Arapacana Press

Mailing List | Guest Book | Contact | Links
B.J. Way's Family Tree | Sitemap

The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


Pr : [IGI] printout number.  Cf. Ba, Batch Number.

PR : P.R. : Puerto Rico.

Pr. : prætor.

præ- : pre-, before, in front, forth; very.

praecipe : writs of praecipe.[118]

præco : herald.

prædium : [1529] landed property; real estate.

Praef. : præfectus, prefect.

prægnans : pregnant.

prægnantem esse : to be pregnant.  Cf. gravida.

prænomen : first name, prename, forename; the personal Roman name that appears first, before the nomen and cognomen.

præpostera venus : [1900] a euphemism for anal intercourse.

præputium : foreskin.  Cf. cucutium.

prætexta : free-born adolescent.[119]

prætor peregrinus : a magistrate appointed to adjudge suits in which non-citizens were parties.

pramantha : [Sk] one who kindles fire by violent rubbing.  The word specifically refers to the male fire log as a phallic symbol.  The drilled piece of wood, placed under the pramantha for starting the fire, is likened to the vulva, and serves as the female counterpart needed for creating fire.  The Indian word has been associated with Prometheus.  Carl Jung also compared the words with pramathyus, meaning ‘robber’ or ‘one who robs.’[120]  Cf. △ the ascending triangle (fire), ▽ the descending triangle (water), manthami, Prometheus.

prayer : priere : [Fr] supplication, entreaty, submissive importunity; a petition to heaven.

pre- : [Lt] before, prin- [Gk], pro- [Gk].

preacher : prescheur : [Fr] one who speaks publicly on matters religious; one who inculcates doctrines and dogmas with earnestness and vehemence.

preamble to Calvinistic Will : [1557 En]  (I commend my soul to …) “Almighty God and the blessed company of heaven …,” as John Grave, Yeoman, wrote at Hunstanton in March 1557, dropping the reference to Saint Mary.  Grave also stated his belief that his soul would find salvation through the “merighte [merit] of my lord Jesus Christ to be one of the electe and chosen of god,” revealing his belief in predestiny.[121]

preamble to Catholic Will : [ante 1558] (I commend my soul to …) “God Almighty, the Blessed Lady Mary and all the holy company of saints in heaven.”[122]  Among the Wills written at Hunstanton, the reference to Saint Mary disappeared in 1558, and the mention of the ‘holy company of heaven’ was likewise dropped in 1559.  The last person to mention ‘holy company of heaven’ at Hunstanton was John Smith, in his Will dated December 1559.[123]  The Catholic Mary I died on 1558/11/16, and was succeeded by her Protestant halfsister Elizabeth I.

preamble to Protestant Will : [1582-1588 En] (I commend my sould to …) “God Almighty my maker, and to Jesus Christ my only saviour and redeemer,” was the formula used by the Protestant scribe Robert Gibson, who served at Hunstanton from 1582 to 1588.[124]  Protestants preferred to omit all references to saints.

preamble to Protestant Will : [1588-1593] (I leave my soul to …) “Almighty God my only saviour and redeemer … by whose deathe & passion I doe stedfastly beleve to have full & free remyssion of all my synnes,” as the Protestant scribe John Legitt often wrote while he served at Hunstanton between 1588 and 1593.[125]

preamble to Protestant Will : [1593-1594] (I leave my soul to …) “God father, son and Holy Ghost, hoping to be among the number of the chosen for heaven,” as the Protestant scribe Martin Spinks wrote for Thomas Holdenby at Hunstanton in April 1593.[126]

preamble to Protestant Will : [1593-1594] (I leave my soul to …) “God my maker, hoping to attain life everlasting through the passion of Jesus Christ,” as the Protestant scribe Martin Spinks wrote for John Makemead at Hunstanton in April 1593.[127]

prebendary : prebendarius : a stipendiary of a cathedral.[128]

prec- : prayer.

Precambrian period : a long period of prehistoric time that began at creation, between the years 6 billion and 4 billion years bc, and lasted until year 575 million bc, or the Cambrian period of the Lower Paleozoic era.

precentor : præcentor : chanter, the leader of a choir.

preceptor : præceptor : teacher, tutor.

pre-coital mucous secretion : precum, vaginal fluid.  Cf. Bartolin’s glands, Cowper’s glands.

precum : [1990, Am colloquialism] the fluid that secretes from the uretha prior to ejaculation.  Cf. Cowper’s glands.

pred- : prey.

predecease : to die before someone else.

predeceased : dead before.

predecessor : predecesseur : ancestor, one that stood someplace before another; predecessore [It].

predestination : the circumstance of having one’s fate predetermined by divine will, or by some rule of succession.  Cf. destination.

predial slave : praedial slave : a slave attached to a particular parcel of land; a slave assigned to cultivate and harvest a particular crop on the land to which he is attached.

predicator : preacher; a preaching friar.

predispositive person : heir presumptive, someone predisposed to some destined rôle.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

pre-emption right : [donec 1891] a right granted by the U.S. federal government to a settler on public land, providing him the preëmptive right to purchase a quarter section of land (160 acres) or some lesser acrage before it was allocated to some other buyer.  A settler had to notify the government of his presence with a Pre-Emption Application.  The provision was repealed in 1891.[129]

preferential marriage : a desired or ideal form of marriage, such as levirate or sororate marriage, which might be practiced if the right need and conditions happen to arise, but which does not exclude other forms of marriage.  Cf. institutionalized marriage, prescribed marriage.

pregnance : the state of being pregnant; the power to invent.

pregnancy : [1598] fertility, fruitfulness, the state of carrying young in the womb; gestation, the condition of being pregnant.  Cf. gestation.

pregnancy reduction : Cf. selective reduction.

pregnant : prægnans : fruitful, fertile, impregnating; breeding, teeming; plain, clear, evident, full; full of consequence.

prejudice : prejudicium : prepossession; hurt, injury, mischief, detriment; judgement formed beforehand without fair examination.

prelacy : episcopacy, the order of bishops; the dignity or post of an ecclesiastic or prelate of the highest order.

prelaty : episcopacy.

premature birth : Cf. Dionysus.

premier : prime minister; a principal minister of state.

premillennialism : the fundamentalist doctrine that devotees must prepare for the second coming of Christ at the millennium (ad 2001).  Cf. Pentecostalism.

