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The Alphabetary Heraldic

Genealogical Glossary


K. : Kal. : Kalendæ.

k. : killed; king.

K.B. : Knight of the Order of the Bath

K.C.V.O. : Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.

K.G. : Knight of the Order of the Garter.

K.J.V. : KJV : King James Version.

K.M.N.P.T. : Kaf, Mem, Nun, Pe, Tzade : the five Hebrew consonants that have dual forms, hard and soft (G.M.N.B.D.).

Kachin : [1947] the northern-most state of Burma, now Myanmar.

Kachin system : Br =or≠PaSb(ss)Ch ≠MoBrSo ≠FaSiSo; prescriptive and asymmetric terminology.  Cf. Sudanese system.  Opp. Dravidian system.

Kachinish languages : languages belonging to the Burmic subfamily of Sino-Tibetan, and spoken in Burma and northeastern India.

kadash : [Hb] hallowed, sacred; a temple prostitute in a pagan religion.[1]  Cf. qadhesh.

kadēshim : [Hb] pagan temple prostitutes; the plural of kadash.  The Vulgate mistranslated kadeshim as effeminati in all places, except one.[2]  Cf. qĕdĕshīm.

kadosh : [Hb] qadesh.

kadosha : [Hb] qedeshah.

KAL: KL : [600 antea, suspension] Kalendas.

KL: [600 et postea, contraction] KAL, Kalendas; a contracted abbreviation of the Dark Ages, that superseded the older Roman suspension Kal. Or KAL.

kal- : cal- : call- : kall- : [Gk] beauty.

Kalamos : Calamus.

kalekau : [Pomo] a shaman.[3]  Cf. American shamans.

Kalekau shamans : das, murfidai.

kalendar : calendar.

Kalendæ Februariæ : 1 February.

Kalendæ : Kal. : Cal. : the 1st day of a Roman month; the day on which interest was paid.

Kalendæ : feminineæ Kalendæ, the 1st day of March, the day of Matronalia.  Roman matrons sacrificed to Juno Lucina on this day.

Kali : [Sk] Black, the Earth Mother, the god celebrated with lesbian rituals.  Kali is a manifestation of the supreme goddess Devi, and is often associated with Durga, another fiercesome aspect of Devi.  Kali is depicted as completely naked, except for garlands of skulls and severed hands, dancing atop the body of her consort Siva.  The demon Raktavija produced 1,000 clones like himself each time a drop of his blood touched the earth, and therefore Kali defeated him by raising his body above her with a spear, and drinking all of its blood lest it touch the ground.  Devotees sacrifice goats at the temples of Kali every day.  Kali’s fanatical followers in Calcutta supplemented these animal sacrifices with the human victims of their highway robberies, during the nineteenth century, and caused the British considerable trouble.

kall- : cal- : call- : kal- : [Gk] beauty.

kalói : male beauties.[4]

kalokagathía : [Gk] excellence in body and mind; exhibiting skill and grace in all actions;[5] fine in body and mind; global excellence.

kalos : beautiful.

Kamchadale shaman : koe’kcuc, a male magician who transforms himself into a woman by cross-dressing.[6]  They lived along the Bering Strait.  Cf. achnutschik, Konyaga shamans.

Kamchadle shaman : Kamchadale shaman.

Kamia : [CA] a native tribe that lived east of San Diego, and which dispersed from old encampments near the Salton Sea.

Kamia : Kamiah : [CA, ID] hemp; the name of a native tribe in Idaho, probably belonging to the Nez Perce.

Kamia shaman : [CA] warharmi.

Kanc’ : Kent.

Kans. : KS : Kansas.

kantaisä : [Fi] progenitor.

Kantia : Kent.

kanton : [Sz] canton.

käräjäkunta : [Fi] a subdivision of a judicial district.

Kariera of Australia : the famous example of a symmetric system of affinal alliance, consisting of four sections spanning two generations.  Generation A consists of two sections named Burung and Banaka, whereas generation B consists of two corresponding sections named Karimera and Palyeri.  Members of sections in one generation may marry one another, and therefore intermarriages occur in alternating generations.

Kariera system : a four-section system of symmetric affinal alliance.[7]

Kariera system : Cf. four-section system.

Karlegion : Chester.

Karlsr. : [Gm] Karlsruhe, Germany.

Karpos and Calamus : Cf. Calamus.

