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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


co- : com-, cum, with, together.

Co. : Company.

co. : county.

coarb : [Ir] successor to an ecclesiastical office.[77]

coat : coate : For making and lin­ing a coat of crimson velvet, Dame Anne le Strange paid out 7s 8d in 12 Hen VIII (1520).[78]

coat of arms : Cf. mon, wen.

coat-of-arms : the heraldic bearings of a person; an escutcheon properly tinctured and charged with armorial ensigns; a tabard or surcourt embroidered with the arms of the wearer or his lord, and worn over armor.  Cf. achievement, hatchment.

coat-of-name : the principal coat-of-arms, representing the family surname, as opposed to a secondary or subsidiary coat-of-arms depicted on some collateral shield.  Cf. collateral shield.

cobridge heads : [1590] bulkheads designed to create small forts or bunkers of the forecastle and poop.  The heads were fortified barricades of heavy timber, provided with musket holes and small guns pointing fore and aft of the ship itself.  Similar to the keeps of castles, the cobridge heads provided places of final refuge, where the crew could defend themselves if the ship were boarded.[79]

cocc : coccus : [Gk] berry, seed; spherical bacterium.

coccus : cocc : [Gk] berry, seed; spherical bacterium.

cock-brass : latten.

Cocke : [1519/10/18] Cf. Fesaunt Cocke.

cocket : coket : a packing list the consignor uses to verify his export declarations after his goods have been loaded onto a ship.

Cocopa : [AZ, Mexico] a southwest tribe belonging to the Yuman or Hokan language group.

Cocopa shaman : war’hameh.

cod : 53s 4d for 150 cod was paid by Sir Nicholas to Thomas Waters of Lynn on 1548/2/25.[80]

codado : [Sp] county.

codde : cod, valued at 4d in 1519.[81]

codependency : addiction to certain types of lovers or be­havior; interdependency, a learned social dysfunc­tion.  Opp. in­dependency.

codicil : a supplement or addendum that modifies or changes the stipulations of a person’s last will and testament; a simple, informal, and uncomplicated will that names no executor.  Roman and English authorities usually recognized the codicil as a valid testament.  Cf. last will and testament.

codicilli : codicils amending a testament.

codify : to systematically classify.  Cf. catalog, classification, digest.

codlyng : codling.

coecus fuit ante obitum : cæcus fuit ante obitum : was made blind before death.[82]

coelebs : cælebs, single.

coëmptio : marriage by mutual sale, a marriage consisting of a mock sale of the parties to one another.  Women often entered coëmptio mar­riages in order to end the jurisdiction of their guardians.  Confer confarreatio, usus.

coeo : to come together in matrimony; to copulate in any way.

coërced laborer : a person pressed into service by threat or force.  Cf. servant, kidnapped servant.

coetanean : con + ætas : of the same age with another.

coetaneous : of the same age with another.

coetus : [disyllabic] sexual union, a meeting together.

coeundi causa : a cause for having been dragged off into a room for sexual intercourse.[83]

coeval : coævus : of the same age with another, of the same time.

coëvolution : two species that evolve in tandem to better serve one another’s needs.

coevous : one of the same age.

cofather : gay father, coparent.

coffee and bread : Cf. bread and drink.

coffinmaker : one who makes coffins by trade.

cofounder : a joint founder.

cog : a cock-boat, a little boat.[84]

cognate : [old meaning] related on the mother’s side; related through some common ancestor; of the same parentage or descent.  Opp. agnate.

cognate cousinage : consobrini, cousins-german, or maternal cousins, comprise what is called cognate cousi­nage.  Matrilineal cousins-german are cognatic relations, related chiefly through mater­nal and sororal lines, involving the patronymics of alien blood, but comprising cross cousins, as well as distant cousins, and persons born of ancestral lines with alternating sexes and changing surnames.  Generally speaking, cog­natic cousins are permitted to wed, whereas par­allel cousins are discouraged, and sometimes prohibited, from mar­rying.  Opp. agnatic cousinage.

cognates : consanguines; relatives tied to the ego by descent or filiation, but not by marriage.  The term cognates does not connote blood relationship, whereas consanguines does.  Opp. affines, allies.

cognati : kindred, relations on either one’s father’s or mother’s side.  Persons connected by blood, multilineally and nonunilineally, either symetrically or asymmetrically.

cognati et adfines : relatives by blood and mar­riage, blood relations and connections by mar­riage.

cognatic : patrilineal or matrilineal in relationship.

cognatic descent : bilateral, ambilateral, ambilineal, or non-unilineal descent.  Cf. indifférencié [Fr].

cognatic descent group : deme, ramage, sept; an amorphous group with laterality wider than what is found in a unilineal descent group.  The cognatic group is usually endogamous, and has overlapping membership.  Opp. unilineal descent group.

cognatic kin : multilineal kindred; nonunilineal descent; relatives through genealogical ties who are not distinguished by any patrilineal or matrilineal kinship.  The old definition of cognatic kin denoted maternal relatives in opposition to agnatic kin; but the new definition reassigned maternal relatives as uterine relatives.[85]  Cf. agnatic kin, uterine relatives.  Opp. unilineal descent.

cognatic relatives : a kindred group consisting of both agnatic and enatic relatives, otherwise called patrilineal and matrilineal relatives.  Cf. agnatic relatives, enatic relatives.

cognationis : cognate.

cognatus : kinsman, kinswoman; related or connected by blood, a rela­tion on one’s father’s side, or mother’s side.  Kinship through males and females, as opposed to agna­tus or kinship through males only.

cognisee : he to whom the lord acknowledges a fine in lands or tenements.

cognisour : he who passes or acknowledges to another a fine in lands or tenements.

cognomen : surname; family name; epithet.  The Roman equivalent of a modern surname.

cognomination : surname, a name added from any accident or quality.

cognominatus : surnamed.

cognoscenti : [1776] connoisseurs, persons knowledgeable in some subject.

coh. : coheir.

cohæredes una persona censentur, propter unitatem juris quod habent : coheirs are deemed as one person, on account of the unity of right that they possess.[86]

Cohanim : [1000 bc] the descendants of Aaron the first cohen ‘high priest.’  The term Cohan came from Aaron’s grandfather Kohath son Levi, for the sons of Kohath, called the Kohathites, became the central priests of the Tabernacle.  Kohathites partly belonged to the tribe of Benjamin and partly belonged to the half-tribe of Manasseh.  Israeli researchers have claimed that the Cohanim happen to share some specific Y-chromosome traits, and that this genetic similitude might represent Aaron’s unilineage.[87]

coheir : cohæres : semiheres, semiheir; coheiress, joint heiress, an heir whose inheritance is shared with other heirs;[88] one of several female heirs among whom an inheritance is shared or divided.  Most hereditary lordships devolved to sons or younger brothers by the rule of primogeniture, but the lack of heirs male could threaten the patriliny with extinction.  When direct heirs male no longer existed, the rights and entitlements of a lordship passed to the female heirs, who were styled heirs general.  Therefore, in most historical cases, two or more coheirs were sisters, not brothers.  If a coheir happened to be male, then he was probably a cousin, rather than a brother.  Cf. abeyance, dormancy, extinction, heir.

coheiress : coheir : one of two or more heiresses sharing an inheritance.  The gender of this word is somewhat misleading, because it seems to imply a gender difference between coheirs and coheiress.  The researcher must beware that the simpler word coheir normally signifies a female, in any case.  Cf. coheir.

cohort : a group of individuals in a medical study who share some statistical factor, such as one study site, or an age range.

cohort : cohors : a troop of soldiers in a Roman army, consisting of some 500 footsoldiers; a body of warriors.

coitus : [trisyllabic] sexual union, a meeting together.

coitus from the rear : tas katopin eynas [Gk]; copulatum canum [Lt].

coitus interruptus : [1900] interrupted coitus; sexual copulation purposely stopped, to prevent the ejaculation of sperm into the vagina.  Cf. Onan.

col : [Ir]  Cf. ceannach col.

col : [Ir] relatives consanguine and barred from marriage; an Irish exogamous group of kindred.  The word defines consanguinity within the degrees of incest prohibition.

col- : com-, cum, with, together.

col ceathair : [Ir] ego(counted) + PaSbCh; the fourth col; the fourth degree of Irish kinship; the third degree of anthropological kinship; a consanguinal relative standing within four inclusive points of primary kinship, such as the ego’s father’s brother’s son (ego + FaBrSo); a kinship reckoning that includes the ego.  Note that the Irish countrymen include the ego as one degree, whereas anthropologists exclude the ego from the count of kinship points or steps.  Therefore, the Irish fourth col is correlative and equivalent to the anthropological third degree.[89]

col seisear : [Ir] ego(counted) + FaFaBrSoSo (=FaFaBrSoSo); the sixth col; second cousins; a group of kindred descended from a common great-grandparent; the great-grandchildren of an apical ancestor; a count of kinship degrees inclusive of the ego.  The Irish define the sixth col descriptively, but the Irish count includes the ego, whereas a traditional count of primary points excludes the ego and places such second cousins in the fifth degree of kinship.  Thus, the sixth col (col seisear) and the fourth generation (ceathradh glúin) denote the same group of second cousins, albeit by different systems of Irish reckoning.  Cf. ceathradh glúin.