Premonstrants : Præmonstratenses : [1200] monks of Premontrè on the Isle of France who emigrated to England in the twelfth century and were called White Canons.

pre-mortem inheritance : Cf. inheritance.

prename : Opp. postname.

prename : prænomen : forename, first name.

prenatal changes : Cf. individuation.

prenominate : forenamed, having the first name.

prenomination : the privilege of being named first.

prenuptial contract : antenuptial contract; a contract made by a couple or their proxies, prior to their marriage, expressing some mutual agreement as to the division of property in the event of marital dissolution.

prep : preposition.

prepositis : provosts.

prepositus : Cf. genealogical numbering.  Opp. ego-centric kin reckoning, kin typology.

prepositus : præpositus : provost, com­mander.[130]

prepuberty : [1922] the period of development directly prior to puberty.  Cf. individuation.

prepuberty : [1922] the period of development directly prior to puberty.  Cf. individuation.

prepuce : præputium : foreskin, the skin that covers the glands of a penis

prerogative court : [donec 1857] an ecclesiastical court empowered to probate last wills and testaments, and to initiate administrations of estates.  The prerogative jurisdictions in Great Britain and Ireland were under the archbishops of Canterbury, York, and Armagh, until their responsibilities were transferred to the civil Court of Probate in 1857.[131]  Cf. probate court.

Prerogative Court : [NJ] the name for probate court in New Jersey.

Prerogative Court of Canterbury : P.C.C. : a special court established to hear cases pertaining to the privy council.

Prerogative Court of York : P.C.Y.

presbitero : [Sp] priest.

Presbyter : priest, a Presbyterian.

Presbyterian : [1641 Sc-En] a supporter of presbytery, an adherent to Calvinist disciplines.  Cf. Dissenter sect.

Presbyterianism : [1560 Sc] the insular Christian movement based upon the Reformation church, and founded in Scotland by John Knox in 1560.  Cf. Muscular Christianity.

Presbyterianism : [1648 Sc-En] the principles and discipline of Presbyterians; the Scottish Calvinist movement of presbyterians who promulgated their creed at the Westminster Assembly (1643-1649), and thereby broke with the Anglican church.

Presbyterians : [1662] one of the four Old Dissenter sects that refused the Act of Uniformity (1662) and lobbied for passage of the Act of Toleration (1689).

Presbyterians and Independents : [1662] a two-fold division of the four Old Dissenter sects.  All four groups of Nonconformist churches broke away from the Anglican establishment, but the Presbyterians stood apart as the large, and mainly Scottish, contingent of Reformation churchmen.  The Independents were mainly Protestant Englishmen who rebelled against Episcopalianism, and wished to adopt in its stead the Reformation-style rule by local congregation.  Passage of the Quaker Act (1662) prompted all the Nonconformists to press for freedom of religious belief, and thus they commonly rose in influence, as the four important Old Dissenters Sects of Presbyterians, Independents, Baptists, and Quakers.

presbytery : the body of church elders, either laymen or priests.

prescribed marriage : a marriage restricted in form to one particular type that excludes and prohibits all other alternative types of marriage.  Christian marriage has always been prescribed, because the ecclesiastical hierarchy dictated the rules, and disallowed all divergent kinds of marriage, including all types of biblical marriage.  Cf. preferential marriage, institutionalized marriage.

prescription : a terminological pattern that occurs in a society with positive marriage rule.  Prescription requires the male ego to marry a particular category of relative, such as his mother’s brother’s daughter (MoBrDa).  Cf. terminological patterns.

prescriptive and asymmetric terminology : Kachin system.  Opp. Dravidian system.

prescriptive and symmetric terminology : Dravidian system.  Opp. Kachin system.

prescriptive cognate-affine equations, asymmetric : MoBr=WiFa≠FaSiHu=HuFa.[132]

prescriptive cognate-affine equations, symmetric : MoBr=FaSiHu=WiFa=HuFa.[133]

presentee : presenté : [Fr] one presented to a benefice.

president : præsidens : governor, prefect, tutelary power; guide, rule, example; someone placed at the head of others; one given authority over others.

press : [1401-1700] peine forte et dure, punishment strong and hard;a capital punishment whereby the victim is pressed to death “by heavy weights laid upon a board that lieth over their breasts and a sharp stone under their backs, and these commonly hold their peace thereby to save their goods unto their wives and children, which if they were condemned should be confiscated to the prince.”  The cruel press was reserved for someone accused of a crime, but unwilling to plead before a justice.  Legal technicalities caused this penalty to become fairly popular.  An accused man’s property could not be confiscated by the prince unless the prisoner were convicted of a capital crime, and therefore many men deliberately stood mute when accused, so as to save their families from ruin.[134]  Walter Calverly, Esquire, of Calverly stood mute when he was accused of murdering his wife and two children in 1605, and he was pressed to death at York Castle.[135]

press- : to press.

prestation : payment or transfer of property or per­formance of services that accompanies marriage; a property transfer connected to the marriage of two spouses.  In patrilineal societies, the major prestation is normally the dowry or groomprice, and may or may not be accompanied by a minor prestation, such as bridewealth.  Prestations are usually arranged by the men only, for they are mainly property exhanges between the father-in-law and son-in-law.  Cf. brideprice, brideservice, bridewealth, dowry, dower, groomprice.  Cf. dowry, bridewealth.

presumption : præsumptus : a supposition previously formed; confidence based on anything presupposed; a strong argument but one which cannot be demonstrated; arrogance, presumptuousness.

presumptive : adrogans, assuming, arrogant, confident, haughty, insolent, presumptuous; taken by previous supposition; supposed, e.g presumptive heir.  Cf. heir apparent.

presuppositive person : a person presumed to have existed, an heir or successor presumptive.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

pretender : one who lays claim to anything.  The English barred the house of Stuart or Stewart from the English throne, and therefore called the would-be James III as James the Old Pretender, and his son Bonnie Prince Charlie, the would-be Charles III, as Charles the Young Pretender.

priapism : priapismus : phallicism, a preternatural tension.