Kaska lesbianism : the womanly loves that were encouraged among the Kaska natives of Canada.[8]  If the Kaska family discovered it had more daughters than sons, it was customary to dress one or more daughters as boys, and to rear them as sons.[9]

kastettu : [Fi] baptized.

kata : [Gk] contra, in opposition to.  Cf. para, para physein.

kataglōttízein : [Gk] French kissing.

katanaki ai : [Jp] unrequited love; literally a love ‘missing one shell,’ as might be said of an abalone missing one of its two shells.

kathybristeon : [Gk] useless seed.  Clement maintained that all non-procreative sexuality amounted to useless seed.

ka-tsi-na : [Arrosauk] the heterosexual faction of the Arrosauk, which engaged in the Battle of the Storoka and Katsina.

kauppala : [Fi] town.

kaupunki : [Fi] city.

kauri shell : matriculus, porculus; perhaps the oldest form of currency in the world, traded since prehistoric times.  The small kauri shell is called the matriculus ‘small matrix’ because it resembles a woman’s vulva.  The shell itself was named porculus, and became the base for several related words, such as porcelain.  Use of the kauri shell has been documented in the Punjab, in India at large, in Central Asia and ancient Tartary, China, Japan, Australia, the South Seas, Morocco, Somaliland, and South America.  The shell has been variously employed as an amulet protecting one against sterility, the evil eye, mentrual pains, and sunburn, and it has served as a sure remedy for poverty.

-ke : -je : -tje : [Du] the female suffices Dutchmen use to feminize a male name.

ke’yev : [Kodiak] shaman.

kedeshim : [Hb] the collective pluralism for kadosh and kadosha.[10]  These sexual priests and priestesses are purported to have provided sexual services to celebrants, ostensibly for purposes of prophecy.  Cf. qĕdĕshīm.

keep : donjon, tower, the strongest part of a castle.

keep and bear arms : to store arms safely in a keep, armory, or donjon, and to bear those arms in a well-regulated militia at times of peril.  The expression does not connote or imply permission to privately own firearms, to store firearms in one’s house, or to use firearms independently of a state military organization.[11]  Cf. gun control.

keeper : defender, preserver, treasurer.

Keeper of the Great Seal : the lord under whose hands pass all of the charters, commissions, and grants of the king.

keepership : office of the keeper.

keepsake : a gift intended as a token of remembrance for the giver.

Kennewick man : a complete Caucasoid skeleton 9,300 years old, discovered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers along the Columbia River in Washington, after the flooding of 1996.  Kennewick man seems to evidence the immigration of a Caucasian people to America some 450 generations ago, and therefore anthropologists wish to preserve and study the skeleton.  Although the skeleton is dissimilar to native American species of man, Umatilla natives have claimed the skeleton as their own, and wish to rebury it, without further study.  Cf. Neanderthal man.

Kent : Cantia : Cantium : Kanc’ : Kantia.

Kenyapithecus : [3,000-1,000th millennia bc] Hominidae of the basal Quaternary period.  Cf. Hominidae.

Keper of ye Wardrope : Keeper of the Wardrobe.

Keres : Queres : [Laguna] a Pueblo people of the Southwest; the Thought Woman; Spider Grandmother; the creator goddess of the Laguna tribe.[12]  She had twin grandsons, and she was the supreme creatrix of the southwestern farming tribes.  The followers of Keres were apparently encountered by the migrating Kamia from the Salton Sea.[13]  Cf. Laguna and Acoma, Laguna sororates, Quirites.

kerk : [Du] church, parish.

ketav ashuri : [Aramaic] literally Assyrian writing.  Cf. ketav meruba‘.

ketav meruba‘ : [Aramaic] literally square script; Square Hebrew.  Cf. ketav ashuri.

ketch : a sailing vessel with two masts, originally of 50 tons or less.  Charles II used the ketch design for his royal yachts, and thus the size increased to 100 tons or less.

Ketzer : [Gm] heretic; homosexual.

kid : [Dn] the young of a goat.

kidnapped servant : a person abducted and pressed into service.

kihlakunta : [Fi] a local government.

kil [Sc] : call, cill [ScGa] : cell; a religious cell of Christian devotees, often dedicated to a saint.  Kilbride signifies the ‘Cell of Saint Bridget.’  The word often appears in place names as the prefix Kil- or the suffix -kil.

killer : serial killer, spree killer.

kyllynge : killing, the butchering of a swine or sheep.[14]

killing : kyllynge; the butchering of a swine or sheep.[15]

killing spree : a murderous rampage staged by crazed and psychotic killer.  A killing spree is characterized by shortness of time and a fit of madness, so it differs from long-term serial killing.  A spree killer might incline to suicide as a final act of desperation.  Cf. serial killing.

kilo- : [Gk] one thousand.

Kimbundu shaman : Mbundu shaman : northern Angola.[16]  Cf. Ovimbundu shaman.

kin : cyn [We] : [Sx] kindred; a consanguine or blood relative; cognates; lineal kin and collateral kin; congenial, of the same nature.  In contrast to affines, the meaning of kin is often restricted to blood relatives.  However, when speaking of terms and terminology, the meaning is often expanded to include affines.  Cf. affine.

kin group : any social grouping based upon kinship ties.

kin reckoning : genealogy.  Opp. category.