Col. : Colonel.

col. : colony, colonel.

coleatam cuspidem : the betesticled lance; the penis and scrotum.

coleo : coglione [It] : couillon [Fr] : testicle.

coleus : couille [Fr] : testicle.

coliculus : penis.

coll. : college, collection.

coll. : collum, neck, as in the expression suspendatur per collum.

collateral : conlatus : side-to-side, running parallel, diffused on either side; indirect, not immediate.  Collateral relations are those relations who do not descend directly, such as uncles, aunts, nephews, et cetera.

collateral ancestors : the uncles, aunts, and cousins born to generations prior to the proband’s generation; related antecedents outside the direct line of descent to the proband; predecessors who belong to the same stock as the proband, but who come from a different line of descent.

collateral kin : kin who are linked to the ego partly through lateral links; kin who stand outside the ego’s direct line of descent from lineal kin.  Siblings are normally spoken of as being to lineal kin, because their lines of descent match the ego’s.  However, when the siblings generate their own progeny, they create new branches or segments of collateral kin, starting with the ego’s niblings (nephews and nieces) in generational level -1.  Opp. lineal kin.

collateral lines : cousins, relations descending from agnate or enate kinsfolk.

collateral lines of descent : all the lines of descent other than the one being studied or examined.

collateral relatives : kinsfolk belonging to any line other than the ego’s direct line of descent.  Opp. lineal relatives.

collateral shield : a secondary coat-of-arms placed in conjunction to the coat-of-name.  It was once the custom to place a subsidiary coat-of-arms to one side of the chief coat, or behind it, so as to show the colors around the edges of the chief coat.  In later times, there arose the alternative practice of marshalling arms on the same shield.  Cf. marshalling.

collateralness : a state of collateral relation or connection.

collective economy : Gemeinwirtschaft.  Cf. planned economy.

collective unconsciousness : id.

College of Arms : [1485] a royal corporation of kings-of-arms, heralds, and pursuivants-of-arms that records and authenticates genealogies for the purpose of granting arms and armorial ensigns to persons entitled to bear them.  This organization of heralds was the Tudor successor to the College of Heralds (1484-1485), and is now subordinate to the Earl Marshal in England.  Mary I reformed the College of Arms on 15 July 1555, and gave it the use of Derby House.  The three senior heralds are called Garter King at Arms, Clarenceux King at Arms, and Norroy King at Arms.  The second rank of heralds is composed of the six heralds of York, Richmond, Somerset, Lancaster, Chester, and Windsor.  The third rank consists of the four pursuivants, or junior heralds, named Rouge Dragon, Blue Mantle, Portcullis, and Rouge Croix.  The institution has little practical value in modern government, but it survives nonetheless, and assesses individuals some hefty fees to review applications and prepare grants of arms.  Cf. Norroy King of Arms.

College of Heralds : [1484-1485] Richard III incorporated the College of Heralds by charter on 23 March 1484, and provided it with the house called Coldharbour.  The next year, Henry VII cancelled the charter, and appropriated Coldharbour to his own use.  Cf. College of Arms.

College of Heralds : [1560-1640] the institution that granted arms to approximately 6,000 men between 1560 and 1640.

collegia : confraternities; or free, private associa­tions.[90]

collegia juvenum : organizations of young men.[91]

colligation : a binding together.

collum : coll. : neck, as in the expression suspendatur per collum.

Colo. : CO : Colorado.

coloi prædiorum : farmers of a noble.[92]

colon : [isolated] an old version of the colon ( : ) wherein the mark lies equidistant between two words (—— : ——).  Such marks were once used as regular decorations to separate Latin words in inscriptions, and had no grammatical function.  Isolated colons are used in this alphabetary to show a series of correlative words, phrases, and abbreviations.  The colon also serves to separate two or more numbers representing either a ratio, or proportional distribution.

colon : [suffix] a punctuation mark (-:) suffixed to a word or phrase, and used to set off what precedes it as a division superior to what follows.  The customary way to insert a colon is to attach it directly to the end of a word, and then leave two spaces (——:  Abc…) before the continuation.

colona : country woman.

colonel : coronel [Sp] : the chief commander of a regiment.

colonelship : the office or character of a colonel.

colonial : relating to a colony.

colonorum : serfs.

colonus : husbandman, farmer.

colony: colonia : a body of emigrants from the mother country intending upon foreign settlement; plantations; the country planted.

colophon : the conclusion of a book, customarily showing the place and year of publication.

colorism : discrimination based on skin color or skin tone, demonstrating preferment for lighter complextions rather than darker, or vice versa.  Members of the same race often discriminate by colorism, as when whites give high regard to suntans, or when blacks praise pale skin.  Cf. racism.

columbarium : a large tomb partly or wholly un­derground whose walls contain hundreds of niches intended to contain ashes of dead in urns or chests.

columna : penis.

com- : cum, with, together; completely, very, greatly, deeply, forcibly.

com. : comitatus : county; commissioner, commander; commentary; committee; common, commoner; communicate.

coma : [Gk] a morbid disposition to sleep.

comatose : lethargic.

comb : weaver’s reed, flax comb.  Cf. weaver’s reed.

comb of barley : approximately 16 stone.[93]

comb of beans : approximately 19 stone.[94]

comb of meslin : approximately 17 stone.[95]  Meslin is a combination of wheat and rye.

comb of oats : approximately 12 stone.[96]

comb of peas : approximately 19 stone.[97]

comb of wheat : a weight of approximately 18 stone.[98]

combusta in nocte : it burned in the night.

combustum : burn, scald.

come : to cum, ejaculate; to experience orgasm; to flow from, emanate from.  The verb come can signify the hitherward motion of an involuntary agent.  Cf. cum, precum.

comedy : komos : [Gk] a festival procession and its ode.  Opp. tragedy.

coming : cumming, having an organism.  Cf. cumming.

comitatu Salopie : county Salop.[99]

comitatus :   com. : county;[100] retinue, escort, train; company, troop.

comitatus : earldom; territorial jurisdiction of a comes (count, earl).

comites : female companions of a lady of rank.[101]

comitia centuriata : council of hundreds, com­posed of plebeians as opposed to patres; the as­sembly according to the centuriæ instituted by Servius Tullius.

comitia curiata : council of curies or gentes, com­posed of patres.  The assembly of the curiæ.

comitia tributa : council of tribes.  The council of tribal chieftains, higher ranking than the comitia curiata.  The assembly of the people in their tribes.

comitiva : the dignity and office of a comes; see comitatus

comm. : commissioner.

commandery: a body of Knights of Malta: knights belonging to the same nation; the residence of a body of knights.

