barn [Du, Nw].
granddaughter : ChDa; the daughter of one’s son or daughter, Enkelin [Gm], dotterdotter [Sw].
Grande Condé : Prince Louis II de Bourbon et de Condé (1621-1686), a homosexual general of France. He was the son of Henri II, and was called Duc d’Enghien during his father’s lifetime. He won several battles against the Spanish and the Imperials, between 1643 and 1668, and was made Commander of the Army of the Rhine in 1675.
grandee : a man of great power, rank, or dignity.
grandeeship : lordship, the rank or estate of a grandee.
grandfather : avo : avola [It] : PaFa; the father of one’s father or mother; bedstefader [Du], beste-far [Nw], farfar [Dn, Nw, Sw].
grandfather : tad-cu [We].
grandis natu : magnus natu, of advanced age, of considerable age. Cf. natu.
grand-mère : [Fr] PaMo; grandmother.
grandmother : ava : avia [Lt] : avola [It] : PaMo; the mother of one’s father or mother; bedstemofer [Du], bestemor [Nw].
grandmother: mam-gu [We].
grand-oncle : [Fr] PaPaBr; granduncle.
grandonkel : [Dn] PaPaBr; granduncle.
grandparents : PaPa; beste-foreldre [Nw].
grand-père : [Fr] PaFa; grandfather.
grandsire : FaFa; grandfather; any ancestor.
grandson : ChSo; the son of a son or daughter, Enkel [Gm], dotterson [Sw]; ó, ua [Ir].
grandson-in-law : ChDaHu; granddaughter’s husband. Cf. gener.
grandsonship : first cousinage; first grandsonship. Cf. second grandsonship, tá siad i n-ó amháin [Ir].
grandtante : [Dn] PaPaSi; grandaunt.
grand-tante : [Fr, Nw] PaPaSi; grandaunt.
grant : [new meaning] a monetary gift donated for the performance of some defined and limited acts of scholarship, research, or service.
grant : a gift or bestowal of real estate confirmed in writing. This is a general term for the act of granting or transferring real property to another person, but the legal instruments written to certify a grant were variously named as charters, deeds, feet of fines, and other particular types of documents.
Granta : Grantanus Pons : Cambridge.
Grantanus Pons : Cambridge.
grantee : one to whom a grant is made.
grantor : one who makes or grants a conveyance of land.
-graph : [Gk] writing.
grapho- : [Gk] writing, scriptio, scriptura, litteræ.
-graphy : [Gk] writing.
grat- : pleasing, grateful.
gratia : goodwill
grav- : heavy.
grave : [Sx] an earthly excavation in which a dead person or animal is buried.
grave : graf : [Gm] ruler, e.g. landgrave, margrave.
grave monument : monumentum.
grave pillar : cippus.
grave-clothes : the dress or clothes in which the deceased is buried.
grave-digger : one who digs graves.
grave-maker : grave-digger.
grave-stone : a stone laid over a grave.
gravestone inscription : the names, dates, and epitaph that appear on a gravestone.
gravida : pregnant. Cf. prægnans.
gravidam esse : to be pregnant.
graviditas : pregnancy.
graviditas apud nuptiæ : pregnancy at marriage, a ground for divorce.
graybeard : old man.
grete Byrds : [1520/1/15-21] great birds. Cf. bustards.
great- : g. : gr. : gt. : [En] Gr; older by one generation, younger by one generation. The word great- is prefixed to kinship terms commencing with grand-, such as grandfather and grandson, to indicate an ancestor or descendant one degree more remote than the person indicated by the base word. Redundant use of the prefix indicates additional degrees of remoteness from the proband. The prefix great- may be easily applied in the familiar manner to practially any kinship term, and even to terms to which it does not usually attach, but when inventing any new terminology, the genealogist should be cautious to place the novel series of names in the customary order: e.g., great-grandstepson, great-grandson-in-law. This English naming system results in some names that are extremely long, and quite cumbersome to use, such as great-great-great-great-grandfather, so genealogists have invented some shorter terms, such as fourth-great-grandfather, to replace the formal names. However, the shorter English names fail to match the degrees of separation, so they effectively increase consternation rather than simplify matters. A German genealogist is likely to replace the long term with an even clearer description, namely grandfather in the 6th degree, which identifies and precisely matches the generational degree from the proband in which the ancestor stands. The Germans have developed another, rather unique system for naming ancestors and descendants, but their abbreviated system of numbering degrees seems to be far more comprehensible and reasonable for the purposes of a genealogist. Cf. great-grandfather, great-granduncle, great-grandson, great-grandnephew.