Priapus: penis, mentula; the god of fertility; the god of gardens, the generative power of a male.

prick : [Sx] a sharp and slender instrument; something by which a puncture is made; point, a fixed place.

pridem : long since.

pridie : on the previous day.

priest : [Sx] one who officiates in sacred offices; a member of the second order in the hierarchy, ranking above a deacon but below a bishop.

priesthood : [Sx] the office and character of a priest; the second order of the hierarchy; a body of men set apart for religious offices.

prim- : first.

prima : [Sp] PaSbDa; female cousin.

primal vowels, three : [Sumerian] A.E.Ō. : a.e.ô.

primary affines : WiFa, HuBr, et cetera; the cognates of one’s spouse, as opposed to the spouses of one’s cognates.[136]

primary kin terms for homosexual spouses : Ph, Er, An, He; variants of spouse (Sp).  The abbreviations stand for philetor (Ph) the older or dominant male lover, eromenos (Er) the younger male lover, antianeira (An) the older or dominant female lover, and hetaera (He) the younger female lover; the homosexual kin terms equivalent to spouse (Sp), husband (Hu), and wife (Wi).  The four terms are agist and sexist determinants for same-sex spouses, and may be used with concubine or concubitor (Cc) and contubernine or contubernator (Ct).

primary kin types : Cf. kin types.

primate : primus : the chief ecclesiastic.

Primate of All England : the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Primate of England : the Archbishop of York.

prime : 6 a.m., the second canonical hour; the second of seven daily services of Christian prayer.  Cf. canonical hours.

prime : bloom.

prime : primus : dawn, morning, the first part of a day; the early days, beginning; the first canonical hour.

primo : [Sp] FaBrSo; male cousin.

primo carnal : [Sp] FaBrSo; first cousin.

primogenial : primogenius : original, primary, elemental; firstborn.

primogenito : [It, Sp] eldest, firstborn.

primogenitor : forefather.

primogenitura : first-born.

primogeniture : primo genitus : seniority, eldership; the state of being firstborn; a type of unigeniture wherein only the eldest son inherits his father’s property; a type of impartible inheritance in which the eldest surviving son becomes sole heir.  When Arthur, Prince of Wales, died prematurely, his younger brother succeeded in his place as Henry VIII of England.  Cf. ultimogeniture, unigeniture.  Opp. gavelkind.

primogenitus : first-born.

primos hermanos : [Sp] PaSbCh; first cousins.

primos segundos : [Sp] PaPaSbChCh; second cousins.

primus inter pares : first among equals.

prince : [address] His Royal Highness Prince ——; H.R.H. Prince ——; [salutation] Sir; [reference] Your Royal Highness.  Cf. prince and duke.

prince : princeps : sovereign, chief ruler; a sovereign ranking next below a king; the eldest son and heir of he who reigns under any denomination, e.g. duke, king, emperor.

prince and duke : [address] His Royal Highness the Duke of ——; [salutation] Sir; [reference] Your Royal Highness.  When the address is both a prince and duke, it is customary to salute a prince as sir, rather than my lord duke.

Prince de la Roche sur Yon : a homosexual general.[137]  Cf. General Count Henri L. d’A. Rochefort (floruit 1672).

prince’s wife : a spouse of inferior rank to her husband.  Such a wife is addressed as if she were a princess by birth.

princedom : the rank, estate, or power of a prince; the sovereignty of a prince.

Princeps Norwalliae : Prince of North Wales, i.e. Lewelinus.[138]

princess : [address] Her Royal Highness the Princess ——; [salutation] Madam; [reference] Your Royal Highness.

princess : princesse : [Fr] a sovereign lady; a woman enjoying sovereign command; a lady of rank next below a queen; daughter of a king; wife of a prince.

princess and duchess : [address] The Duchess ——; [salutation] Madam; [reference] Your Royal Highness.

Principalities : the seventh highest choir of angles, among nine.

principality : principaulté : [Fr] sovereignty, supreme power.

principle of relative sex : the basis of the cross-parallel distinction.[139]

priod : prioddodd : [We] married.

prior : prieur : [Fr] head of a convent of monks; a priest inferior in dignity to an abbot.

prioratum cum tota villa incendio destruxerunt : they destroyed by fire the priory and the whole village.

priores : ancestors.

prioress : a lady superior in a convent of nuns.

priory : convent, ranking in dignity below an abbacy.

prison : Cf. hole.

prison : prehensio : [1200] a state of captivity and confinement.  In Elizabethan times, it was customary to punish criminal acts with specific retributions of public humiliation, torture, or execution, so it was fairly rare to punish offenders with terms of imprisonment.  Imprisonment was mainly a punishment for unpaid debts.  Whosoever agreed to serve as the jailer further agreed to be fully responsible for his prisoners.  The jailer was required to deliver a named prisoner on demand, and also required to pay the prisoner’s debt if the prisoner escaped.  However, the jailer was never required to provide any maintenance for his charges.  The debtors were obliged not only to pay their debts, but also to pay the jailer’s fee, and make their own arrangements for food and drink.  Debtors importuned their relatives and friends for the funds needed to satisfy the creditors and the jailer, and even for the sustinence, clothing, and bedding needed for survival.  Especially poor debtors, without any means of support or assistance, were allowed to entreat passers-by for charitable contributions.  Cf. Sabbatical Year.