Commandment I : Thou shalt have no other gods before me [Exodus].[102]  Thou shalt have none other gods before me [Deuteronomy].[103]  Thou shalt worship me alone [Graves].[104]

Commandment II : Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: … [Exodus].[105]  … in the waters beneath the earth [Deuteronomy].[106]  Thou shalt not make nor adore the simulacrum of any star, creature, or marine monster [Graves].[107]

Commandment III : Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain ….[108]  Thou shalt not take God’s name in vain.[109]

Commandment IV : Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy [Exodus].[110]  Observe the Sabbath Day [Graves].[111]  But the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God:  in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thine ox, nor thine ass, nor any of thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; that thy manservant and thy maidservant may rest as well as thou [Deuteronomy].[112]

Commandment IX : Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour [Exodus].[113]  Neither shalt thou bear false witness against they neighbour [Deuteronomy].[114]

Commandment V : Honour thy father and thy mother:  that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee [Exodus].[115]  Honor thy father and thy mother, as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee; that thy days may be prolonged, and that it may go well with thee, in the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee [Deuteronomy].[116]

Commandment VI : Thou shalt not kill.[117]

Commandment VII : Thou shalt not commit adultery [Exodus].[118]  Neither shalt thou commit adultery [Deuteronomy].[119]

Commandment VIII : Thou shalt not steal [Exodus].[120]  Neither shalt thou steal [Deuteronomy].[121]

Commandment X : Thou shalt not bewitch [Graves].  Thou shalt not covet they neighbour’s house, thou shalt not covet they neighbour’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor this ox, nor his ass, nor any thing that is they neighbor’s [Exodus].[122]  Neither shalt thou desire they neighbour’s wife, neither shalt thou covet thy neighbour’s house, his field, or his manservant, or his maidservant, his ox, or his ass, or any thing that is thy neighbour’s [Deuteronomy].[123]

Commandments : Ten Commandments,[124] the ten prescriptions held to be divine since the time of Moses.  Most are negative prescriptions against evil or illegal acts, commencing with Thou shalt have no …, or Thou shalt not …, but the three exceptions start with Remember …, Honour …, and Thou shalt worship me ….  Robert Graves proposed that the number ten was simply a didactic rounding suggested by the similar, earlier Decalogue that was recorded in Chapter 34 of Exodus.[125]  Cf. Decalogue, Octalogue.

commemoration : an act of public celebration.

commendation : recommendation, praise, message of love.[126]

commercium : the right to transact business with personal and real properties.  Cf. contu­bernium; connubium.

commission : commissio : the act of entrusting something; a trust, warrant; a warrant by which a military officer is constituted; charge, mandate, office, employment; the act of committing or perpetrating a crime.

commissioning parent : a social parent who contracts an egg donor or sperm donor for the surrogate birth of a child.  Cf. mater, pater, parent social.

commode: Cf. chez piercé.

common charge : a charge made to resemble some natural, artificial, or imaginary thing, such as a star, animal, tree, ship.  Cf. charges, honorable ordinary, subordinary.

common law : law based upon precedent rather than statute.  A circuit judge or seated justice often makes decisions on the basis of previous rulings, and draws his conclusions by comparing judicial opinions, and this procedure has been widely accepted in England and America.  Common law is based upon common sense, learning, and a sense of fairness, and a variety of common law is civil law.  Cf. civil law, canon law, criminal law, ecclesiastical law.

commonalty : commonry : the common people, people of the lower rank.

commoner : citizen, burgess, an ordinary person; a member of the town council; a member of the common class, normally ranking beneath gentlemen and nobles.

common-law marriage : cohabitation without any wedding ceremony; a de facto union of husband and wife, confirmed by the length of its endurance, but unconfirmed by any civil or church authority.  Governments and churches sometimes try to suppress irregular marriages, but common-law marriages nonetheless survive, and have often been acknowledged by judges and legislatures.  Cf. clandestine marriage, same-sex marriage.

commonry : commonalty : the commoners.

Commonwealth : mother of peace and leisure.[127]

commonweath : commonweal : a polity, an established form of civil life; a general body of the people, a republic.

communicant : a participant of the Eucharist, one who partakes of bread and wine at the Lord’ Supper.

communist : [1917] a Marxist-Leninist.

communist : [ante 1848] a social Utopian.

communist : [inde 1848] a social revolutionary.

communist : Stalinist.

community service : service or labor performed to discharge some debt or penalty.  Cf. corvée labor.

commutation : change, alteration, exchange, ransom, exchanging a corporal for some pecuniary punishment.

comother : Mo, MoAn, MoHe; lesbian stepmother; lesbian mother, coparent.

comp. : company.

compadrazgo : [Sp] godparenthood, a ritual kinship system practiced throughout Latin America.[128]

compadre : [Sp] godfather; friend.

companionate marriage : pair marriage; a marriage as a partnership of spouses, wherein the couple shares a common residence.[129]  Opp. visitational marriage.

companionate namesake : Cf. namesake.

company : [1596] a unit of 200 soldiers in Elizabethan times.

compar : alike, equal; comrade; lover, consort.

comparatives: confer.

compeer : compar : equal, companion.

compellation : the style of address; the word of salutation; an additional appellation.  Cf. lordship.

compendium : savings.  Cf. impendium, expen­sum, dispendium.

complementary filiation : the state of being bound to another lineage and clan through a parent; a characteristic peculiar to lineages and clans; deriving affections, emotions, and morals through the family of a parent who originated in another lineage or clan.[130]  Cf. filiation.

complex relationship : a specific kinship tie expressed as a denotative range of points, or primary kin types, and written in some abbreviated form, such as FaFaBrSoSo for paternal second cousin.  Cf. composite kin types, primary kin types, secondary kin types.

compline : bedtime, the seventh and final canonical hour; the seventh and last of seven daily services of Christian prayer.  Cf. canonical hours.

component : sexual component.

componential analysis : a formal analysis of kinship terms, initially based upon abbreviated primary kin types, but further reduced to acutely abbreviated notations, such as a+a○m=f, a series of symbols that represent sibling, parent, and child links (○, +, -), marriage bonds (=), and sex (m, f, a).  The expression a+a○m=f converts to Ch(ego) & PaBr & Wi, in primary kinship terms.  Persons of either sex may be represented by the letters a or x.[131]  Cf. kinship criteria.

componential analysis : Cf. kinship analysis.

composite kin types : abbreviations for kin types undifferentiated by sex, such as parent (Pa), spouse (Sp), in-law (La), sibling (Sb), and child (Ch).  Cf. determinants, kin types, primary kin types, secondary kin types.

compositive : [1400] compound; made of distinct parts.  A compositive person is a historical person who seems to represent two or more persons having the same or similar names.  A composite individual is a person who has been perhaps fictively invented by unwittingly combining disparate facts.  In most cases, an individual person cannot be called ‘composite’ in the real world, unless the adjective somehow connotes artificial limbs, transplanted organs, and the like.  However, in genealogy and history, it is fairly easy to confuse one person with another, especially when the facts of his life are few, or when facts pertaining to different lives have been collated together as one life.  Cf. fictive, genealogical adjectives.

compound family : a family consisting of three or more spouses and their children; a family wherein serial monogamy has created additional sibs of stepchildren.  Cf. extended family.  Opp. elementary family, nuclear family.

comprimo : to press together, for sexual gratification, as adolescents might do.  Cf. opprimo.  Cf. English method, intercrural copulation.

compt : [Lt] comitatus, county.

comté : [Fr] count.

con- : com-, cum, with, together.

con. : coniunx.

conacre : [Ir] the leasing of small plots usually less than one acre; the Irish practice of subdividing rented land among cottiers or landless peasants, who preferred to plant potatoes due to the higher yield.  Cf. gavelkind.

concatenation : a series of links, an uninterrupted succession.

concepta est : she was pregnant.  Cf. suscepto.

concido : to bang, beat; pedico.

concomitance: subsistence together with another thing.

concomitant : concomitans : concurrent with, conjoined with; companion, a person or thing collaterally connected.

concorporation : union in one mass.

concubinage : the act of living with a woman not married, the cohabitation of a man and a woman who are not legally married, the practice of having a concubine, the state of being a concubine; a long-term mateship formal enough to warrant residence rights and maintenance rights for the concubine or concubinator.  The offspring of such a relationship are usually disadvantaged, either relatively or absolutely, with respect to the offspring of a legal marriage, and therefore normally have no inheritance rights.[132]  Cf. connubia, contuberium, duxit in concubinatum, hetaira, three components of love.

concubinate : whoredom, fornication.

concubinati : concubines.

concubinatus : concubinage, a permanent connection without marriage which may or may not give rise to naturales liberi.

concubine : Cc : [feminine] usually a permanent or long-term sexual partner who is not the ego’s wife.  The offspring of a concubine normally do not enjoy the same rights as the offspring of a spouse (Sp).  Cf. concubitor.