kin term : kinship term, relationship term; a name used to identify a consanguineal or affinal relative, such as grandfather (FaFa), or brother-in-law (WiBr).  A kin term defines a blood or affined relationship to the ego, and it may be elementary, descriptive, or derivative.  Such a term is a single semantic unit that designates one particular category of kin or relative.  The ego may sometimes use the same kin term to name a number of different relatives, who may be individually identified by their respective genealogical positions.  In anthropology, a kin term is formally conceptualized by breaking it down into one or more kin types.  Collectively, the kin terms of a society are called its kinship terminology.  Cf. derivative kinship term, descriptive kinship term, elementary kinship term, genealogical position, kin types.

kin terms as metaphors : father meaning ‘priest,’ sister meaning ‘nun,’ father of our country meaning ‘political founder.’

kin types : ancillary kin types for extramarital sex partners, such as concubine (Cc) and contubernine (Ct), instead of spouse (Sp), husband (Hu), and wife (Wi).

kin types : ancillary kin types for same-sex spouses, such as philetor (Ph), eromenos (Er), antianeira (An), and hetaera (He), which are designed to replace the heterosexual spouse (Sp), husband (Hu), and wife (Wi).

kin types : composite kin types or general kin types that supplement the primary types.  The general types include the parent (Pa), spouse (Sp), in-law (La), sibling (Sb), and child (Ch), and they represent the merging of age and sex differences.

kin types : eight primary kin types acutely abbreviated, namely father (F), mother (M), brother (B), sister (Z), son (S), daughter (D), husband (H), wife (W).

kin types : eight primary relationships that are frequently abbreviated by anthropologists, namely father (Fa), mother (Mo), husband (Hu), wife (Wi), brother (Br), sister (Si), son (So), and daughter (Da), supplemented by some composite or general kin types (Pa, Sp, La, Sb, Ch), some secondary kin types (Ne, Ni), and some determinants (Gr).  Each relationship in a kinship can be expressed as a denotative range of points, or primary kin types, such that WiMo stands for mother-in-law, DaHu stands for son-in-law, and FaFaBr stands for paternal granduncle.  Some kinship systems, such as the Chinese, emphasize seniority, and in such a case, it is customary to add the relative age, in this manner:  Br(e) for elder brother, Si(y) for younger sister, et cetera.  English writers can express the primary kin types with the adjectives paternal (Fa), maternal (Mo), fraternal (Br), sororal (Si), pietal (So), filial (Da), marital (Hu), uxoral (Wi).  Cf. complex relationship, denotative range, kin types, nuclear terms, points, primary kin types, secondary kin types.

kin types : four composite kin types acutely abbreviately, namely parent (P), sibling (G), spouse (E), child (C).

kin types : miscellaneous determinants that further define the primary, composite, and secondary kin types, such as elder (e), younger (y), male (m), female (f), and grand- (Gr).

kin types : secondary kin types, such as nephew (Ne) and niece (Ni), which consolidate and abbreviate larger denotative ranges of primary kin types, such as brother’s son (BrSo) or brother’s daughter (BrDa).  Cf. denotative range, point.

kin typology : bifurcate collateral patterns, level +1; Fa ≠FaBr ≠MoBr.

kin typology : bifurcate collateral patterns, level 0; Si ≠PaSb(ss)Da ≠PaSb(os)Da

kin typology : bifurcate collateral patterns, level -1; Da ≠Sb(ss)Da ≠Sb(os)Da.

kin typology : bifurcate merging patterns, level +1; Fa =FaBr ≠MoBr.

kin typology : bifurcate merging patterns, level 0; Si =PaSb(ss) ≠PaSb(os)Da.

kin typology : bifurcate merging patterns, level -1; Da =Sb(ss)Da ≠Sb(os)Da.

kin typology : generational patterns, level +1; Fa =FaBr =MoBr.

kin typology : generational patterns, level 0; Si =PaSb(ss)Da =PaSb(os)Da.

kin typology : generational patterns, level –1; Da =Sb(ss)Da =Sb(os)Da.

kin typology : lineal patterns, level +1; Fa ≠FaBr ≠MoBr.

kin typology : lineal patterns, level 0; Si ≠PaSb(ss)Da =PaSb(os)Da.

kin typology : lineal patterns, level -1; Da ≠Sb(ss)Da =Sb(os)Da.

Kincard. : Kincardine, Scotland.

Kind : [Gm, Du] child.

kindred : [Sx] relatives; relation of birth or marriage; consanguinity; affinity; cognation; congenial, cognate, related.

kindred : an array of relatives all reckoned from a living proband.  Kindred differ from a descent group, which is based on a common ancestor or propositus.  Cf. descent group.

kindred : Cf. friends, muninntear, people.

kindred : cognatic kinsfolk, a temporary membership focused upon a set of siblings or a single child;[17] a group of relatives closely connected to the ego or proband through both sexes.[18]  The kindred provide the individual with rights, and impose upon the same certain obligations.  Kindred arises through bilaterality, so the kindred of an individual are his paternal and maternal relatives.  Thus, individual’s kindred are unique unto himself and his siblings of the whole blood.  The kindred comprise parents, siblings, uncles, aunts, cousins, and their reciprocals, or their children, nephews, and nieces.  Cf. lineage.