prison term : the length of time a condemned criminal must remain in prison.  According to the Bible and Anglo-American traditions, no debt or imprisonment should ever be carried past the seventh year, called the Sabbatical Year, and that is why a term of indentured servitude in colonial America always had to end by the seventh year.  Modern American prison terms are strictly modern inventions, expressly designed to perpetuate wholesale racism and slavery, as well as class distinction.  The God of the Bible deemed it arrogant of man to till his fields in the seventh year, and especially arrogant of man to imprison others or keep them in debt or indentured service for more than seven years.  The rule of a Sabbatical Year was a Mosaic law, and endures today in the Rabbinical law of Israel.  Terms of prolonged or indefinite imprisonment were absolutely forbidden in ancient, medieval, and colonial times.  Any punishment harsher than seven years was held to rank with capital punishment or utter banishment.  Cf. Sabbatical Year.

priusquam : before, previously, formerly, in former times.  Opp. nunc, ab hoc tempore.

privacy : secrecy; the state of being secret; alone, not accompanied; the inalienable right to be left alone and unpersuaded without intrusion or harassment.  Privacy is the right and freedom to express oneself in body, mind, and speech, and is therefore the keystone of democracy, providing each person with the human suffrage and religious right that are essential to all civil rights.  Opp. publicity.

private : privatus : secret, not open; alone, not accompanied; not relating to the public; privy, sequestered.

Private Land Claim : a claim to land ownership asserted by an alien, and usually recognized by the U.S. government prior to a wholesale appropriation of new territories into the public domain.  The federal government recognized such claims in Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Colorado, and New Mexico.

privigna : stepdaughter.  Cf. filia novercæ, filia vitrici.

privignasque rogat proles : transplanted seedlings.

privignus : stepson, one begotten separately.  Cf. filius novercæ, filius vitrici.

privilege : privilegium : immunity, peculiar advantage; a private right not granted universally.

privileges of Members of Parliament : special laws pertaining only to elected legislators of the United Kingdom.  In civil cases, a Member of Parliament remains immune from attachment or arrest for 40 days before and after a meeting of Parliament.

privileges of peers : [1948] special laws applicable only to peers of the United Kingdom.  Under Common Law, “the person of a peer is forever sacred and inviolable.”[140]  Peers are exempt from jury service.  In civil cases, a peer enjoys immunity from attachment:  that is to say, a peer cannot be arrested by reason of a civil suit for 40 days before and after a meeting of Parliament.  A peer is entitled to have supporters complement his arms, and to display a coronet befitting his rank.  An heir apparent of a peer of Scotland is permitted to bear the peer’s supporters, debruised with a three-point label.  Prior to the Criminal Justice Act of 1948, a peer accused of a felony or treason could be tried only by his peers, at government expense.

privilegia : privileges, laws affecting individuals only.

privy: privé : [Fr] private, not public; secret, clantestine; not shown.

Privy Council : a group of consultants who privately provide the sovereign of England with specialized knowledge and recommendations for action.  Originally the king selected his own councillors, and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council served as a court of last appeal in certain cases.  The Privy Council was once politically powerful, but it came to include the Prime Minister’s Cabinet, and with the evolution of constitutional and democratic rule, the Cabinet gained more prominence.

Privy Councillor : P.C.

privy councillor : The Right Honorable John ——.  A privy councillor’s wife and children are not accorded any title derived from his.

pro- : for.

pro- : pur-, before, in front, forth, out, away, instead of, for.

pro salute anime mee et anime Amicie uxoris mee : to pray for my soul and the soul of my wife Amicia.[141]

proadnepos : SoSoSoSoSoSo; great-great-great-great-grandson.

proamita : FaFaFaSi; amita maior, soror proavis, great-grandaunt, great-grandfa­ther’s sister.

proamitin : [NL] FaFaFaSiSoSoSo; paternal cross second cousin male.

proamitine : [NL] FaFaFaSiSoSoDa; paternal cross second cousin female.

proauctor : early ancestor.

proavia : FaFaMo; great-grandmother.

proavis frater : FaFaFaBr; frater proavis, propatruus, patruus maior, paternal great-granduncle, great-grand­father’s brother.

proavunculus :FaFaMoBr; avunculus maior, avunculus major : granduncle; frater proaviæ, great-granduncle, great-grand­mother’s brother.

proavus : FaFaFa; great-grandfather; remote ancestor, fore­father.

prob- : prov- : good; to test.

proband : probandus : [1929] subject, the person studied; an individual whose reactions or responses are studied; the index person in an ancestor table or Ahnentafel.  Cf. ego, propositus.

probate : probatum : proof, the proof of a will; the official copy of a will with certification that the will has been proved.

probate court : a court charged with the administration of last wills and testaments that are contested or subject to examination.  Wills that are uncontested or unchallenged are never handled by a probate court, and therefore are excluded from public records.  Cf. prerogative court.

probation : probatio : proof, evidence, testimony; trial, examination; moral trial; novitiate, the trial period before entrance into monastic life.

probatum est : it is tried, it is proved; the Latin expression added to a receipt, signifying that the sum has been proved.

probitas laudatur et alget : honesty is praised and neglected.

Proc. : proconsul.

procere : procerus : tall.

proceres : nobles.

procerity : procerus : tallness, height of stature.

processioning: In colonial times it was customary for neighboring property owners to engage in what was called ‘processioning.’  Every four years, the owners of adjoining parcels of land were expected to join together and walk in procession around the boundaries of each man’s land.  The purpose of processioning was to renew the markations that defined the property boundaries, and to demonstrate to children how to recognize and patrol the limits of their real estate.  By reëstablishing property boundaries in this public fashion, misunderstandings and quarrels over property use were kept to a minimum.

prochronism : [Gk] an error in chronology; the dating of some event before it happened.

proclamation : publication by authority; a declaration of the king’s will openly published among the people; marriage proclamation, a series of three public readings of the banns of marriage.

proclamatorum catalogus : register of the banns of marriage.  Cf. catalogus.

procreation: the rôle of a parent vis-à-vis his or her spouse and children.  Cf. family of orientation, family of procreation.

procreation as the purpose of sex : Cf. Alexandrian rule.

procreative : leading to the birth or procreation of one’s progeny.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

procreatrix : [metaphor] mother.

procuration : the act of procuring; management of another’s affairs.

procurer : obtainer, he who plans or contrives; one who profits.

procus : suitor, wooer.

proditor : traitor.

prodrome : prodromus : forerunner.

professor : professeur : [Fr] one who publicly practices and teaches an art.

proffer : offer; something proposed for acceptance.

profit : gain, pecuniary advantage.

profit-making enterprise : Erwerbsbetrieb [Gm].  Cf. acquisitive activity, consumerism.

profluvium : flowing forth, diarrhea.[142]

profundus legum doctor reputatus : reputed to have been a great doctor of laws.

progener : granddaughter’s husband, grandson-in-law.

progenerate : progenero : to beget, propagate.

progeneration : propagation, the act of begetting.

progenies : progeny; race, family.

progenitor : propositus : a male ancestor in the direct line; forefa­ther.

progenitor suppositus : suppositive progenitor; supposed progenitor.  The phrase signifies a propositus or apical ancestor postulated to have founded a line of descent.

progenitores : [Sp] progenitors, ancestors.