concubine : concubina : Cc; a woman kept in fornication; strumpet; pælex, pellex, the mistress of a married man.  Jews in biblical times took female slaves as concubines.  The Chinese assigned to the offspring of a concubine the same status as the offspring of a wife.  Cf. concubitor, contubernine, pellex, spouse (Sp).  Opp. wedded wife.

concubini : Cc; slave boys acting as bedroom partners.

concubinus : Cc; a boy lover, usually a slave;[133] a passive male concubine.  Cf. berdache.

concubitor : Cc : [masculine] usually a permanent or long-term sexual partner who is not the ego’s husband.  The offspring of such a relationship normally have a lower status than the children by a spouse (Sp).  Cf. concubine.

concubitor : Cc; male consort; the masculine correlative of concubine.  The word may be used to denote a male lover, but it often connotes an exoletus, or an active male prostitute who might service both women and passive men.  The word has sometimes been mispelled as concubator.  Cf. arsenokoitai, concubine, Dahomey concubitor, Hercules and Omphale, Macouda, Nzingha concubitor.

concubitor: exoletus, active male concubine.[134]

concubitor of Omphale : Hercules.

concubitores : exoleti, active male concubines.  Cf. masculorum concubitores.

concubitores : masculorum concubitores, Saint Jerome’s translation of arsenokoitai [Gk].  Cf. arsenokoitai.

concubitus : to join together in the same room.

concubuit : he lay with.

concumbo : to lie or recline together at table, to lie and have intercourse with.

Condé : the Grand Condé.

condidit testamentum : made his Will.

condign : condignus : worthy of a person, suitable, deserved, merited.

condignity : merit, desert.

condition : conditio : quality, that by which anything may be denominated good or bad; attribute, accident, property; temper, natural quality of the mind; moral quality; virtue or vice.  A condition may be a stipulation of terms in a contract.

conditonal marriage : marriage with a prenuptial agreement.  In biblical times, marital contracts were designed to protect the weak and powerless bride.  Today, marriage contracts are written to protect the wealthy and powerful.

condito : condition, situation, agreement; marriage; married person.

condom : a prophylactic covering for the penis, used to prevent impregnation during sexual intercouse.  The Roman church classified sexual prophylaxis as sodomy in the Carolingian age, and therefore opposes all forms of birth control.  Cf. sodomy.

condonation : condonatio : pardoning, forgiving.

conduct : conductus : management, economy, the act of leading troops; exact behavior.

confarreatio : an ancient and solemn form of mar­riage among Romans at which panis farreus or spelt-cake was eaten.  Cf. coëmptio, usus.

confectus : destroyed, consumed.

Confed : Confederate States of America.

confederacy : confederation [Fr] : fædus [Lt] : a league, a contract by which several persons pledge to support one another; federal compact.

Confederate States of America : CSA : [1861-1865] the statehood created to challenge the federal sovereignty of the United States of America, during the War of 1861, later called the U.S. Civil War.  The extant military personnel records of the Confederacy are stored at NARA.

confer : cf. : [Lt] compare.  The contraction of confer (Cf.) precedes a list words related to the headword and associated concepts.  Confer is broad in meaning, and differs from the injunction vide ‘see’ in that it suggests a number of comparative words, many of which might not actually appear in the same chapter or work.  Cf. hyperlink, index entry, vide.

confession : the acknowledgement of a crime or sin; the religious practice of disburdening one’s conscience by making admissions of sinfulness to a priest; a formal avowal or profession of faith; a formulary for reciting the articles of faith.  Cf. test of conformity.

confidentorum catalogus : confession register.  Cf. catalogus.

confirmation : [Ir] an important rite of passage for an Irish Catholic youth, when close kindred give the youth gifts.  Cf. first communion.

confirmation : a rite supplemental to baptism, in some churches, such as the Presbyterian; the second public part of one’s induction to the church, an adult confession of faith made to complement the right of infant baptism.

confirmatorum catalogus : confirmation register.  Cf. catalogus.

confirmatum est igitur regnum in manu Salomonis, et adfinitate coniunctus est Pharaoni regi Aegypti, accepit namque filiam eius et adduxit in civitatem David ... : And Solomon made affinity with Pharaoh king of Egypt, and took Pharaoh’s daughter, and brought her into the city of David, ...[135]

confiscation of property : a typical penalty for conviction of sodomy, from the thirteenth century.  Cf. sodomy.

confraternity : brotherhood, body of men united for some purpose.

Confucius : Cf. descendants, tien-shih.

cóng : ts’ung : [Ch] to follow; an archaic term for paternal collaterals.

congenial : kindred, cognate, partaking of the same genus.

congenital : present from the time of birth.

conger : cunggr : congrus : [Lt] sea-eel.  The family le Strange purchased some quantity of Cunggr for 12d in 1519.[136]

cóngfă : [ad 300 antea] the old sib system in Chinese kinship.  The cóngfă system evolved into the shìzú, the modern sib organization.[137]  The old sib system was based upon cross-cousin marriage.[138]  Cf. cross-cousin marriage, FaSiSo marriage, MoBrDa marriage, shìzú.

Congoids : one of the five races; the peoples of central Africa, namely the Pygmies and Negroes.  Cf. races.

Congregationalism : [1832] a church government that operates by consent and election.

Congregationalists : [1639] a sect of Nonconformists that arose from the Independents.  Congregationalists believed that an assembly of a local congregation was the highest form of church authority, and that local churches should be autonomous, or free of both Prelaty and Papism.  Cf. Dissenter.

Congregationalists : [inde 1715] a New Dissenter sect; a Nonconformist sect of Protestant Dissenters that grew stronger in the wake of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion.  Cf. Dissenter.

conical clan : ramage, a unilineal descent group with its segments ranked hierarchically, such that the uppermost segments are less numerous than the extensive segments at the bottom.  Cf. ramage.

coniugal : [It] married.

coniugata : she married.

coniugem dedit : he gave in marriage.

coniugium : union, marriage, wedlock.  Cf. marriage, matrimonium, nuptiæ, conubium.

coniunctio adfinitatis : relationship by marriage.

coniunctio sanguinis : blood relationship.

coniunctus : connected by blood or marriage or friendship.

coniungo : to join in intercourse.  Cf. iungo.

coniunx : [masculine, feminine] spouse, partner in marriage, consort; [frequently] wife.

coniunx : [rare] husband, intended wife, bride; mate, partner; yoke-fel­low; linked in a pair.

coniunx : Sp, Hu, Wi; spouse, husband, wife.

coniunx consors : [Lt] Sp, Ph, Er, An, He; a domestic partner living as a consort.

coniunx socius : [Lt] a domestic partner residing with another, but not engaged in a sexual relationship.

coniunx socius et consors : domestic partnership.

conj. : conjunction.  Cf. coniunx.

conjugal : matrimonial.

conjugate : conjugo : to join, to join in marriage.

conjugation : couple, pair, the act of uniting things together; union, assemblage.

conjugatorum catalogus : marriage register.  Cf. catalogus.

conjugium : [Lt] marriage, wedlock; Hu; husband.

conjunction : a connective word or symbol that joins two terms as a pair.  E.g. A &B, A +B.  Cf. copula.

conjunx : coniunx : Wi; wife.

conjux : coniunx : Wi; wife.

conlactus : Cf. homogalactes.