kindred characteristic : temporary membership.  Reciprocal kinsfolk enjoy a short-term camaradery based upon a single parent link, or upon a set of siblings, and therefore the kindred of a family tend to dissemble and separate, as aging and sex migration gradually change the family’s composition.  Opp. lineage characteristic.

kindred family : a blood-related family.  Some would call the kindred family the family of pro­creation, but such a term would necessarily and unfairly exclude those persons who do not pro­create, a very sizable portion of most any family.  Broadly defined, the kindred family might also comprise the basic affined, non-genetic, or fic­tive family that arises through the con­jugal, do­mestic, or friendly unions of individuals, and which gives rise to kinship terms, nick­names, common humors, and varying degrees of camaraderie.

kindred family : sib.  Narrowly defined, this is the basic genetic or nuclear family that arises through the conjugal unions of individuals, and which gives rise to ego-cen­tric kinship terms used to replace personal names.

kindred group : one part of a descent group.  A kindred group is egocentric, and may often be subdivided into sibling groups.  Cf. descent group, sibling group.

kine- : cine- : [Gk] to move.

kinesi- : [Gk] movement, motus, agitatio.

king : [formal address] The King’s Most Excellent Majesty; [formal salutation] Sire, Sir, Your Majesty; [polite address] Most Excellent Majesty, Most Gracious Sovereign; [polite salutation] May it please Your Majesty …; [informal address] Mr. —— presents his duty to your Majesty.

king : monarch, supreme governor.

King Philip Came Over for Ginger Snaps : a mnemonic phrase used to remember the customary seven orders of taxonomic classification, namely (1) kingdom, (2) phylum, (3) class, (4) order, (5) family, (6) genus, (7) species.

king’s evil : scrofula, swelling of the neck glands, tuberculosis of the lymphatic glands.

king’s knight : milites regis : a rank higher than valettus regis ‘king’s yeo­man, king’s valet.’[19]

kingdom : the dominion of a king, the territories subject to the rule of a monarch.

kingdom : the highest and broadest taxonomic class of living beings, among at least seven orders of classification.  Cf. classification, taxonomy.

kinghood : state of being a king.

King-of-arms : scutiferi regis; a chief heraldic officer.  Cf. College of Heralds.

kingship : monarchy, royalty.

Kinsey scale : the range of human sexuality in seven degrees from 0 to 6, wherein zero (0) represents heterosexuality and six (6) represents homosexuality.  The middle degree three (3) represents a bisexual or ambisexual person.  Cf. rainbow.

kinsfolk : kithened people; folk one reckons to be linked by the whole blood of a patrilineage.

kinsfolk : relations, those belonging to the same family.

kinship : [En new meaning] consanguinity and affinity.

kinship : [En old meaning] consanguinity, blood relationship rather than affinity.  British anthropologists once insisted that affinity and consanguinity were two distinct systems, but modern anthropologists have followed the French by holding that kinship includes affinity.  Cf. relation.

kinship : [Fr] parenté; consanguinity and affinity.  French anthropologists have long considered both affinity and consanguinity to be inseparable elements of kinship, whereas British anthropologists once included consanguinity, but excluded affinity.

kinship : a relationship of blood and affinal relatives who identify their specific relationships with a basic set of kin terms.  Most cultures use a basic set of about twenty-five kin terms.  Opp. elementary family, kin terms, kithship, nuclear family.

kinship : affinal kinship, based on legal marital ties.

kinship : an expandable and retractable cognizance of kindred, normally based upon male unilineage in patriarchies, or female unilineage in matriarchies.  Only one ego may give rise to kindred, for all the individuals among one’s kinsfolk are defined in relation to oneself.  The patristical institution of kinship is based upon agism and sexism, whereas the matristical institution is based upon nativity and pro-sexualism.

kinship : consanguineal kinship, based on relationships of the whole or half blood.

kinship: degree of Irish kinship : [Ir] the Irish reckon degrees of kinship by including the ego as a primary point.

kinship : pseudo-kin; fictive and ritual kinship, arising through adoption, coparenthood, fosterhood, godparenthood, blood-brotherhood, stepparenthood, or any relationship arising through ties that are not affinal or consanguineal.[20]

kinship : the matristical imposition of order on the affinal and consanguinal kindred of one maternal ego.  Women discover kinship as a natural function of conception and progeneration, but their concept and practice of kin recognition is based in nativity and pro-sexualism.  Cf. matrism.  Opp. patrism.

kinship : the patristical imposition of order on the affinal and consanguinal kindred of one paternal ego.  Men devise and invent a society by agism, sexism, and ancestral lineage.  Cf. patrism.  Opp. matrism.

kinship abbreviations : eight two-letter abbreviations used by anthropologists to define primary kin types.  Cf. primary kin types.