Progenitors Strangei Diamantine : apical ancestors who appear to have stood as primogenitors in the Strangus superfamily of Fifeshire, Scotland, created about ad 1325.  These Gaelic families Strangus (plural, Strangei) also seem to have shared the heritage of the coat-of-arms showing a chevron and three lozenges or diamonds, and therefore have been styled Strangei Diamantine.  The opposite term is Extranei Leonine (Stranges bearing two lions passant, mainly in England, from ad 1082).

progenitrix : a female ancestor in the direct line; foremother.

progenuit : he progenerated.

progeny : progenies : offspring, generation, race.

progeny wealth : bride wealth.

prognosticator : foreteller, foreknower.

program : programma : proclamation or edict displayed in a public place; preface; something written before something else.

progressive individuation : Cf. individuation.

pro-husband : Hu & BrWi=Wi; a brother serving as second husband to his deceased brother’s widow.  Cf. Levirate.

projicit : she exposed [her unwanted child].[143]

prol- : offspring.

prolegomena : [Gk] introductory observations, previous discourse.

proles : euphemism for testicles.

proles : offspring, progeny, generation; the issue of lawful marriages.

proles incognita : offspring unknown.[144]

proles militis : soldier children.

proles quæ nuper inventa est : the children who were lately born; the children recently born.

proles spuria : illegitimate children.

pro-life : anti-choice, anti-abortionist.  This word was adopted by patristic and fundamentalist campaigners opposed to the civil rights of women, especially with respect to abortion rights.

pro-lifer : an anti-abortionist.

promatertera :MoPaMoSi; matertera maior, soror proviæ, maternal grandaunt, great-grandmother’s sister.

promatertera magna : MoPaMoSi; maternal great-grandaunt.

Prometheus : a god whose name has been connected with Sanskrit words, such as manthami and pramantha.[145]  Carl Jung associated the Sanskrit words with the root manth, and the Greek expression manthano prometheomai.[146]

promiscuity : [anthropology] a female primate’s natural or innate inclination to mate exogamously, sometimes with multiple partners.

promiscuity : [asexual meaning] maternal or sororal promiscuity, denoting the relaxed and interactive nature of a woman, as opposed to the rigid and unsympathetic nature of man.  In this sense, the word promiscuity refers to the domestic behavior of a woman, but does not connote anything sexual.

promiscuity : [sexual meaning] plural mating, with little regard for proscriptive rules.  This word often connotes licentiousness and lewdness, whereas polykoity may be used as a more general term for plural mating.  Cf. polykoity.

promiscuity : polykoity; a relaxed and undisciplined proclivity to sex play, which may lead to casual sexual encounters and even an aversion to lasting relationships.  Promiscuity connotes an uncaring or cavalier attitude to sex, so it differs in character from serial monogamy.  Opp. ceremony, contract, sacrament, serial monogamy.

promiscuity : vagus concubitus, vagrant concubitor; sexual liberties that men are apt to claim; the sexual license that men often exercise with multiple partners.

Promise Keepers : [1992] a hate organization of fundamentalist Christian men, predicated upon doctrinal misogyny and homophobia.  Members pretend to adhere to Levitical law, even though the Levites themselves condemned Gentiles as ‘abominations.’  Cf. Muscular Christianity, toevah.

promulgator : publisher, open teacher.

promus : steward, ward of the hall, a servant who dispenses house­hold stores, especially food and drink.

pron. : pronoun.

pronepos : SoSoSo; great-grandson.

pronepos ex fratre : BrSoSo; grandnephew, grandson of one’s brother.

pronepos fratris : BrSoSoSo; fraternal great-grandnephew.

pronepos privignus : FaFaWiSo; DaDaHuSo; great-grandstepson.

pronepos sororis : SiSoSoSo; sororal great-grandnephew.

pronepotin : [NL] PaSbChSoSoSo, male first cousin thrice removed.

proneptine : [NL] PaSbChSoSoDa, female first cousin thrice removed.

proneptis : ChChDa; great-granddaughter.

proneptis ex sorore : SiDaDa; grandniece, granddaughter of one’s sister.

proneptis fratris : BrDaDaDa; fraternal great-grandniece, brother’s great-granddaughter.

proneptis privigna : SoSoWiDa; DaDaHuDa; great-grandstepdaughter.[147]

proneptis sororis : SiChChDa, SiDaDaDa; sororal great-grandniece, sister’s great granddaughter.