Conn. : CT : Connecticut.

connascence : common birth, being produced together with another being.

connate : born with another, of the same birth as another.

connection : union, junction; someone closely connected by any means, including kinship, affinity, concubinage, friendship, association, et cetera.  Connection is the just relation to something precedent or subsequent. Cf. concubinatus, permanent connection.  Opp. relative, relation.  Generally, connection means someone closely connected by kinship, affinity, adoption, fostership, title, function, or friendship. Whereas a relative might be expected to have familial or legal ties with the subject, a connection would be someone less formally connected than a relative, but probably closer than the subject’s agnatic, cognatic, or affined relations.

connubiage : connubium.  Cf. gynē, three components of love.

connubial : matrimonial, nuptial, hymeneal, pertaining or suitable to marriage.

connubiality : connubial state or condition, the practice or right of marrying

connubine : Sp; spouse, husband, wife.  Cf. concubine, contubernine.

connubium : affinal alliance.[139]

connubium : connubiage : marriage; intermarriage; marital right.  The legal power to contract marriage, presuming citizenship, puberty, and paternal consent.  Legal mar­riage of a male citizen who will be patriarch sui iuris of all his descendants through males.  Cf. commer­cium, contubernium.  Opp. contubernium, or the promiscuous inter­course and the union of slaves.

conquinisco : to squat, bend over for sex.  Cf. ocquinisco.

consanguine ties of kinship : biological ties.  Opp. affinal ties.

consanguinea : female related by blood.

consanguineal relationship : the biological link between parents and their natal children.  Opp. affinal relation.

consanguineal relatives : people who are connected to one another by common ancestry and links of the whole blood or half blood.

consanguinei : relatives, kindred.

consanguinei : the Latin plural for consanguineal or blood relatives.

consanguines : cognates.  The term consanguines suggests blood relationship, and may not be appropriate in a society that does not recognize blood as the basis for the relationship in question.  Cf. cognates.

consanguineus : male related by blood, brotherly, sis­terly, consanguineous, near of kin, of the same blood.

consanguinité : [Fr] consanguinity.

consanguinity : relation by birth, blood relationship, kinship; descent from a common ancestor.  Opp. affinity.

consecratus : he was consecrated (as bishop).

consensus : the consent of spouses to marry one another.

consensus facit nuptias : unanimity makes mar­riages.

conservatory: a place where anything is kept in a manner befitting its peculiar nature.  The conservatory is often a hothouse for plants, sometimes used as a music room.

conservus : fellow slave.

consign : consigno : to give to another in some formal manner, to transfer.

consignation : the act of consigning, or signing.

consistory : place of justice in a Christian court, the assembly of cardinals; place of residence.

consobrina : MoSiDa; sobrina, female maternal cousin-german, daughter of maternal aunt.  Maternal cousin, cousin-german.  Cf. sobrina.

consobrini : sobrini, cousins-german, first cousins.

consobrinus : MoSiSo; sobrinus, male maternal cousin-german, son of maternal aunt.  Cf. patruelis, sobrinus.

consort : Cf. marry, mate, partner.

consort: consors : companion, partner, a partner of the bed; spouse, mate; wife, husband; assembly; concurrence, union.

consorte : consort.

consortes : colleagues.

consortia : acts of human intercourse, which are divisible into three orders of mateship and marriage, namely connubiage, concubinage, and contubernage.

consortion : society, fellowship.

consortium : partnership, association.

consortship : partnership, fellowship.

constable : constabularius : officer of the stable, the warden or governor of a royal castle, an ancient officer of the crown caring for the peace of the land in deeds of arms and matters of war.  The office of constable continued through the reign of Henry VIII, but was thereafter discontinued.  Cf. marshal, honor constabulariæ.

constableship : the office of constable.

constablewick : the district a constable controls.

Constantia : Constance.

constitutum : appointment; something upon which two or more parties have arranged, settled, or agreed.  Cf. pensum, task.

construxit : he constructed.

constupration : violation, defilement, debauchery; rape.

constupro : Cf. strupro.

consul : [Lt] the chief magistrate in the Roman republic.  A consul was appointed in foreign lands to act as judge of disputes between merchants of his own nation, and to protect the freedom of their commerce.

consultate : the office of consul.

consumerism : acquisitive activity.[140]  Cf. profit-making enterprise.

consumption : tuberculosis of the lungs; the act of consuming; waste; the state of wasting or perishing.  Cf. galloping consumption.

cont. : continued; contract.

contact : contactus : tactus, touch, close union; correspondent, associate; the name of a correspondent presented together with his addresses and numbers.  A contact is a person for whom one customarily performs tasks, with whom one sometimes schedules appointments, by whom one contracts services, through whom one purchases merchandise, or to whom one sells something.  Cf. appointment, task.

contactus : infection.

contagion : contagio : infection, the communication or emission of diseases from one body to another; pestilence, the propagation of disease; the propagation of mischief.

contea : [It] county.

contemporary : concurrent; coëxisting, existing at the same time; the state of a person, event, or record in the past sharing the same or approximate age with another.

contemporary respect : a feature of matrism, which stresses respectful behavior among living persons, rather than the dead.  Members of living generations tend to venerate goddesses, or aspects of the Godhead made manifest in the present world.  Cf. Goddess.  Opp. ancestor veneration, God.

contr : contract; contraction; contrast.

contra- : counter-, against, opposite.  This prefix is uncommon in Latin, but quite common in English.

contra naturam : [1900] against nature; a euphemism for anal intercourse.  The phrase is based upon Saint Jerome’s mistranslation of the Greek paraphysein ‘beyond the physical.’  Cf. para physein.

contraband : contrabando : prohibited, illegal; illegal traffick.

contraception : a measure taken to prevent pregnancy, either before or after sexual intercourse.  The customary method was coitus interruptus, but Tudor subjects also used spermicides and abortifacients.[141]

contract : contractus : to draw into less compass, to lessen, to draw the parts of a thing together; to betroth, affiance; to procure, bring, incur; to epitomize, abridge.

contract : the autonomous privilege of freely entering into agreements with others.  This is a modern concept of personal freedom, which has largely superseded kinship status.  Cf. social order.  Opp. status.

contract ticket : [1877] A contract ticket for transportation from Liverpool to New York in 1877, costing 4, 5, or 6 guineas (equivalent to perhaps $20, $25, or $30 dollars, provided each holder with a weekly ration of 20 quarts of water, 3-1/2 pounds of bread, one pound of wheat flour, 1-1/2 pounds of oatmeal, rice, and beans, 2 pounds of potatos, 1-1/4 pounds of beef, 1 pound of pork, 2 ounces of tea, 1 pound of sugar, 2 ounces of salt, paper, mustard, and vinegar.  Emigrants were expected to provide their own bedding and cooking utensils.  Cf. steerage passengers.

contraction : an abbreviation of a common word that properly shows the first and last letters.  According to English rules of orthography, a contraction needs no following period (.), because it expresses the termination, or the final letter or letters of the word.  British correspondents often preserve this rule by writing Mister and Mistress with no period as Mr and Mrs, whereas Americans ignore the rule and normally use the period, treating Mr. and Mrs. they were ordinary abbreviations instead of contractions.

contrariumst : at opposite ends of the body.

contrasexuality : homosexuality.

contuberna : [plural] unions among slaves.

contubernage : contubernium : union of slaves, promiscuous in­tercourse.  Contubernage literally signifies sex inside a tent, for the base word -tubern- represents a small shack, dwelling, or tent, and is related to our words tavern and tabernacle.  This is a third-class consortium, because it ranks below both concubinage and connubium, or legal marriage.  Cf. concubinage, commercium, pornē, three components of love.  Opp. connubium.

contubernator : Ct : [masculine] a male sexual partner outside the domus.  Cf. concubinator.

contubernator : Ct; a male consort.  Cf. concubitor.

contubernine : Ct : [feminine] a female sexual partner outside the domus.  Cf. concubine.

contubernine : Ct : Cf. spouse (Sp).

contubernium : contubernage.

contus : penis.

convergent lineages : unilineal and fragmentary descents that may be classed together, by reason of proximity in time and space.  A line may be called convergent, as opposed to divergent, because the ramage it seems to express is supposed to suggest common ancestry.

conversi : the converted.  Cf. oblati.

conveyance : the delivery of one peerage to another peerage.

conveyancer : one whose business is the draw­ing of deeds, leases, or other writings for transferring the title to prop­erty.  Cf. baliff.

conye : conus [Lt] : [En] hare, game of the forest, valued at 2d in 1519.[142]  The Latin conus means ‘gray, hoary.’  Translators often confuse hares and rabbits, for they are species of the same genus.  Contexts would seem to suggest that the English word conye corresponded to the larger, gray hare inhabiting a forest, whereas a rabbit was the smaller animal running on a chase.  Cf. game, hare, rabbit.

cook : coquus : one who professes to know how to dress and prepare victuals.

coöperative : [1603] marked by neighborliness and coöperation; characteristic of the willingness and ability to work together.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

coöperative : [1883] owned and operated by those who benefit from a service organization or business.

coöptive : [1651] chosen or elected as a member; appointed as an assistant or colleague.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

coöptive : coöptative: [1651] collateral and contemporary; taken into a group, culture, movement, or faction; assimilated or absorbed into a group. Cf. genealogical adjectives.

coparent : [1987] gay or lesbian parent; the lover of a biological parent; one of a gay or lesbian couple that has adopted a child.

coparenthood : the status of a same-sex couple raising children in a manner correlative to an elementary family.

coparenting agreement : a civil contract between same-sex spouses expressing agreement with respect to natal or adoptive children.

copartner : one who has a share in some common stock or affair; one equally concerned.

copartnership : the state of being an equal part, or possessing an equal share.

cope : a semicircular piece of cloth or silk that an ecclesiastic wears at vespers, or in processions, or on other solemn occasions.