Great Britain : G.B. : [1707-1801] the political unity of the two kingdoms named England and Scotland, and the principality of Wales, established in the reign of Queen Anne. The name itself is fairly ancient, for it derives from the Bretons or Brythonic celts. The adjective great was applied to distinguish the British Isles from Breton settlements on the continent, so the name was used in contradistinction to Minor Britain, or Brittany, now in France. It is erroneous to use this name to represent any unified political entity prior to 1707, so historians of the colonial age need to exercise care when writing narratives. The name officially became an acronym in 1801, when the United Kingdom was formed, but its frequent use in historical accounts has endowed it with such an endurance that people commonly persist in using it as a synonym for the British Isles and U.K.
Great Dearth of 1556 : the influenza epidemic that followed two crop failures in 1555 and 1556, and claimed the lives of perhaps 5.5%, or perhaps as much as 20%, of the population of England. Cf. epidemic, influenza epidemic.
Great Mother : a general term for all the goddesses having characteristics similar to those of the Earth Mother, namely Aphrodite, Demeter, Bona Dea, Fortuna, Abundantia, Al-Uzza [Ar]. Cf. Mater Dolorosa.
Great Mother : negative incarnations of the Earth Mother, such as Mara, Lamia, Kali, Durga, Humus, Hecate, the evil Diana, and the evil ancestress Hine-nui-te-po of New Zealand.
Great Weaver : the divine archetype named Maya, Arachne, Dea Syria, Erinyes, Graces, Harmonia, Ilithia.
greatbellied : pregnant.
great-grandchild : ChChCh; barne-barnsbarn [Nw].
great-granddaughter : ChChDa; arrière petite-fille [Fr], barne-barns pike [Nw]; bisava [It]; bisnieta [Sp].
great-grandfather : FaFaFa, FaMoFa, MoFaFa, MoMoFa; arrière grand-père [Fr]; bisavo [It]; bisabuelo [Sp]; farfars far [Sw].
great-grandmother : FaFaMo, FaMoMo, MoFaMo, MoMoMo; arrière grand-mère [Fr]; bisabuela [Sp]; farfars mor [Sw].
great-grandsire : FaFaFa; great-grandfather.
great-grandson : SoSoSo; arrière petit-fils [Fr], barne-barns gutt [Nw]; bisnieto [Sp].
great-great-grandfather : PaPaPaFa; second-great-grandfather; 2me arrière grand-père [Fr], bet-overgrootvader [Du]; gor hendaid [We].
great-great-great-grandfather : PaPaPaPaFa; third-great-grandfather; 3me arrière grand-père [Fr], bet-over-overgrootvader [Du].
great-great-great-great-grandfather : PaPaPaPaPaFa; fourth-great-grandfather; 4me arrière grand-père [Fr], bet-over-over-overgrootvader [Du].
great-paternal : related through one’s grandfather. Cf. paternal.
greaves : greves : [Fr] demi-jambes.
Grecian Golden Age : [480-399 bc] the age that ended with the condemnation of Socrates.
Greco-Persian War : [480 bc] The Campaigns of Termopylae and Salamis (480 bc).
gree : gradus : rank, degree; step. Cf. generation, pedigree.
gree : gré : [Fr] good will, favor.
Greek love : Ph & Er; the love between older and younger male adolescents, or between an adult and adolescent. This Greek norm complemented the other sexual relations of a man, and did replace nor preëmpt a man’s heterosexual marriages or relationships.
green : the primary color of fairies. Cf. Green Knight, Green Garters, Greensleeves.
Green Garters : the processional dance on May Day or 1 May, led by the Green Man. Cf. fairies, green.
Green Knight : the pagan instructor and trickster. Cf. fairies, green.
Green Man : the herald of pagans on May Day or 1 May. Cf. fairies, green.
green sickness : chlorosis, a condition that connotes the greenish skin coloration of a young girl in puberty.
green Thursday : the day of the week on which anyone dressed in green colors might be presumed to be Uranian. Cf. Thor, Thursday.
greenhorn : a raw youth, inexperienced youth, freshman; someone easily imposed upon.
Greens : Cf. circus factions. Opp. Blues.
Greensleeves : a medieval song said to refer to the Queen of Fairies. Cf. Queen of Fairies.
greg- : flock, herd.