PRONI : Public Record Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

pronipota : [It] DaDaDa; great-granddaughter.

pronipote : [It] SoSoSo; great-grandson.

pronominal : an honorific or courtesy title that appears before a person’s name, such as the Reverend, Mr., Mrs., et cetera.

pronoun : pronomen : a word used in place of a proper name.

pronurus : ChSoWi; ChChSoWi; wife of a grandson or great-grandson, great-granddaughter-in-law.

proof : the essence of a conclusion; a line of reasoning based upon premises believed or accepted to be true.

proofread : to read a draft or galley proof, aiming to mark errors and make emendations prior to retyping or resetting.

propatruelin : [NL] FaFaFaBrSoSoSo; paternal parallel second cousin male.

propatrueline : [NL] FaFaFaBrSoSoDa; paternal parallel second cousin female.

propatrui : ChChFaBrCh; proamite, proavunculi filii filiæ, first cousins twice removed, great-grandfather’s brother’s sons and daughters, great-grandfather’s sister’s sons and daughters, great-grand-mother’s brother’s sons and daughters.

propatruus : FaPaFaBr; patruus maior, frater proavis, pater­nal great-granduncle, great-grandfather’s brother.

properties of a person : three properties that may be assigned to each person in history, namely (1) seniority, (2) name, (3) definition by time and space.  Cf. categories of a life.

properties of atoms : three properties inherent to all matter, which Democritus called (1) size, (2) shape, and (3) solidity.  Cf. categories.

property : personal property, private property, movable property; inherited property; real property, real estate, immovable property.  Cf. res familiaris, res moventes, patrimonium.

property transfer : prestation.

prophylactic : preventative, preservative; condom.

prophylaxis : prevention, preservation; an old euphemism for the use of a condom; a drug or chemotherapy used to prevent the occurrence or recurrence of some condition or disease.  A primary prophylaxis wards off the initial occurrence, whereas a secondary prophylaxis prevents recurrence.

propinqua : kinswoman.

propinquus : kinsman, closely related.

propiores sobrini : first cousins-german once re­moved.

propius sobrino : propior sobrino, first cousin once removed, the father (or son) of one’s male first cousin, first cousin-german once removed, the father (or son) of one’s female first cousin.

propositive : made into a suppositive progenitor; taken as the apical ancestor of a line of descent.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

propositus : the person proposed; progenitor, founder, apical ancestor; the ancestor from whom lines of descent are being traced; an intestate person whose descendants are recorded in a genealogical table or pedigree for the purpose of determining his heirs and coheirs.  Cf. apical ancestor, ego, founder, parentela, proband, progenitor.

propr. : proprietor.

propri- : one’s own, fitting.

prosapia : lineage, family, a group of persons past and present related by blood.

pro-sexual instinct : the female instinct of motherhood, which often restricts sex play with males, especially during terms of pregnancy and child rearing, and which promotes exogamy among her children through the prohibition of incest.  Opp. sexist behavior.

pro-sexualism : pseudo-sexualism, the propensity of women to adore the sensual and tangible features of the living world, irrespectively of any sex differences.  The term refers to the matristic sensibilities of compassion, compunction, and coöperative work, which promote the harmonization of opposites, and the natal grouping of siblings by motherhood, rather than by age or sex.  A pro-sexual mother tends to be expressive and caring of any dependent, but seems to transcend the mundane ranks and borders of age-rôles and sex-rôles.  Pro-sexual behaviors tend to be permissive and promiscuous, but never focused upon, or singularly obsessed, with any particular age or sex.  Pro-sexualism represents the natural instincts of motherhood, and therefore sharply contrasts with artificial sexism.  Opp. sexism.

prosopographiæ parentium Extraneorum : prosopographies of Strange progenitor.

prosopography : a study that identifies and relates a group of persons or characters within a particular historical or literary context.

prostitute : prostituo : to expose on vile terms; to sell wickedness.

prostitute : prostitutus : sold to infamy or wickedness; sold to whoredom; vile; a public strumpet; hireling; mercenary.  Cf. nobilissima meretrix.

prostitutes in London : [1850] strumpets walking the streets or working in brothels in Victorian times.  The number of prostitutes in London was estimated with numbers as low as 7,000 and as high as 80,000.  A Frenchman named Taine provided an estimate of 50,000, and some believe this number to be credible, given the record of 42,000 illegitimate births in England in 1851.[148]  Cf. illegitimate children.

prostitution : the state of being for sale; the life of a public strumpet.  Cf. brothels.

prot- : [Gk] first, original, primitive.

protad : the first, original, or primeval one.  Cf. monad.

protection : protective tariffs assessed on foreign goods, to promote and encourage home industries.

protector : protecteur : [Fr] defender, supporter, guardian; shelterer; he who shields from evil; regent.  There were two principal types of protector in feudal times, namely (1) the feudal seignory, with rights over laymen, and (2) the advocate, or advocatio, the patron or holder of an advowson, with rights over churches.[149]

protein : [1844] the primary element of a living cell; a complex combination of amino acids containing carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, usually sulfur, and sometimes other elements, such as phosphorus or iron.  Plants synthesize proteins from raw materials, whereas animals assimilate amino acids separately.  Proteins form in ribosomes, or sites where mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA act together to synthesize duplicate proteins from DNA models.

Proterozoic era : a long period of prehistoric time, matching the Precambrian period.

Protestant : a member of the English sectarians who protested the errors of the Roman church.

Protestantism : [1534] the protestant religion.  Henry VIII was the founder of Protestantism, and the Church of England became the first Protestant religion.  In historiography, it is critical for writers to apprehend that the Pope himself conferred upon Henry VIII the title Defender of the Faith, expressly because Henry VIII had authored a famous tract in Latin denouncing Lutheranism.  Thus, when Henry VIII broke with Rome in 1534, he created a new dissenter religion that was fundamentally different from both Roman Catholicism and Lutheranism (1517).  Over time, the mainland Reformation gave form to Presbyterianism in Scotland, and wholesale migrations of French Huguenots, Germanic Lutherans, and English Nonconformists led to a general blending of Reformist and Protestant ideas in America during the seventeenth century.

proto- : [Gk] first, primus.

protomartyr : [Gk] the first martyr; anyone who suffers first in a cause; Saint Stephen.

prov- : prob- : good; to test.

proven : proved : alternative past participles of the verb prove.  When the participle is used to denote the status of a last will and testament, it means that a probate court has formally accepted the document as the true and genuine testament of the decedent.  The date on which a will is proven normally marks the court’s approval for the estate to be settled, either by the named executor, or by an administrator appointed by the court.

provender : provende : [Fr] dry food for brutes; hay and corn; horsemeat.

province : provincia : a conquered country, a country governed by some delegate; a large administrative district in a country.

province : the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of an archbishop, subdivided into bishoprics, or dioceses headed by bishops.  In early medieval times, England had only two provinces, headed by the Archbishop of Canterbury or the Archbishop of York.  After the incorporation of Wales, a third province was created for the Archbishop of Wales.

provost : mayor, chief of any body; the executioner of the army.

provost : the inferior fencer in a fencing match.

proximi : near relations, close friends.

proximo : próximo : [Sp] next month.