kinship analysis : a method for examining the meaning of an individual kin term, or a pattern of kinship terminology.  There are several types of kinship analyses, which mainly focus upon (1) genealogy, (2) category, (3) general features, and (4) mathematical models.  The two chief methods are called formal semantic analysis and componential analysis.

kinship analysis : componential analysis, a broad examination of kin terms that focuses upon general features, such as sex, gender rôle, relative age, generation, lineage, laterality, consanguinity, and affinity.  The componential analyst routinely avoids the abbreviation of kin types, preferring to use radically simplified forms of notation that resemble mathematical formulae.

kinship analysis : formal semantic analysis, the reduction of kin categories into minimal genealogical formulae.  An anthropologist will usually collect terms of address and terms of reference from fieldwork or from dictionaries, and then determine how to translate those data into genealogical formulae, written with kinship abbreviations.  This procedure typically requires that the anthropologist to develop and employ rewrite rules.  Cf. rewrite rules.

kinship and order : all the forms of social order and management imposed by consanguine and affined relatives, or by employers and overlords.  The four basic categories correspond to age, sex, generation, and lineage, and may be called gerontocracy, sexocracy, sibylocracy, and aristocracy.

kinship behaviors : the actual way in which a society creates ties of marriage and alliance, regardless of its formal kinship rules.  It is important to distinguish rules from behaviors, but the difference is not always clear.  If certain members of a society happen to violate their own kinship rules, they will often assign the nonconforming members to kinship rôles that suit the rules.  Cf. kinship levels.  Opp. kinship rules.

kinship characterization : Cf. genealogical adjectives.

kinship classification : bifurcate collateral kinship, Sudanese system; a rare system that distinguishes each cousin from the other as well as from siblings.

kinship classification : bifurcate merging kinship; a cousin system that includes the Iroquois, Crow, and Omaha.

kinship classification : generational kinship : classificatory system [obsolete], Hawaiian system; a generational system that equates all cousins with siblings.

kinship classification : lineal kinship : descriptive system, Eskimo system; a lineal system that separates all cousins from siblings.

kinship criteria : [1909] the eight criteria used to create kin groupings, namely, (1) laterality, or generational similarity or difference, (2) lineality or collaterality, (3) relative age in the same generation, (4) sex of the relative, (5) sex of the speaker, (6) sex of the person who links one relative to another, (7) consanguinity or affinity, and (8) whether the linking relative is dead or living.[21]  The sexes of the speaker and linking relative may be classed together with the sex of the relative (items 4-6).  Affinity may be classed with laterality (items 1 & 7).  Dead relatives may be classed with lineality (items 2 & 8).  Thus, these eight criteria may be consolidated into the four criteria of (1) laterality, (2) lineality, (3) age, and (4) sex.  Although Murdock tried to add the criterion of polarity to this list, Goodenough developed a formal or componential analysis that effectively reduced this set to an even smaller and more concise notational system. Cf. componential analysis, kinship dimensions.

kinship criteria : Opp. kithship criteria.

kinship criteria : the four criteria common to many societies throughout the world, namely (1) generation, (2) lineage, (3) age, and (4) sex, alternatively called sibylocracy, aristocracy (patriarchy), gerontocracy, and sexocracy.

kinship criterion : age, relative age; the patrist and same-sex determinant used to divide a family by birth order, to rank dependants by age-mating, and to establish an order for heritage and succession.  Cf. (e), (y).

kinship criterion : generation, laterality, ramage; the matrist and primal criterion for kinship; a feminine cognition and organization of living relatives, based on lateral sibships.

kinship criterion : lineage, lineality; the patrist and secondary invention of fatherhood; a masculine consciousness of social order, delineated mainly by age and sex.  Lineage is supposed to depend upon paternity, but paternity cannot always be proved, so a patriarch builds his hierarchy on agism, sexism, and lines of common descent from common ancestors, some of whom might be dead.

kinship criterion : sex, the patrist determinant used to divide a family into brides for matrimony and sex emigration, and sons for patrimony and the courtship of sex immigration.  Cf. (f), hūnyīn, (m).

kinship degrees : degrees of kinship.

kinship dimensions : the Anglo-Saxon kinship criteria; the kinship principles based upon the three dimensions (A, B, C) of sex, generation, and lineality, or sex, ramage, and lineage, which are used in componential analyses of English kinship terms.  One modification of kinship dimensions holds that Dimension A1 means male sex, whereas A2 means female sex; that Dimension B+1 signifies a parent in the generation above the ego, Dimension B0 denotes the ego’s generation, Dimension B-1 denotes the generation below the ego; and that Dimension C1 represents lineality, whereas Dimension C2 represents collaterality.[22]  Cf. componential analysis, kin types.

kinship levels : the three levels of data that can be collected in the study of a kinship system, namely (1) rules, (2) behaviors, and (3) terminology.

kinship principles : the key criteria of sex, generation, and lineage, as well as other factors, that determine kinship terminology.  Cf. kinship criteria, kinship dimensions.