Copernicus : [1543] author of De revolutionibus orbum Coelestium.  The concept of the planets circling the sun was long supressed and condemned by the Roman church, and did not find wide acceptance until the eighteenth century.

Cophgn. : Copenhagen, Denmark.

copper, or pottery : 9th year of marriage; symbol of the ninth wedding anniversary.

coprophila : [1923] the use of feces or filth for sexual excitement.  Cf. scat.

copula : a verb or juxtaposed word signifying the equivalence of two terms.  When fully expressed in colloquial English, a copula will articulated as ‘is,’ or ‘is equal to,’ or ‘is the same as.’  Latin does not require any medial verb between the two terms, and expresses equivalence by simply juxtaposing two words in the same grammatical case, usually nominative.  E.g., A =B, A : B.  Cf. conjunction.

copulata fuit : she was connected by blood or mar­riage, she was associated by nature.

copulation : the congress of the two sexes; the embrace of loving individuals; sexual intercourse between the male and female of a species, specifically the insertion of the penis into the vagina.  Copulation may also refer to sexual intercourse between two males.  Cf. pseudocopulation, penis-fencing, scrotal rubbing, genito-genital rubbing.

copulatorum catalogus : marriage register.  Cf. catalogus.

copulatum canum : dog-like copulation : mounting from behind in dorsal intercourse.  Literally, the term refers to copulation in the manner of a dog (canum).  Due to their genital orientations, male chimpanzees, gibbons, gorillas, and orangutans must mount their females from behind.

copulatum hominum : human-like copulation : missionary position : face-to-face copulation : frontal intercourse typical among humans and bonobos.  This sexual position is unique to humans and bonobos, and has often been called the missionary position, because ecclesiastics instructed Christians to always have sex in this position.  Perhaps one third of all bonobo acts of sexual copulation are frontal, whereas two-thirds of bonobo acts of intercourse are dorsal.  Other primates and mammals have genital orientations which happen to favor dorsal intercourse, but which prevent frontal intercourse.

copulerede : [Dn] married.

copyhold: holding a copy of the court roll; a tenure which the tenant proves by showing his copy of the rolls made by the steward of his lord’s lands.  Cf. entry fine, finis duplex.

copyholder : one who possesses land in copyhold.

copyright : the property held by an author or his assignee in some literary work.

coquetry : affection for amorous advances; the desire of attracting attention.

coquette : coquette : [Fr] a gay, airy girl; a woman who endeavors to attract attention.

cor- : com-, cum, with, together.

cor. : coronante : [It] crowned.

coral : 35th year of marriage; symbol of the thirty-fifth wedding anniversary.

Coram Rege : King’s Bench Courts.

Corance : Corinth, Greece.  Cf. currant, raisin of Corinth.

coranto : a variety of the galliard dance in which the dancers performed the five-step with swift and gliding movements.  A coranto ends the play Much Ado about Nothing.  Cf. galliard, lavolta.

Coraunte : Corinth, Greece.  Cf. currant, raisin of Corinth.

corbel grotesques : gargoyles.

cord- : heart.

cordi esse : to be to a person’s liking.

coresidence : local contiguity, territorial cohesion.  It was once believed that kinship systems evolved into social and political solidarity within a certain locality or territory.  Nowadays, this view has changed, and anthropologists believe that coresidence and kinship are concomitant characteristics that affect one another mutually or reciprocally, and simultaneously.[143]

coresident group : a clan consisting of lineage mates and their spouses.

Corinea : Cornwall.

Corinth : Corance : Courante : Corinth, Greece.  Cf. currant, raisin of Corinth.

corked shoes : shoes with cork inserts, used to elevate the wearer’s heels.

corn : [Sx] grain, wheat, barley; seeds that grow in ears rather than pods; the ears of grain used to make bread.  Medieval speakers in the Old World always intended corn to mean grain, but modern speakers typically use the word corn as denoting the hybrid plants indigenous to America which we today call sweet corn, feed corn, Indian corn, or variegated corn.

corn taker :  a taker of corn in Salop (Shropshire), Norfolk, and Cambridgeshire.[144]

Corn. : Cornwall.

corna : horn, penis.

cornage: cornage : [Fr] a tenure which requires the landholder to sound a horn whenever he enters the tenure.

Cornuallia : Cornwall.

Cornubia : Cornwall.

Cornwall: Corn. : Cernualia : Corinea : Cornuallia : Cornubia : Curnualia : Occidua Wallia.

corolla : [1753] petals; the diminutive of corona ‘crown.’  The corolla denotes the petals of a flower, or the inner floral envelope of a flower, which surrounds the sporophylls.  Cf. calyx.

corollarium : bonus, corollary.

coronation : the act of solemnly crowning a king or queen; the pomp or assembly that attends a coronation.

coroner : corona : an officer who enquires on behalf of the king as to how any violent death has been occasioned.  A coroner’s investigation often leads to the impaneling of a jury for the purpose of indictment and prosecution.

coronet : an inferior crown worn by the nobility; an ornamental headdress.

corp- : corpor- : corpus- : body.

corp. : corporal.

corpor- : corp- : corpus- : body.

corpora : sexual organ; a term used 28 times by Ovid.

corporal : caporal : [Fr] the lowest infantry officer.

corporate descent group : a corporation or moral personhood that never dies, because its membership is continually renewed through the recruitment of new members by their rights of birth within the descent group.

corporate group : a functional body of confederates that maintains in perpetuity some rules of membership, certain norms, and major economic, political, or religious functions.  A corporate group may be absent of any affinal or consanguineal ties, but it usually has some features that resemble those of lineages and clans, such as totems, trademarks, and symbols.  Lineages and clans are corporate groups characterized by emotions and affections concomitant with affinity and kinship.

corporation aggregate : the constituent members of an organization, such as a dean and his chapter, or a mayor and his commonalty.[145]

corporation sole : a sole proprietorship.

corps : [Fr] a body.

corpse : a dead body, a contemptuous term for a body.

corpus : body; corpse; flesh, substance.

corpus- : corpor- : corp- : body.

corpus comitatus : revenues for which the Sheriffs com­pounded.

Corpus Juris Canonici : Canon Law.

correlative : [1530] corresponding; equivalent; naturally related; reciprocally related.  The word correlative is most often used in defining vocabulary items, to link or associate two words or ideas that express concepts that may be related and similar in usage, but might be quite different in meaning.  For example, mother might be called the female correlative of father.  The adjective correlative sometimes refers to two elements or items that regularly appear in the same context, but which seldom appear adjacent to one another, or juxtaposed, such as the pair of conjunctions either … or.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

correptus apoplexia : overcome by apoplexy.[146]

correspond : to suit, answer; to keep up commerce by exchanging letters.

correspondence : relation, reciprocal adaptation of one thing to another; intercourse; friendship.

corroboration : an act of strengthening or confirming.

corsair : corsare [It] : pirate, a pirate vessel.

cortezia : [Sp] courtly love.

corvée : corrogatus [Lt] : [1500 Fr] pertaining to labor a feudal vassal owes his lord.

corvée labor : statute labor; unpaid or thankless labor required of a vassal; labor exacted in lieu of monetary taxes by a public authority; road or highway construction or repair ordered by a government and performed by unpaid subjects.  Cf. community service.

Corydon : Cf. Alexis and Corydon.

cos. : counties; consul.

coscinomancy : [Gk] the art of divination by means of a sieve.

cosinage : cousinage : cousins.  Cf. assize of cosinage.

cosm- : [Gk] universe, order.