Prudentia : Prudence.

PS : Postscript.

Ps.Pi. : Ψ, Π : the alternative two letters said to have been invented by Epicharmus (circa 540-circa 443 bc).  Cf. Epicharmus, Th.Ch.

Ps.Pi. : Ψ, Π : the alternative two letters said to have been invented by Epicharmus (circa 540-circa 443 bc).  Cf. Epicharmus, Th.Ch.

pseud- : [Gk] false.

pseudo- : [Gk] false, falsus, fictus.

pseudocopulation : a male-to-male sexual activity among the bonobos wherein two males stand back-to-back and the active male rubs his scrotum against the buttocks of the other.  Cf. genito-genital rubbing, scrotal rubbing, penis-fencing.

pseudo-kin : fictive or ritual kin.  Cf. kinship.

pseudo-kinship : ritual kinship, spiritual kinship; godparenthood, bloodbrotherhood.  Cf. adoption, fictive kinship, fostering.

pseudonym : the use of some fictional surname in place of one’s natal surname.

pseudo-relation : an interpersonal tie which may seem to be affinal or consanguineal, but has actually been socially defined.

pseudosexism : the imitation of sexism by a same-sex couple.  Lesbians tend to prefer comparing duties and rôles of lateral members, and therefore tend to organize themselves by absolute sex and relative sex, rather than agism.  Cf. agism.

pseudo-sexualism : pro-sexualism.

psheves : [Sx] sheaves.[150]

psych- : [Gk] mind.

psycho- : [Gk] mind, spirit, animus.

psychosexual hermaphroditism : an obsolete term for homosexuality, which Kinsey thought was biased and distortional.

psychosis : a severe mental disorder that impedes one’s ability to function normally, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.  Psychological trauma or drug use can sometimes lead to psychosis.

psychotropic : an agent or drug that affects one’s mental functions or behavior, such as thorazine.

pter- : [Gk] wing.

pteryg- : pteryx : [Gk] wing, fin.

pteryx : pteryg- : [Gk] wing, fin.

ptf. : plaintiff.

puberes : puberty.

puberty : pubertas : ripe age in the sexes;[151] the time of life that marks the first arousal of sexual interest, which is variable in individuals, but is generally regarded as 12 years of age in women, and 14 years of age in men.  Puberty marks that age at which a child can marry and reproduce, and the age when a child acquires the right of consent to marriage.  The word pubertas is a participle of pubesco.  Cf. adolesco.

pubescence : pubesco : the state of arriving at puberty.

pubescent : arriving at puberty.

pubic triangle : the triangular swatch of pubic hair shown covering the genitalia on the statue of the fertility goddess.  Cf. delta, triangle.

pubic triangle : the triangular swatch of pubic hair shown covering the genitalia on the statue of the fertility goddess.  Cf. delta, triangle.

public : publicus : not private, belonging to a state or nation; open, generally known.

public domain : public lands belonging to a state or federal government.  Today, this expression commonly denotes some work, invention, or technology generally available for free use by anyone, due to the expiration of the copyrights or patents that previously restricted the use.

publican : publicus : a man who keeps a house of general entertainment; a toll gatherer.

pucelage : [Fr] maidenhood, unmarried.

Pucelle : la Pucelle : [1431 Fr] the maid; a posthumous title for Joan of Arc, Joan the Maid, or the Maid of God.[152]  Cf. Joan of Arc.

Puck : puca : [Ir] elf, an impersonator of the Horned God; the fairy character in A Midsummer Night’s Dream.[153]  Cf. Horned God.

pudenda : the sexual parts of both sexes.

pudenda virilia : masculine sexual parts.

Pudicitia of Rome : the goddess worshipped by Roman women using sacred dildos.[154]  Cf. Bona Dea, dildos, Mise.

pueblo : [Sp] small town.

pueblo de indios : [Sp] a town of natives.

puella : girl; slave girl; sweetheart.

puer : boy, boys, lad, acolyte, serving boy, one under 17 years old.  Opp. vir.  Cf. servus, famulus.

pueri : children of either sex, free children, servile children, slave chil­dren.  Cf. liberi.[155]

puericide : the murder or murderer of a boy, presumably 7 to 13 years of age; the murder or murderer of one’s own son.  Cf. -cide, infanticide, neonaticide.  Cf. Anaitis of Ninevah.

puerile : puerilis : boyish, childish.

puerilis : ætas puerilis, childhood, 7 to 13 years.

puerility : puerilitas : boyishness, childishness.

puerpera : a woman in labor.

puerperal sepsis : puerperal fever, childbed fever, an infection once prevalent in women after childbirth.  Infection occurred when streptococci entered the body during delivery.  To prevent such deaths, doctors promoted cleanliness, and the use of strict asepsis in obstetrical procedures, so the mortality rate of puerperal fever substantially dropped.  The advent of modern antiseptics made puerperal fever a rarity.[156]

puerperium : childbirth.

puerperus : relating to childbirth.

pugn- : fight.

puisne : puis nè : [Fr] puny, young, younger, inferior, petty, small, inconsiderable.

puissance : power, force, strength.

puissant : powerful, forcible, strong.

pulmo : lungs.

puls- : pel- : pell- : to drive, push.

pu-ming : [Ch] a registered name; the legal name of a Chinese person, the name officially entered into the Family Table Book of his family association.[157]  Cf. family association, Tsu Tang.

pun shung fu me : [Ch] birth parents.[158]  Cf. adoptive parents, chi fu me.