Gregg, John Robert : [1867-1948] author of Light-Line Phonography (1888). Gregg’s system won its popularity in 1893, and quickly dominated shorthand instruction. Gregg shorthand was taught in 90% of shorthand classes in the United States in 1980. Cf. Bright, Pitman, shortwriting.
Gregorian :  belonging to the new calendrical conventions instituted by Pope Gregory; pertaining to the Gregorian calendar. The Romans adjusted their calendar by 10 days in 1582, but the English and Scots added 11 days in 1752. Cf. double-dating, double year-dates, New Style, Old Style.
Gregorian Calendar : [1582 It] 1582/10/5-JC >1582/10/15-GC, 1582/10/6-JC =1582/10/15-GC.
Gregorian Calendar : [1752 En-Sc] the Anglo-Scottish adoption of the Gregorian Calendar, which commenced on 14 September 1751 GC, the would-be 3 September 1751 JC. Thus, 9/2 JC >9/15 GC, (would-be 9/3 JC) =9/15 GC.
Gregorian Calendar : [1771 En] GC : the calendar invented by Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), following the suggestions of Luigi Lilio, alias Aloysius Lilius (obiit 1576). He obtained his mandate from Pope Gregory XIII (elected 1572), and the Bull he prepared was ready for issue in the year 1582. Pope Gregory XIII issued his Bull in February 1582, ordering that Roman Catholics would omit 10 days, namely 6 October 1582 through 14 October 1582. Specifically, he ordered that the Feast of Saint Francis, 5 October 1582, would be followed directly by 15 October 1582, instead of 6 October. Cf. GR, centesimal year, equinox, Gregorian Retrospection, January, Julian Calendar, Chesterfield, solstice. Vide The Calendary, “The Gregorian Calendar,” sub ‘Gregorian Calendar, 1582.’
Gregorian factor 400 : GC factor 400 : the Gregorian Calendar rule for determining whether centesimal years should be leap years or common years. Cf. centesimal year, Julian factor 4.
Gregorian reckoning :  New Style : Nuovo Stile [It] : the reckoning of day and date by the new Gregorian Calendar, which commenced on 1582/10/5 jc = 1582/10/15 gc, and therefore was 10 days ahead of Julian reckoning from 1582/10/5 jc until 1600/2/28 jc. Cf. Julian reckoning.
Gregorian Retrospection (1752- DATE \@ "yyyy" \* MERGEFORMAT 2004): GR :  Gregorian Retrospection is a peculiar Anglo-Scots-American convention for viewing historical time retroactively, by using Gregorian January-December year-dates and Gregorian month-dates to express Anglo-Scots-American OS/NS Julian dates, between 1582 and 1752. The English, Scots, and Americans used the Julian Calendar (JC) from 1582 to 1752, and therefore sometimes speak of events between 1582 and 1752 by using Gregorian Retrospection (GR). George Washington’s birthday is an excellent example of this practice, for he was actually born 11 February 1731 OS Julian Calendar (JC). Americans elected to celebrate Washington’s birth as if it had occurred on 22 February 1732 GC, by the reckoning of the Roman Gregorian Calendar (Rm GC). The editor prefers to style this practice Gregorian Retrospection (Am GR), because Americans have only used such reckoning retrospectively. Persons in Virginia would never have used a Roman Gregorian Calendar (Rm GC), and therefore the example of Washington’s birthdate provides historians with a sound reason to avoid translating Julian Calendar dates into Gregorian dates. Cf. GC, JP, Brøderbund Family Tree Maker Calendar, Gregorian Calendar, George Washington’s birthday, Julian Period.
Gregory of Tours (538-594) : a Frankish prelate and Bishop of Tours (573) who authored the first part of Historia Francorum (591), as well as the lives of saints, and books of miracles. Claude Fauchet discerned that two parts of Historia Francorum (591 & 642) recognize different New Year dates, namely 1 January and 1 March, and therefore postulated the existence of another seventh-century author, whom Fauchet dubbed ‘Fredegarius.’ Cf. Council of Tours, Fredegarius, Historia Francorum.
Gregory the Great : [circa 600] the pope who characterized English slave boys in Rome as being ‘angelic.’
grenadier : [Fr] a tall foot-soldier.
Grenteburga : Cambridge.
gress- : grad- : to step, go.
griffin : griffon : gryphus : a fabulous animal in the combined shapes of a lion and eagle, said to have the head and paws of a lion, and the wings of an eagle.