kinship rules : the rules by which a society creates ties of marriage and alliance.  Rules can be positive and prescriptive, or negative and restrictive.  Cf. kinship levels.  Opp. kinship behaviors.

kinship rules : the rules that govern a kinship terminology, such as the rule of uniform descent, or the rule of uniform reciprocals.[23]  The rules uniformly and strictly determine kin terms, and therefore, by learning the kin terms for patrilateral cousins (FaSiCh), we may logically deduce and reasonably predict what the complementary terms for the matrilateral cross cousins (MoSiCh) will be.

kinship system : all the kindred of one proband or ego.

kinship system : an egocentric array of kindred often subdivided to show some specific descent system or marriage system.  It is customary to employ a diagram to the ego’s membership in a descent group or alliance group.

kinship term : kin term.

kinship terminology : an array of kinship terms that defines a distinctive kinship system.  Cf. classificatory terminology, descriptive terminology, generational terminology.

kinship terminology : the actual kin terms a society uses, together with translations of the kin terms into primary kin types, by some Levine system of abbreviations.  Terminologies are potentially confusing and even deceptive, because societies freely borrow kin terms from alien societies, and because the kin terms in current use may sometimes contradict or distort the kinship rules and behaviors.  Cf. kinship levels.

kinship terms : descriptive kinship terms, typical of Irish nomenclature.  The Irish prefer to use Celtic-style descriptive terms, such as father’s brother, rather than the classificatory terms of English, such as uncle.

kinship terms metaphorical : father for ‘priest,’ father of the nation.

kinship theories : [1953] descent theory versus alliance theory.

kinsman : a man of the same race or family.

kinsmen : kithened men; men one confesses to be one’s paternal relatives; men displayed; men made manifest.

kinswoman : a female relation.

Kirchen-gemeinde : [Gm] church parish.

kirk : [Sx, Sc] an ancient word for church still used in Scotland; kerk [Du].

Kirkby’s Inquest : [1284-1285] a survey of York conducted by John de Kirby.[24]

Kirkcudb. : Kirkcudbright, Scotland.

kirkjustadur : [Ic] church place.

kirkman : a member of the Church of Scotland.

kirtle : [Sx] tunic; gown, jacket; cloak, mantle.

kiss : [Sx] a salute made by joining lips; to touch with the lips.

kissing cousin : a relative remote enough from the ego to allow sexual relations; a cousin outside the prohibited degrees of kinship.  Anglican rules permit first cousins to marry, but some American states have prohibited marriages between close cousins, even third cousins.  In classificatory Hawaiian kinship, the ego regards his second cousin as standing in the same relationship to himself as his sister, so marriage between the two cannot be contemplated.

kitchen : kegin : [We] the room where provisons are cooked.

kitchenmaid : a maid under the cook who mainly cleans utensils.

kith : [1400 En] relatives generally.  Cf. scion.

kith : [Sx] acquaintance; knowledge; native place; one’s friends, neighbors; fellow countrymen.  Cf. scion.

kith and kin : country and kinsfolk.

kithe : kythe : kaith : [Ns] to manifest, display, confess; to make known.  Cf. scion.

kithened : [Ns] made manifest; displayed; confessed as relatives.  We do not actually use this past perfect form of the verb kithe, and do not use kithe anymore.  The word kithened is helpful nonetheless, in explaining the origins and meanings of kith and kin, kinsfolk, kinsmen, and scion.  Cf. kith and kin, scion.

kithon : [Gm] shoot.

kithship : a relationship based upon friendship or constant association.  Opp. kinship.

kithship criteria : relative age and relative sex.  Cf. kinship criteria.

KJV : King James Version (1611), or Authorized Version.

Klamath : [CA] a tribal name, perhaps equivalent to the Chinook tlamatl.  Oregon and California have many places named Klamath.

Klamath shaman : twlinna ek.

klein : [Gm] little.

kleindochter : [Du] ChDa; granddaughter.

Kleinkind : [Gm] infant.

kleinós : kleinos : [Gk] Er; famous, celebrated; an honorific designation for the beloved;[25] an adjective used in Greek literature to signify an eromenos, the younger male lover of a man.  In Greek versions of the Bible, Saint John used the same adjective no less than six times to describe himself in relation to Jesus the Christ, and thus we know Saint John by the appellation ‘the Beloved Disciple.’  Cf. erōmenos.

kleinzoon : [Du] SoSo; grandson.

kn. : known.

Knabe : [Gm] boy.