Cosmic Christ : the Anointed Many; the recognition of divinity in each individual, rather than in the historical Christ alone.  Cf. Christ.

cosmo- : [Gk] universe, mundus, rerum universitas, rerum natura.

cosmography : [Gk] the science of the general system of the world.

coss. : consules, consuls.

costiveness : constipation.

cosyn : cousin.  About 1537, Anne le Strange refered to her son-in-law’s brother, Sir Richard Southwell, as "my cosyn."

cottage : hut, cot.

cotterels : mercenaries.

cottier : [Ir] a landless peasant who leased his land in Ireland, and usually leased something less than one acre.[147]

cotton : 1st year of marriage; symbol of the first wedding anniversary.

Cotytto : [Phrygian] the Phrygian deity variously worshipped, sometimes by male androphiles, and sometimes by female gynecophiles.[148]

couchant : laying down, squatting.

cougar : Cf. coyote.

Council of Elvira: [ad 305] the Spanish congregation that decided to deny communion to homosexual men even at the hour of death.[149]

Council of Jerusalem : [ad 49] an assembly that determined that pagan converts to Christianity would not be obliged to observe any of the strictures of Mosaic law, except for four rules.  The Christians determined that pagans would be required to observe only four Mosaic prohibitions against (1) idolatry, (2) pollution by blood, (3) pollution by bodies strangled to death, and (4) fornication.

Council of London : [1102] the assembly that issued a conciliar edict to inform the public that all future acts of sodomy should be confessed as sins.  Saint Anselm, then the Archbishop of Canterbury, instructed Archdeacon William that publication of the decree should be prohibited, because sodomy was already an ubiquitous practice.  Saint Anselm urged that the populace be educated in the seriousness of the sin.[150]

Council of Trent : [1546] the Roman conclave that fixed the contents of the Roman canon of the Bible.

Council of Vienne : [1311] the Christian assembly that deemed guilty of heresy anyone who held usury to be a practice free of sin.  It recommended that usurers be remanded to the Inquisition.[151]  The Council voted against the abolition of the Templars, because it could not confirm any of the charges.

couns. : counsellor.

count : comte : [Fr] a title of foreign or continental nobility equivalent to an earl in England; earl.

count palantine : a high officer of an imperial court who is sometimes granted sovereign powers and royal prerogatives within his own county; an earl or count closely tied to the royal court; a count with palatine connections.  Cf. palantine.

counterfeit sterlings : Cf. sterlings.[152]

counterfesance : contrefaisance : [Fr] the act of counterfeiting, forgery.

counterpane : countrepointe, bedspread; an embroidered quilt.

countess : [address] The right Honorable the Countess of ——; [salutation] Madam; [reference] Your Ladyship.  Cf. earl.

counting by sixties (60s) : [Ba] sexagesimal reckoning.

counting by tens (10s) : [Ba] decimal reckoning.

counting glúin : Cf. réidhteach gaol.

county : [1888 En] administrative county, an administrative division formed under the Local Government Act of 1888.  Parliament transferred administrative functions to the newly formed counties, but did not change any judicial jurisdictions.

county : [1974 En] a division conforming to the boundaries fixed by Parliament in 1974.

county : [Am] a subdivision of a state; the largest division of local government in all states except Louisiana, where an equivalent division is called a parish.

county : [ante 1975 Sc] one of the 33 civil counties into which Scotland was formerly divided.  Parliament consolidated many Scottish counties into regions in 1975.

county : a county sharing coterminous borders with a duchy, such as Cornwall or Shetland.

county : comitatus : com. : a subdivision of a state.

county : comitatus [Lt] : shire [Sx] : Co. : ct. : com. : an old Anglo-Saxon political division, the boundaries of which were determined the region’s geography and natural features.

county corporate : corporate county, municipality; a large and populous city or collection of towns separated from a county and made into an independent entity having its own county organization.

county palatine : the dominion of a count palatine or earl palatine.  The English crown sometimes licensed the earls of Chester and Lancaster to enjoy royal or sovereign powers within their own counties, and these earls palatine had exclusive jurisdictions over civil and criminal proceedings within their borders.  Palatine prerogatives and privileges no longer exist.

county-at-large : a county with indistinct or irregular borders; a large division of land originally based on geographic criteria, but later distorted in shape by fluctuations caused by inheritance, forfeiture, changing allegiences, and new tenancies.  County maps of England from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries usually show small regions that belonged one county, but were oddly located inside the borders of another county.  Parliament gradually eliminated such permutations through redistricting, and finally instituted major changes in the political map of the United Kingdom in 1974 and 1975.

coupé : [Fr] a divided shield.

couple : [Fr] a chain or tie that hold dogs together; two; a brace.

couple : Sp & Sp; Hu & Wi; Hu & Cc, Hu & Ct; Ph & Er; An & He; a man and his sexual partner; a woman and her sexual consort.  The concepts of fatherhood, affinity, and legitimacy are all man-made inventions that depend upon human artifice and ceremony.  Customarily, we list paired or mated couples by noting the names of husbands and wives, men and boys, men and concubines, or men and slaves.  In Western cultures, the females have been the migrating sex, so they have always been defended by their fathers and husbands, but their private relationships have seldom been recorded in any public way.  Cf. heterosexual couples, inventions, same-sex couples.

couplement : union.

couples : Cf. heterosexual couples, same-sex couples.

coupling : a junction, junction in embrace.

cours- : cur- : curr- : curs- : to run, go.

coursing : the Norman bloodsport of chasing hares with teams of greyhounds.  Perhaps one-sixth of the hares are killed, but some five-fifths surviving, for the main objective is to exercise and train the greyhounds, not expressly to kill the hares.  The practice of coursing conflicts with Celtic custom, for the Celts held the hare to be sacred, and thought the hare to be an animal manifestation of a witch.

coursing field : a warren where hares are coursed.

court : [Sx] the place where a prince resides; palace; the hall or chamber where justice is administered; open space before a house.

court docket : trial docket.

Court of Common Pleas : a court wherein common law was placed in the hands of judges and their assigned posi­tions, the most impor­tant of which were the sergeants, who enjoyed exclusive right of audience.  The position of barrister was not improved until other courts, especially the King’s and Exchequer, enlarged their jurisdictions.[153]

court of guard : a tree bench; a set of four benches built around a tree or flowerbed, to protect the enclosure from human intrusion, and to provide a spot for restful vantage.

court of law : House of Lords, for trials of peers and im­peachments; a court of suitors.

courtesan : courtezan : courtisane [Fr] a woman of the town.

courtesy : courtoisie : [Fr] elegance of manners, civility; an act of civility or respect; tenure not by right but by the favor of others; the reverence made by women.

courtier : he who woos or solicits women.

courtly love : cortezia [Sp] : [1200] a pattern of courtship wherein a man cultivates an obsessively passionate love for some unattainable, noble lady, and then uses his extramarital love as a motive for writing poetry and songs, and as a cause for adventuring on quests undertaken on behalf of his love.  This medieval and feudalistic demonstration of passionate longing probably derived from the master and mistress worship of Rome, and it was surely analogous to goddess worship, or the worship of Saint Mary the Virgin.  Courtly love gave rise to legends of chivalry, and began the code of chivalry.  The detached pining became the basis for what we now call romantic love.  Cf. troubadour.

courts : county courts.[154]

courts : King’s Bench Exchequer.

courts : seignorial courts.[155]

Courts of Equity : Chancery, Star Chamber, and Court of Requests.   The permanent cleri­cal establishment rou­tinely performed attorney duties; but they needed agents to accomplish quasi-legal work, both legal and business in nature.  Thus, solicitors became business agents (1500), and eventually won their place beside attorneys (1700).

courtship : the act of soliciting favor; the solicitation of a woman to marry; civility; elegance of manners.

cous. : cousin.

cous-i-l : [En abbreviation] cousin-in-law.

cousin : [1600] a term used to refer to one’s peer, such as a sovereign would use to refer to an­other sovereign.[156]

cousin: [Ir] a continental, classificatory term known to the Irish, but seldom used.  The word cousin is treated as a foreign word by the Irish, who prefer to use descriptive terms.  Cf. our fathers were brothers.

cousin : a collateral relative outside the ego’s direct line of descent.  English speakers tend to use the word cousin as a term of reference, but seldom use it in direct address.  Cf. terminology of reference.

cousin : consobrinus : MoSiCh; sobrinus, the child of a mother’s sister.  Cf. patruelis.

cousin : cous. : cousine : [1400 Fr] PaSbCh, FaBrCh, MoSiCh, FaSiCh, MoBrCh; relative; son or daughter of an uncle or aunt; anyone collaterally related more remotely than a brother or sister; kinsman; cugino germano, cugino, cugina [It].  Some kinship systems permit marriage between cousins, but other systems consider cousins as belonging to the same class as siblings, and therefore prohibit cousin marriage.  Cf. classificatory terminology, cousin-german, descriptive terminology, first cousin, full cousin, kissing cousin.  Cf. nepotin, neptine.