Griffith’s Valuation : [1847-1865, Ir] a tax survey of all rateable property in Ireland, 1847-1865.
grip : la grippe : a form of influenza.
groat :  a silver coin worth fourpence.
groat :  fourpence, equal to 7.404 cents in 1806 dollars.
groining : the angles formed by the connecting ribs of a ceiling vault.
Gron. : Groningen, Netherlands.
groomprice : dowry.
grootmoeder : [Du] PaMo; grandmother.
grootvader : [Du] PaFa; grandfather.
grope : to explore another’s body through the clothing, for self gratification, or partner gratification, or courtship.
Groß- : [Gm] great-.
Gross Domestic Product : GDP : the new measure of national production, designed improve the accuracy of national accounting, by excluding such production as might occur in free trade zones, et cetera.
Gross National Product : GNP : the old measure of national production.
gross tonnage : Cf. tonnage.
Großmutter : [Gm] PaMo; grandmother.
Großonkel : [Gm] PaPaBr; granduncle.
Großtante : [Gm] PaPaSi; grandaunt.
Großvater : [Gm] PaFa; grandfather.
groundage : strandage; the charge for grounding a boat or ship along the Thames riverbank for loading or unloading at London. A great vessel was originally charged twopence (2d), a small vessel with oarlocks was charged one penny (1d), and a simple boat without oaklocks was charged a halfpenny. Every large ship was assessed fourpence (4d) in 1545. The freemen of London were exempt from groundage.
grounds of non-consummation : failure or refusal to conjugate, a good reason to annul one’s marriage. Cf. annulment.
group : [new meaning] genus, an assemblage larger than a kindred family; the family-at-large rather than a domus or any of the family parts; an extended collection of individuals in a household both related and unrelated by blood; a number of persons devoted to the same cause. Cf. family group.
group : [old meaning] species, an assemblage smaller than a family; a group defining a domus, adoptive sibship, fostership, slave family; a collection of individuals in a household comprising a subset of a married couple, such as a sib, stepsib, or fostership.
group marriage : a marital union of several men and several women. History and contemporary life provide us with some isolated examples of group marriage, for religious leaders sometimes organize mass marriages, close friends sometimes have joint weddings, and small groups of friends sometimes enter into communal life as married pairs. However, no anthropologist has ever identified group marriage as a social norm, so we doubt that it could exist as such.
groveller : a person having a low and mean disposition.
gt. : great.
Gt. Br. : Great Britain.
gt. gr. : great-grand-.
GTT : gone to Texas.
gū : ku : [Ch] fFaSi, fHuSi, fWiMo; father’s sister; a female relative comparable with father’s sister; husband’s sister, sister-in-law. Anciently, the term denoted a female speaker’s mother-in-law, and seems to have reflected an exclusive system of bilateral cross cousin marriage. Cf. ko [SJ]; shūtome ‘mother-in-law’ [Jp].
gu. : gules : red.
Gualterus : Walter.
guanosine :  a nucleoside constituent of RNA.
Guanyin : Kwan Yin of China.
guardant : with a face turned toward the spectator; the stance of a guardian beast. In heraldry, this term refers to the position of a beast, such as a leopard guardant.
guardian : Cf. baillistre.
guardian : gardien : [Fr] one entrusted with with care of an orphan; one who cares for or preserves something, such as the personal or real property of a minor. The term guardian may sometimes be used when the charge is an adult, such as when an adult becomes blind or infirm.
guardianship : the office of a guardian. Feudal majority was merely 15 years of age for females, but 20 years of age for males, so guardianship usually ended when the minor reached the appropriate age.
Guards Doverant : guards provided; a phrase presumably based on the French douer ‘to give’ or the Latin verb do. Cf. dederunt.
gubernation : government, superintendency.
gudmoder : [Dn] godmother.
gueules : [Fr] red, an allusion to bloodsport.
gūfù : [Ch] FaSiHu; paternal aunt’s husband; paternal uncle-in-law.
guige : the strap that wraps around one’s shoulder and neck to hang a shield on one’s backside.
guild: a medieval association of craftsmen or merchants. Municipalities and states rarely had standing armies or regular forces of police and patrolmen, so merchants, artisans, and tradesmen found it necessary to band together for mutual protection. The Hanseatic league in northern Germany was formed to combat piracy, and it served as a model for the many trade guilds and companies that formed throughout Europe.