Knabenschänder : [Gm] ravisher of boys, child molester; Luther’s mistranslation of arsenokoitai.[26]

knave : [Sx] boy, man-child, a male child; servant, scoundrel; a petty rascal.

knavery : trickery, dishonesty, petty villany.

knee joint : glúin [Ir].  Cf. glúin, réidhteach gaol.

knight : kt. : knt. : [Sx] a degree of military rank; a man-at-arms mounted on a horse; champion.  Knighthood was fundamental to the feudal system, for armed horsemen were essential in warfare and therefore elemental to political organization.  It was the custom for a knight to do homage and pledge allegience to a lord, in return for a tenure of land, and the resulting arrangement created a political unit of land tied to a fixed measure of military service, usually 40 days of service, called a knight’s fee.  Over time, the institution evolved into a highly formal and ceremonial anachronism, which is still used for special fraternities, and military honors.  Some orders of knighthood in England confer the courtesy title of sir, but not all orders do so.  It is customary to call a knight by the courtesy title and the knight’s first name, as in Sir Richard, Sir Thomas, et cetera, or to say Sir Knightwhen the given name is not known.[27]

knight : to create one a knight.

Knight Bachelor : [address] Sir John ——; [salutation] Sir.  Cf. Baronet.

knight bachelor : a knight of the lowest order; a knight typically dubbed for bravery on the battlefield or some meritorious act, but not yet admitted to any formal and specific order of knighthood.

Knight Bachelor’s wife : [address] Lady ——.  One makes no mention of her Christian name, unless she is title suo jure as the daughter of a peer; [reference] Your Ladyship.  Cf. baronet’s wife.

knight errant : a wandering knight, a knight who traveled around in search of adventure.

Knight of Saint Patrick : Sir ——, K.P.

Knight of the Bath : Sir ——, K.G.C.B., for a Knight of the Grand Cross, Order of Bath; Sir ——, K.C.B., for a Knight Commander, Order of Bath.

Knight of the Bath’s wife : [address] Lady ——; [salutation and reference] Your Ladyship.  Cf. baronet’s wife, knight’s bachelor’s wife.

Knight of the Garter : Sir ——, K.G.  Normally the initials follow the name directly, but they might also appear in a listing of titles.

Knight of the Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George : G.C.M.G.

Knight of the Thistle : Sir ——, K.T.

knight’s fee : the determinating quantity of land held by an estate of inheritance, or of annual income therefrom, suf­ficient to maintain one knight.

knighthood : [1625-1827] an order of knights based on the privilege of a baronet to demand of the Crown a knighthood for the Baronet himself, as well as a knighthood for the Baronet’s eldest son, or heir apparent.  Knighthoods for baronets’ eldest sons and heirs apparent were continued for old baronetcies, but George IV revoked the privilege for any baronets created after 19 December 1827.

knighthood : the dignity or character of a knight; a social class of knighted men in England, ranking below baronies, and later below baronetcies, but ranking above an esquires.

knot : knott : [1500] one of several sandpiper species belonging to the genus Calidris.  Knots breed in the Arctic regions, and winter in the temperate regions of the Old World and New World.

knotts : [1520/1/15-21] knots; sandpipers.

know : òãÛéÜ : to have sexual intercourse ‘in the biblical sense.’  Popular opinion holds that Hebrews commonly used the verb ‘to know’ as a euphemism for sexual intercourse, but this notion is demonstrably untrue.  The verb occurs 943 times in the Old Testament, but only 10 times does it ever suggest carnal knowledge.  The 10 uses associated with sex all appear in the story of Sodom, and are widely held by Christians to connote homosexual relations, even though Josephus and the Qur’ân happen present radically different interpretations.[28]  E.g. cognitæ, cognouit, nosse, notitiam habuisse.

Knt. : knight.

ko’thlama : [Zuni] a shaman male, magician.  Such men were the finest weavers and potters of the tribe, and were often well versed in ancient lore.[29]  The ko’thlama always took the rôle of the kor’kokshi in the drama ka’nakwe.[30]  Cf. koyemshi.

Kodiak : [AK] island; a tribal name, also used as the name Kodiak Island.  The name is held to be related to the Eskimo kikhtak ‘island.’

Kodiak shaman : ke’yev.

koe’kcuc : [Kamchadle] shaman, a male androphilic magician; a Kamchadale transvestite.  Cf. Kamchadale shaman.

-koitai : [Gk] fucker; a vulgar word for the active partner in sexual intercourse.[31]

kommune : [Dn] municipality.

komos : [Gk] comedy.  Opp. tragoidia.

kone : [Dn] wife.

Konso : a small Cushitic tribe that resides in southwest Ethiopia, between Galla and Sidamo.  The people trace their descent through male lines, but polygyny prevails.  Cf. Konso age-grades, age-sets.

Konso age-grades : a hierarchical series of four age-grades that advance every 18 years, named Fareita (18-35), Chela (36-53), Gada (54-71), and Orshada (72-89).

Konso shaman : south Abyssinia.[32]

kontrakt : [Sw] a rural deanery containing several districts headed by rectors.