Punchinello : polichinello : [It] buffoon, fool, in puppet dramas; Punch.

punct- : pung- : to prick, point.

punctuation marks : the annotative symbols typical of English and peculiar to this work, namely the period (.), semi-colon (;), colon (:), isolated colon ( : ), comma (,), isolated hyphen ( - ), right carrot (>), and left carrot (<).

pung- : punct- : to prick, point.

punishment :  Cf. branks.

punishment : a corporeal penalty, often imposed in public as an example to others.  Cf. torture.

punk : whore, strumpet, a common prostitute.

puny : puisne : young, inferior, petty.

pupil : pupilla : scholar, one under the care of a tutor; ware, one under the care of a guardian.

pupilage : the state of being a scholar; wardship, minority.

pupillus : orphan boy.

pur. : purpure  purple.

purg- : to clean.

purgatory : expiatory, cleansing; laxative.

purgatory : purgatorium : a place in which souls are purged by fire from all carnal impurities before admittance into heaven.

Purim : the Jewish holiday that marks the season for breaking all laws.  From ancient Hebrew times, before the patriarchs, the Purim festival has served as a time for drunkenness and transvestism.  The Hebrews had a law against ‘teaming together unlike animals,’ and even this rule could be broken at Purim time.[159]

Puritan : [1572-1660] a religious sectary pretending to purity in religion.  Although capitalized, this term never represented any particular organization or religion.  It denoted a large group of fundamentalist Protestants who objected the pompous and ceremonial worship of the prelacy of the Church of England, and who organized the Parliamentarian Army to dethrone the king.  The Puritans mainly consisted of several dissenting sects that organized themselves around the Calvinist and Reformation ideas promulgated on the continent and in Scotland, mainly the Presbyterians, Independents, and Baptists.  The Scottish Presbyterians gained a significant hegemony in Parliament in 1603, when the kingdoms of England and Scotland were conjoined under James I.  The Puritans gained ascendency by murdering Charles I in 1649, and dominated politics in England and New England between 1649 and 1660.  Cf. Roundhead.

Purple : Iris, the messenger goddess.

purple disease : pupura hemorrhagica : a rash of spots on the body which are small, round, and bright red.  As the purple disease progresses, the red spots create irregular, livid patches on the skin, colored purple or dark red.

purple dye : paideros, a word synonymous with ‘boy lover.’

purport : the design or tendency of a writing or discourse.

purport : to intend, tend to show.

purprise : purprisum : close, enclosure; the whole compass of a manor.

pursuivant-of-arms : a heraldic officer ranking below a herald; an attendant to a herald.

purveyance : provision, procurement of victuals; an exaction of provisions for the king’s followers.

purveyor : one who provides victuals; pimp; procuror.

pustula : pustule, pox, blister.

put- : to reckon, think.

putage : prostitution on the woman’s part.

putanism : putanisme : [Fr] the manner of living and trade as a prostitute.

putative : commonly accepted or supposed; assumed to have existed.  Cf. genealogical adjectives.

putative : puto : supposed, reputed; commonly regarded as.

putative father : a person supposed to be the father of some proband.

putilla : little girl.

putillus : little boy.

putrefaction : the state of growing rotten.

putrid fever : typhus fever.

putrid sore throat : gangrenous pharyngitis; tonsillitis with a peritonsillar or retropharyngeal abscess.

PVA : polyvinyl acetate glue, used in bookbiding.

py- : [Gk] pus.

pyemia : a form of blood poisoning that arises when pus enters the bloodstream and affects several parts of the body.

pygge : pig.

pygizein : [Gk] to mount a male from the rear.[160]  Cf. binei.

Pylades and Orestes : Cf. Orestes and Pylades.

pymt. : payment.

pyr- : [Gk] fire.

pyramis : penis.

pyre : pyra : a pile to be burned.

pyro- : [Gk] fire, ignus.

pyroboli : magical stones male and female that were purportedly brought from a mountain in the Orient.  The sexed pyroboli were believed to burst into flames if they ever came close to the opposite sex, and therefore medieval homophobes developed the belief that homosexual monks use the pyroboli to warn themselves of approaching females.[161]

pyromancy: divination by fire.

pyromania : an obsession with fire.

pythoness : pythonissa : a kind of witch.

pythonist : conjurer.

[118] Plucknett 1956:  356-357.

[119] Ariès & Duby:  1.81.

[120] Carl Jung.  Diner 1965:  261.

[121] Oestmann 1994:  243.

[122] Oestmann 1994:  243.

[123] Oestmann 1994:  245.

[124] Oestmann 1994:  247.

[125] Records of Norfolk Archdeaconry Court, Wills, 22 Hardey.  Oestmann 1994:  247.

[126] Records of Norwich Consistory Court, Wills, 274 Clearke.  Oestmann 1994:  247.

[127] Records of Norwich Consistory Court, Wills, 46 Clearke.  Oestmann 1994:  247.

[128] ORKN.

[129] Everton 1971.

[130] HL:  150.

[131] Everton 1971.

[132] Parkin 1997:  75.

[133] Parkin 1997:  75.

[134] Holinshed’s definition.  Chronicles of Newgate, 66-67.

[135] Chronicles of Newgate, 67.

[136] Parkin 1997:  35.

[137] Boswell 1980:  25.

[138] HL:  76.

[139] Parkin 1997:  71.

[140] Debrett’s Peerage, 1990:  57.

[141] HL:  82.

[142] ANDE.

[143] Boswell 1988:  220.

[144] HALI 5:13324.

[145] Adalbert Kuhn.  Diner 1965:  261.

[146] Carl Jung.  Diner 1965:  261.

[147] MONT 8:13316241A.

[148] Hunt 1956:  336.

[149] Plucknett 1956:  216.

[150] HL:  264.

[151] Webster 1806.

[152] Grahn 1990:  146.

[153] Shakespeare.  Grahn 1990:  146.

[154] Grahn 1990:  130.

[155] Boswell 1988:  27.n55.

[156] CROC 7:1131283 uxor primus.

[157] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[158] Kang-Hu, 1915.

[159] E.M. Broner.  Grahn 1990:  82.

[160] Boswell 1980:  153.

[161] Boswell 1980:  305.

© 2007 Arapacana Press     (Top of page)