Cousin : der Cousin : [Gm] male cousin.

cousin : FaBrCh; patruelis, the child of a father’s brother.  Cf. consobrinus.

cousin marriage : a sexual union of cousins.  The Anglicans happen to permit marriages between persons as close as paternal first cousins, but many societies prohibit such marriages, by deeming them to be incestuous or excessively patrilineal.  When cousin marriage does occur, it tends to be cross cousin marriage, rather than parallel cousin marriage, for it often represents sister exhange over two or more generations.[157]

cousinage : cosinage : cousins.

cousinage : cousinship.

Cousine : die Cousine : [Gm] female cousin.

cousin-german : patruelis, an especially close cousin, normally a first cousin or full cousin, or the son or daughter of one’s uncle or aunt.  A cousin-german is usually an agnate, or a parallel cousin of the same patrilineage to which the ego belongs, so the term connotes a contradistinction with maternal cousins and cross cousins.

cousin-in-law : cous-i-l : an affined cousin, having no blood relation with the proband; the spouse of a cousin; the relative of one’s spouse.

cousin-in-law : the spouse of one’s blood cousin.  Opp. cousin-outlaw.

cousin-outlaw : the same-sex lover of one’s cousin.  Cf. inlaw, outlaw.  Opp. cousin-in-law.

cousinship : cousinage.

coute : coudière : [Fr] an elbow-piece for a suit of armor.

couvade : male childbed; a male pretension of birth pangs; a word derived from couver ‘to hatch.’  The couvade is a period during which a husband imitates the confinement of his wife, by spending time in bed and pretending to endure the birth pangs and discomforts of a pregnant woman.  Marco Polo reported the practice as a feature of the mountain tribe Miau-tse.  Nymphodorus reported it as prevalent among the Scythians at the Black Sea, Strabo said that it was practiced by the Celtic Iberians of Spain, and Diodorus said it was practiced by the Corsicans.  On Cyprus, the couvade was an annual ritual during the feast of Aphrodite, which was performed by a handsome youth, and was unconnected to any specific wife or childbirth.[158]  The custom has been noted in Africa, India, China, Brazil, Siberia, and the Malay archipelago.

coven number of thirteen : the 13 witches who constitute a coven.  Cf. Penthesilea, Sappho’s lovers.

covenant marriage : [1996] an example of fundmentalist and papist tripe.  Covenant marriage is a modern, conservative notion that society should increase the statutory obligations and burdens of marriage, and escalate the penalties for divorce.  Proponents of retrogressive and severe marriage rules are profoundly contemptuous, or ignorant, of the historical milestones such as civil marriage (1653), civil rights (1789), and universal suffrage (1920).  Cf. family values, rhetoric, universal suffrage.

covenant marriage : [1997 LA] a strict form of marriage purposely made difficult to dissolve.  Louisiana’s Marriage Law (1997) requires a 2-year separation prior to the dissolution of a covenant marriage, but requires proof of adultery, abandonment, or physical abuse for any earlier divorce.  Louisiana’s law was designed to eliminate ‘no-fault’ divorce, and to return the institution of marriage to the realm of patrism.  Opp. desertion, no-fault divorce, rhetoric.

cow : bo [Ir], buwch [We].  Cf. cattle.

Cowardice : mother of cruelty.[159]

cowel : [1519/10/16] cowl.

co-wife : one of a couple or several wives having the same husband in polygyny.

cowl : [Sx] a monk’s hood; a cloth vessel for carrying water, supported by a pole held by two carriers.

cowl : cowel : [1519/10/16] a hood.

Cowper’s glands : [1738] the two small glands that discharge lubricating precum into the male uretha during sexual excitement.  The name stands for the English surgeon William Cowper (obiit 1709).  Cf. Bartholin’s glands.

coxim : squatting on one’s haunches.

coyote : [Okanagon, WA] the symbol of the great trickster god among the southern Okanagon of Washington.  When the coyote left the cougar’s house disguised as a woman, his emergence would begin a cycle of ritualistic cross-dressing.

coz : a cant word for cousin.[160]

[77] Brian de Breffney 1982:  191.

[78] HHA 1520.

[79] Davis 1924:  276.

[80] Gurney, 561.9.

[81] HHA 1519.

[82] Leland:  5.11.173.

[83] Adams 1982:  175.

[84] HL:  208.

[85] Schusky 1972:  90.

[86] Black 1891:  236.

[87] Article by Dr. Karl Skorecki, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, in the journal Lancet.  New York Times, 1997/1/19:  4.  Ptak 1995, edition 1997:  10.

[88] Leland, 1.237.

[89] Arensberg 1968:  80.

[90] Ariès & Duby:  1.189.

[91] Ariès & Duby:  1.24.

[92] Ariès & Duby:  1.114.

[93] Donaldson 1901:  152.  Oestmann 1994:  91.

[94] Donaldson 1901:  152.  Oestmann 1994:  91.

[95] Donaldson 1901:  152.  Oestmann 1994:  91.

[96] Donaldson 1901:  152.  Oestmann 1994:  91.

[97] Donaldson 1901:  152.  Oestmann 1994:  91.

[98] James Donaldson, The Roller Mill & Silo Manual, Liverpool, 1901:  152.  Oestmann 1994:  91.

[99] HL:  219.

[100] Plucknett 1956:  510.

[101] Ariès & Duby:  1.73.

[102] Exodus, 20.3.

[103] Deuteronomy, 5.7.

[104] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[105] Exodus, 20.4.

[106] Deuteronomy, 5.8.

[107] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[108] Exodus, 20.7.  Deuteronomy, 5.11.

[109] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[110] Exodus, 20.8.

[111] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[112] Deuteronomy, 5.14.

[113] Exodus, 20.16.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[114] Deuteronomy, 5.20.

[115] Exodus, 20.12.

[116] Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[117] Exodus, 20.13.  Deuteronomy, 5.17.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[118] Exodus, 20.14.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[119] Deuteronomy, 5:18.

[120] Exodus, 20.15.  Graves 1948, edition 1966:  471.

[121] Deuteronomy, 5:19.

[122] Exodus, 20.17.

[123] Deuteronomy, 5.21.

[124] Exodus, 20.1-17.  Deuteronomy, 5.6-21.  King James Version (KJV).

[125] Exodus, 34.14-26.

[126] Shakespeare, quoted by Johnson.

[127] Hobbes, Leviathan, 4.46.267.

[128] Schusky 1972:  8.

[129] Hunt 1956:  349.

[130] Parkin 1997:  35.  Schusky 1972;  29.

[131] Goodenough 1956b.  Schusky 1972:  56-58.

[132] Parkin 1997:  44.

[133] Eglinton 1964:  223.

[134] Boswell 1980:  348.

[135] 1 Kings, 3.1.

[136] HHA 1519.

[137] Feng 1937:  267.

[138] Feng 1937:  268.

[139] Parkin 1997:  99.

[140] Webber edited by Parsons, 1947:  196.

[141] R.V. Schnucker, “Elizabethan Birth Control an Puritan Attitudes,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 1974-1975:  5.656-658.  Oestmann 1994:  178.

[142] HHA 1519.

[143] Schusky 1972:  90.

[144] HL:  207.

[145] Davis 1924:  616.

[146] Leland:  5.11.227.

[147] William L. Strong 1996.

[148] Grahn 1990:  130.

[149] Boswell 1980:  179.

[150] Boswell 1980:  215.

[151] Boswell 1980:  276.

[152] HL:  316, 331.

[153] Plucknett 1956:  234.

[154] Plucknett 1956:  233.

[155] Plucknett 1956:  233.

[156] Plucknett 1956:  361.

[157] Schusky 1972:  64-65.

[158] Diner 1965:  114.

[159] Montaigne, 2.27.334-339.

[160] Shakespeare, quoted by Johnson.


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