Konyaga shamans : [1800] men with tattooed chins, who resided on Kodiak Island, performed the work of women, and took husbands.  Some took more than one husband at a time.  Most of these transgeneral men were regarded as wizards, and called achnutschik.[33]  Cf. Kamchadale shaman, koe’kcuc.

köping : [Sw] a commercial zone with no city charter.

koquima : [Arrosauk] storoka, the race of hermaphrodites.  The Arrosauk resided around Lake Keres, now Mormon Lake, south of Flagstaff, AZ.

koshari : [Laguna] the tricksters and clowns who comprise a polymorphous array of lively and sexual deities.[34]  Cf. Hermes, Keres.

koskalada : [Lakota] a lesbian medicine woman; a shaman female, who was translated into a young man by cross-dressing, and thereby became a transvestite woman who wished not to marry a man.[35]  A koskalaka was said to be the daughter of a doublewoman or wila numpa.  The Sioux held a public ceremony to unite a pair of medicine women, and it featured the making of a rope baby.[36]  Cf. koskalaka, winkte.

koskalaka : [Lakota] Cf. rope baby, wila numpa.

koyemshi : [Zuni] god husband, transvestite husband; a cross-dressing member of the supernatural clown gods.  Cf. ko’thlama.

Kreis : [Gm] county.

Ks. : KS : Kansas.

Kt. : Knight.

Kuanyama : Kwanyama : an Ambo or Ovambo tribe that lives in southern Africa.

Kuanyama shaman : Kwanyama shaman : a transvestite medicine man.[37]

Kuan-yin : Kwan Yin of China.

Kubala : Cybele.

Kumari : [Tamil] the spinster goddess, who takes no male love, and does not marry.

kuollut : [Fi] died.

kuollut jättämättä rintaperillistä : [Fi] died without issue.

kusin : [Sw] PaSbCh; cousin.

kusine : [Dn, Nw] PaSbDa; female cousin.

kuss : kiss.

kusthos : [Gk] the female pudenda.

Kutenai shaman : [MT] a native woman who donned the clothes of a man and paired with another woman, in Montana.  Such women were used as heralds, for they served as messengers, scouts, prophets, mediators for peace, and agents of war.[38]

kutumali : [Juang] lineages, virilocal lines of three generations each that stand together as the lowest of three levels of segmentation.  Cf. descent system patrilineal.

kuukausi : [Fi] month.

kuya : [Tagalog] older brother; a determinant of kinship, usually prefixed to the personal name of some older male.  The speaker drops the prefix to address a younger male.  Opp. ate.

kvinde : [Dn] woman.

kvinna : [Sw] woman.

kvinne : [Nw] woman.

Kwan Hsi [ad 960-1279 Ch Sóng] : western foreigners.  Cf. Tai Pei.

Kwan Yin of China : Guanyin [Ch] : Kannon [Jp], a female manifestation of the male Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara; the personification of Compassion.  We believe that Kwan Yin must have been based upon some Great Mother model, such as Sheng Mu.  She is a trickster goddess, who can change into any incarnation to assist humans who are suffering.  She stands as a Mother Goddess, giver of sons, and she acts as a protector of children.  Cf. Sheng Mu.

Kwanzaa : [1966 Am] an Afro-American cultural holiday celebrated in 7 days from 26 December to 1 January.  The event was newly established in 1966.

kwe rhame : [Yuma] a shaman female.  Cf. elxa.

Ky. : KY : Kentucky.

kylä : [Fi] village.

kyrke byn : [Nw] a subdivision of a parish.




[1] Boswell 1980:  99.

[2] The exception appeared at Deuteronomy, 23.18.  Vulgate, Deuteronomy, 23.17.  Boswell 1980:  99.

[3] Katz.  Grahn 1990:  55.

[4] Eglinton 1964:  464.

[5] Eglinton 1964:  484.

[6] Westermarck.  Grahn 1990:  120.

[7] Parkin 1997:  87.

[8] Carolyn Neithammer, Daughters of Earth.  Grahn 1990:  63.

[9] Grahn 1990:  63.

[10] Edward Carpenter.  Grahn 1990:  128.

[11] Amendment II.

[12] Grahn 1990:  62.

[13] Katz.  Grahn 1990:  66-67.

[14] Gurney, 562.18.

[15] Gurney, 562.18.

[16] Evans.  Grahn 1990:  118.

[17] Schusky 1972:  71.

[18] Schusky 1972:  91.

[19] HL:  307, 333.

[20] Schusky 1972:  8.

[21] A.L. Kroeber 1909.  Schusky 1972:  55.

[22] Schusky 1972:  60.

[23] Schusky 1972:  32.

[24] Everton 1971:  192.

[25] Eglinton 1964:  246.

[26] Boswell 1980:  338.

[27] Johnson.

[28] Boswell 1980:  94.

[29] Matilda Coxe Stevenson.  Grahn 1990:  56.

[30] Grahn 1990:  56.

[31] Boswell 1980:  342.

[32] Evans.  Grahn 1990:  118.

[33] A Russian report.  Grahn 1990:  120.

[34] Hamilton Tyler.  Grahn 1990:  66.

[35] Allen.  Grahn 1990:  63.

[36] Grahn 1990:  323.

[37] Evans.  Grahn 1990:  119.

[38] Grahn 1990:  56.

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