Guillelmus : William.
guinea :  21 shillings, equivalent to $4.67 or 466.666 cents in 1806 dollars. This was the basic unit of currency then in common circulation. Cf. pound.
gules : gu. : the red tincture used in heraldry.
gūmŭ : [Ch] FaSi; paternal aunt.
gun control : the prudent and erstwhile regulation of the sale, ownership, and trafficking of firearms. Cf. keep and bear arms.
gun proliferation : the irresponsible and wreckless distribution and trafficking of firearms for profit; an American obsession. In the United States each year, in the 1990s, there are more than 40,000 deaths caused by firearms, and more than 80,000 people wounded by guns. Presently, there are more than 500,000,000 guns in circulation, or roughly 2 guns for every man, woman, and child in the U.S. Civilized countries, such as the United Kingdom and Japan, have strict gun-control laws, and therefore do not have the same problems with violence. In the 1980s, the city of Detroit recorded some 700 to 800 murders by firearms each year, whereas the firearm murder rate in Kyōto, Japan, was about one (1) person per year. Cf. gun control.
gundeck :  the lower deck, below the main deck or upper deck of a warship, where guns and gunpowder were stored. Cf. orlop.
gunocracy : gynæocracy : gynecocracy.
gunwale shields : the ornamentation of heraldic shields along the gunwale or upper sides of a Tudor ship. Henry VIII’s galley Galie Subtile displayed variously (1) Saint George’s cross, (2) Arms of France and England, quarterly, (3) azure a single lys or, and (4) blue charged with the initial H in gold, but ambiguously written so as to resemble both an H for Henricus and R for Rex.
gurgulio : throat, oesophagus; penis.
Gutshof : [Sz] farm.
gutt : [Nw] boy.
guttural : throaty or harsh.
gūzŭfù : [Ch] FaFaSiHu : paternal granduncle-in-law.
gūzŭmŭ : [Ch] FaFaSi : paternal grandaunt.
gweddw : gwr gweddw : [We] widower.
gweddw : gwraig weddw : [We] widow.
gwlad : [We] country.
gwr : [We] husband, man.
gwr : [We] husband. Opp. gwraig.
gwragedd : [We] wives.
gwraig : [We] wife.
gwraig : [We] wife. Opp. gwr.
gyanandroid : having or exhibiting the traits of both sexes. Cf. hermaphroditic.
gymn- : [Gk] naked.
gymnasium : a place for athletic exercises; a school.
gyn- : gynec- : gynaec- : gyne- : [Gk] woman, female.
gynaec- : gynec- : gyn- : gyne- : [Gk] woman, female.
gynaecerates : philogynaikes, heterosexual males. Opp. androphile.
gynæcian : [Gk] relating to women.
gynaikonitis : [Gk] women’s quarters; female quarters separate from male livings. Cf. andronitis, nai [Jp], oku [Jp].
gynarchy : female government.
gyne- : gynec- : gyn- : gynaec- : [Gk] woman, female.
gynē : Mo; Mutter; woman; the archtypal wife and mother. Cf. gonē, three components of love.
gynec- : gyn- : gynaec- : gyne- : [Gk] woman, female.
gynecocracy : gynæocracy : gunocracy : [Gk] female power; petticoat government; the political and social supremacy of women; a government over which a woman presides.
gynecophile : a lover of women. Cf. agism, androphile, ephebophile. Cf. -phile. Opp. philandroi.
gynecophobia : an irrational fear of women. Cf. Muscular Christianity, Promise Keepers.
gynic factor : the biological or glandular tendency to femininity. This factor is apparent in brest development, fine skin, the absence of body hair and leg hair, a wider pelvis, and narrow shoulders. Opp. andric factor.
gynoecium : pistil. Cf. flower.
gypcière : gibecière : [Fr] game-pouch, a purse hung by a strap and used to bag game during hawking. Cf. hawk.
gyrfalcon : gerfalcon.
gyromancy : [Gk] a kind of divination, performed by walking around a circle.
gyrovagi : nomads, goliards, wandering scholars; Ordo Vagorum, Sect of Decius.
 Mintz and Wolf 1950. Schusky 1972: 55.
 Gurney, 565.14, 565.18.
 Bede. Boswell 1980: 144.
 Riley, Liber Albus, 208. Davis 1924: 617.
 Lévi-Strauss 1967: 317.